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MARCH, 1882.

No. 6.

Chautauqua Literary and Scientific Circle.

THE GREATNESS OF ROME.-The Roman Empire in the

early ages of our era embraced all the countries round the President, J. H. Vincent, D. D., Plainfield, N. J.

Mediterranean Sea, together with vast tracts north of the General Secretary, Albert M. Martin, Pittsburgh, Pa.

Alps, stretching in one direction as far as the Danube, and Office Secretary, Miss Kate F. Kimball, Plainfield, X. J.

even beyond that river in its lower course, and in another

as far as the Atlantic Ocean, St. George's Channel, the SolCounselors, Lyman Abbott, D. D.; J. M. Gibson, I. D. ; Bishop H.

way Frith, and the North Sea. In this great empire was W. Warren, D. 1). ; W. C. Wilkinson, D. D.

gathered up the sum total that remained of the religions,

laws, customs, fanguages, letters, arts, and sciences of all REQUIRED READING.

the nations of antiquity which had successively held sway

or predominance. It was the appointed task of the Romans MOSAICS OF HISTORY.

to collect the product of all this mass of varied national VI.

labor as a common treasure of mankind, and to deliver it

over to the ages which were to follow. When, after the ROME-I.

lapse of centuries, Europe gradually emerged from the () that I had the Thracian poet's harpe,

flood of barbarism which had overwhelmed it, and new naFor to awake out of th’infernall shade

tions were formed out of the wreck of the Roman empire, Those antique Czesars, sleeping long in darke,

it was the treasure of ancient learning, saved by Rome, The which this auncient citie whilome made! Or that I had Amphion's instrument,

which guided the first steps of these nations toward new To quicken with his vitall notes' accord

forms of civilized life. The language and literature of Rome The stonie ioynts of these old walls now rent,

had never been altogether lost and forgotten. By slow By which th' Ausonian light might be restor'd! degrees the tongue of Latium was moulded into the dialects Or that at least I could with pencill tine

of Italy, Spain, Portugal, and France. The Christian Fashion the portraicts of these palaris,

church pertinaciously clung to the old language, which was By paterne of great Virgil's sprite divine!

that of her ritual and of the Latin fathers. The city of I would assay by that which in me is

Rome had become the seat of the successors of St. Peter, To build, with levell of my loftie style,

and her language penetrated wherever Roman Catholic That which no hands can evermore compyle!

--Edmund Spenser.

missionaries preached the Gospel of Christ. It became the

vehicle of all the learning of the time, the language of diGEOGRAPHY OF ITALY.-Italy is the central one of the plomacy, of law and government; finally, of education; three great peninsulas which project from the south of and in the schools and universities of modern Europe the Europe into the Mediterranean Sea. It is bounded on the whole world of Latin literature was fostered into a second north by the chain of the Alps, which form a natural barrier, | life, and acquired an influence on the public mind of which and it is surrounded on other sides by the sea. Its shores are

every living man still in some way or other feels the effects. washed on the west by the "Mare Inferum,' or the Lower

But the Latin literature, though great and admirable in Sea, and on the east by the Adriatic, called by the Romans

many respects, is not the grandest product of the Roman the "Mare Superum,” or the Upper Sea. The extreme mind. It was not original or spontaneous, and consequently length of the peninsula from the Alps to the Straits of Mes not truly national. In poetry, philosophy, and history the sina is 700 miles. The breadth of Northern Italy is 310 Romans were the disciples and imitators of the Greeks. miles, while that of the southern portion is on an average | They added little of their own. Their strength and originnot more than 100 miles. But till the time of the empire, ality lay in another direction. They proved themselves the Romans never included the plains of the Po in Italy:* masters in art of civil law and government. The Roman FINAL EXTENT OF ITALY.—The name Italia was origin- foundation of all legal study in Europe, and the model of

law possesses an intrinsic excellence which has made it the ally applied to a very small tract of country. It was at first

all codes of civil law now in force. Every one of us is beneconfined to the southern portion of Calabria, and was grad

fited directly or indirectly by this legacy of the Roman ually extended northward, till about the time of the Punic

people, a legacy as valuable as the literary and artistic wars it indicated the whole of the peninsula south of the

models which we owe to the great writers and sculptors of rivers Rubicon and Macra, the former separating Cisalpine

Greece. The stupendous growth of the Roman empire, and Gaul and Umbria, and the latter Liguria and Etruria.

the solidity of its structure, which enabled it to last so long, Italy, properly so-called, is a very mountainous country,

are due not so much to the courage and endurance of the being filled up more or less by the broad mass of the Apen

Roman soldiers, or to the genius of the Roman generals, as. nines, the offshoots or lateral branches of which, in some

to other causes, and chiefly to the combination of a desire parts, descend quite to the sea, but in others leave a con

for improvement with respect for established rights; in siderable space of level or low country.*

short, to political wisdom, which prefers reform to revolu* William Smith, LL. D.

tion, which is not dazzled by speculation on impossible per

fection, and which never sacrifices what is good in order to prove them to be a people originally quite distinct from the attain what may appear to be best. The development of the Greek and Italian races. Their religion was of a gloomy Roman constitution differs in this respect from the usual character, delighting in mysteries, and in wild and horrible course of Greek policy, and reminds us of the spirit in rites. Their origin is unknown. Most ancient writers rewhich the English constitution was built up, in which late that the Etruscans were Lydians who had migrated whatever is new is an outgrowth and development of some by sea from Asia to Italy; but this is very improbable, and thing old, and in which mere speculation and theoretic en it is now more generally believed that the Etruscans dethusiasm have never been able to sever the link which con scended into Italy from the Rhætian Alps. It is expressly nects the present with the past.*

stated by ancient writers that the Rhætians were Etruscans,

and that they spoke the same language; while their name DIVISIONS OF ITALY.-The only natural division of Italy

is perhaps the same as that of Rasena, the native name of is into Northern and Southern-the former comprising the plain of the Po and the mountains inclosing it, so far as

the Etruscans. In more ancient times, before the Roman

dominion, the Etruscans inhabited not only the country they are Italian; the latter co-extensive with the peninsula

called Etruria, but also the great plain of the Po, as far as proper. It is usual, however, to divide the peninsula itself

the foot of the ps. Here they maintained their ground artificially into two portions by a line drawn across it from the mouth of the Silarus to that of the Tifernus. In this

till they were expelled or subdued by the invading Gauls.

The Etruscans, both in the north of Italy and to the south way a triple division of Italy is produced, and the three parts are then called Northern, Central, and Southern.t

of the Apennines, consisted of a confederacy of twelve

cities, each of which was independent, possessing the ISLANDS OF ITALY.-The Italian Islands are, from their power of even making war and peace on its own account. size, their fertility, and their mineral treasures, peculiarly

In Etruria proper, Valsinii was regarded as the metropolis. important. They constitute nearly one-fourth of the whole Besides these three races, two foreign races also settled in area of the country. Sicily is exceedingly productive both the peninsula in historical times. These are the Greeks and in corn and in wine of an excellent quality. Sardinia and the Gauls. (4) The Greeks planted so many colonies upon the Corsica are rich in minerals. Even the little island of coast of Southern Italy, that they gave to that district the Elba is valuable for its iron. Sicily and the Lipari isles name of Magna Græcia. The most ancient, and at the same yield abundance of sulphur.t

time, the most northerly Greek city in Italy, was Cumäe in

Campania. Most of the other Greek colonies were situated CLIMATE AND FERTILITY.-Italy has been in all ages re

farther to the south, where many of them attained to great nowned for its beauty and fertility. The lofty ranges of the

power and opulence. Of these, some of the most distinApennines, and the seas which bathe its shores on both

guished were Tarentum, Sybaris, Croton, and Metapontum. sides, contribute at once to temper and vary its climate, so

(5) The Gauls, as we have already said, occupied the as to adapt it for the productions alike of the temperate and

greater part of northern Italy, and were so numerous and the warınest parts of Europe. In the plains on either side

important as to give to the whole basin of the Po the name of the Apennines corn is produced in abundance; ollves

of Gallia Cisalpina. They were of the same race with the flourish on the southern slopes of the mountains; and the

Gauls who inhabited the country beyond the Alps, and vine is cultivated in every part of the peninsula, the vine

their migration and settlement in Italy were referred by yards of Northern Campania being the most celebrated in the Roman historian to the time of the Tarquins.* antiquity.

INSTITUTIONS OF THE RACES IN ITALY.-Upper Italy on INHABITANTS.--The inhabitants of Italy may be divided either bank of the Po was the dwelling-place of the Gallic into three great classes--the Italians proper, the Ispygians, race, who were divided into many tribes and states, and and the Etruscans, who are clearly distinguished from each possessed numerous cities, both in the fertile plains and on other by their respective languages. (1) The Italians proper the sea-coast. Central Italy was inhabited by many small inhabited the center of the peninsula. They were divided tribes, a part of which had dwelt in the land from time iminto two branches, the Latins and Umbro-Sabellians, in memorial, and might be looked upon as the aborigines of cluding the Umbrians, Sabines, Samnites, and their numer the country; whilst others had wandered hither from ous colonies. The dialects of the Latins and the Umbro abroad. To the latter class belonged the remarkable family Sabellians, though marked by striking differences, still of the Etruscans, to the former the sturdy race of the show clearest evidence of a common origin, and both are Sabelli, who were again divided into numerous warlike and closely related to the Greek. It is evident that at some re freedom-loving tribes, among whom the Samnites, the Samote period a race migrated from the east, embracing the bines, and the Équi, were the most distinguished. The ancestors of both the Greeks and Italians--that from it the Latins, a powerful rustic tribe on the south of the Tiber, Italians branched off--and that they again were divided were a mixed race, composed of natives and immigrants, into the Latins on the west and the Umbrians and Sabel to which, after the conquest of Troy, a Trojan race, under lians on the east. (2) The Ispygiane dwelt in Calabria, in the conduct of Eneas, is said to have united itself. The the extreme southeast corner of Italy. Inscriptions in a coast of Lower Italy was covered with Greek colonies; the peculiar language have here been discovered, clearly show inland parts were the seat of warlike tribes of Sabelline ing that the inhabitants belonged to a different race from origin, Samnites, Campanians, Lucani. Campania, with those whom we have designated as the Italians. They were its vineyards and cornfields, is one of the most beautiful doubtless the oldest inhabitants of Italy, who were driven and fertile spots on the globe, and was chosen accordingly toward the extremity of the peninsula as the Latins and by the Romans for the erection of their magnificent villas. Sabellians pressed farther to the south. (3) The Etruscans, Of all these races, that of the Etruscans is the most worthy or, as they called themselves, Rasena, form a striking con of remark. They formed a confederation of twelve indetrast to the Latins and Sabellians as well as to the Greeks. pendent cities, of which Care, Tarquinii, and Perusia, in 'Their language is radically different from the other lan- the neighborhood of the Trasimenian lake, Clusium and yuages of Italy, and their manners and customs clearly Veii, are the best known. The separate cities were gov

erned by an aristocratic priesthood. The nobles (Lucumos) * J. A. F. W. Ihne, Ph. D.

elected the head of the confederation, the insignia of whose + George Rawlinson, M. A. I WIHam Smith, LL. D.

William Smith, LL. D.

office were an ivory chair, a purple mantle, and axes in ing its construction, as in modern times English and closed in bundles of rods (fasces, such as were afterwards French have imitated each other, and first translating, and borne before the Roman consuls. The Etruscans were a then imitating its literature, as early English dealt with religious people, and paid great observance to predictions French and with Italian.* derived from the sacrifice of animals (auspices), and the fight of birds (auguries). They were proficient in the art

THE CITY OF ROME.—The city of Rome lay in the cenof founding, and in working earth or metals, and their skill in tral part of the peninsula of Italy, on the left bank of the architecture is attested by the existing remains of gigantic Tiber, and about fifteen miles from its mouth. Its situawalls, and the ruins of temples, dykes, roads, etc. The in tion was upon the borders of three of the most powerful numerable vessels of clay and cinerary urns (Etruscan vases), races in Italy, the Latins, Sabines, and Etruscans. Though ornamented with paintings, which are dug out of the earth, originally a Latin town, it received at an early period a conare evidence of the diligence of the Etruscans in arts and siderable Sabine population, which left a permanent immanufactures. But the oppressive power of the aristoc- pression upon the sacred rites and religious institutions of racy, which proved destructive to the freedom and energy the people. The Etruscans exercised less influence upon of the middle and lower classes, was the occasion of the Rome, though it appears nearly certain that a part of its early decay and extinction of the arts of culture among the population was of Etruscan origin, and that the two Tarpeople. The Sabines, Samnites, and other tribes of Sa- | quins represent the establishment of an Etruscan dynasty belline origin, led a simple and temperate life in open or

at Rome. The population of the city may therefore be reonly slightly fortified towns. They loved the pastoral life, garded as one of mixed origin, consisting of the three eleagriculture and war, and looked upon their freedom as their

ments of Latins, Sabines, and Etruscans, but the last in much greatest blessing. From time to time, they celebrated a smaller proportion than the other two. That the Latin sacred spring, during which the newly-born cattle were

element predominated over the Sabine is also evident from offered in sacrifice, and the children who came into the the fact that the language of the Romans was a Latin and world in the course of the year left their country as colo

not a Sabellian dialect.t nists, on arriving at the age of twenty. The Latins dwelt

ROMAN SUCCESS IN WAR.-The comparative sterility of the in thirty cities, which were united together in a confederation of which Alba Longa was the head. Agriculture and

territory encouraged the warlike spirit of the early Romans, civil freedom flourished among them; their religion was

whose frequent wars seem to have been undertaken oftener founded upon the worship of nature, and bore a relation to

for the sake of booty than in just self-defence. It is possible,

too, that the unhealthiness of the surrounding district at the cultivation of the soil. The seed-god Saturn, and his

certain seasons of the year may have served as a barrier to spouse Aps (the abundance flowing from the earth), were

ward off attacks, when other resources failed. The remoteamong their deities. The venerable goddess, Vesta, whose

ness of the sea and the want of a good port was a protection sacred and perpetual fire was watched by twelve virgins (vestals), was also one of the native deities of the Latins.

from the numerous pirates who infested the Tyrrhenian

waters. But it was especially the situatiún of Rome in the The representatives of the union held their meetings in a

middle of the peninsula, cutting off the northern from the wood on the Albanian hills. *

southern half, which enabled her to divide her enemies, and THE LATIN LANGUAGE. Latin is a member of that to subdue them separately. Lastly, the similarity of race, great family of languages called Indo-European, and also, which bound the Romans by the ties of blood and common but less properly, Indo-Germanic, or Áryan. This family customs to the Latins, the Samnites, the Campanians, Lucanembraces the Sanskrit, Persian, Lithuanian, Greek, with ians, and in fact to all the indigenous races of Italy, enits modern representative, Romaic, Latin, and its modifica abled them to repel the invasions of their non-Italian enetions of the Romance tongues, Celtic, German, and English. mies, the Gauls and the Carthaginians, and to appear in These languages, for the most part, present striking resem the light of champions and protectors of Italy. When in blances, in words, in inflections, and in general grammatical the time of the first historical inroad of the Gauls, the structure. In former times it was customary to regard the oneet of these barbarians had been broken by the brave deLatin language as descended, and that very directly, from the fenders of the Capital, Rome rose from her ashes as by a Greek, and real or fancied connections were traced out be second birth to the title to preëminence among all the peotween nearly all the Latin and Greek words. Others who ples of Italy; and when the proud and able Hannibal was discovered in the Latin language words and forms which oc foiled before the same walls, Rome in a still more signal cur in the German and the Celtic, were led to believe that the and decisive manner fought at the head of the Italians Latin was largely derived from the Celtic. But in resolv against the common foe. ing such a question there are very great difficulties. How are we to know whether the Celtic or the Latin form is the

CLAIMS OF ROMAN HISTORY.-The history of the Roman older? We may generally receive the statements of the people has surely many claims on our attention.

It is to a Romans themselves, as to the origin of certain words which

certain extent the history of every modern nation, in its they discussed, but as we have no monuments of Celtic

earlier stages, and it contains lessons of policy, which even earlier than the seventh century of our era, how is modern

after so many centuries are instructive, and may prove apresearch to decide whether the Celtic word is an old col- plicable in the political conflicts of the present day. lateral form of the Latin, or was actually carried by the Romans in their conquests and deposited among the strange

AUTHENTICITY OF EARLIER ROMAN HISTORY:--The people. While in some cases one of these views might be early history of Rome is given in an unbroken narrative by correct, and in some cases the other, we can only assert

the Roman writers, and was received by the Romans themwith confidence that the Latin belongs to the same family selves as a faithful record of facts. But it can no longer be as the above, but more closely resembling the Greek in its regarded in that light. Not only is it full of marvellous oldest elements than any other member, and afterwards, in tales and poetical embellishments, of contradictions and historic times, following the development of the Greek, impossibilities, but it wants the very foundation upon adopting words from it with no change of form, or only such as convenience or regard for analogy required, imitat

* Professor Charles Short,

+ William Smith, LL. D. * Dr. George Weber,

IJ. A. F, W. Ihne, Ph. D.

which all history must be based. The reader, therefore, of their birth and the fate of their grandfather, they restored must not receive the history of the first four centuries of the the throne of Alba Longa to Vumitor, and then founded city as a statement of undoubted facts, though it has un Roine on the Palatine hill, on the left bank of the Tiber. questionably preserved many circumstances which did The rising walls of the city are said to have been stained by actually occur. It is not until we come to the war with the blood of Remus, who was slain in a quarrel by his Pyrrhus that we can place full reliance upon the narrative brother. When the little town was built, Romulus atas a trustworthy statement of facts.*

tracted inhabitants by declaring it a place of refuge for EARLY GOVERNMENT OF ROME.-The known points of fugitives. But as the fugitives had no wives, and the the early constitution are the following: (a) The form of

neighboring people hesitated to give them their daughters government was monarchical. A chief called “ ' rex,' . e.,

in marriage, Romulus arranged some military games, and "ruler," or "director," stood at the head of the state, exer

invited the neighbors as spectators. At a given signal, cising a great, though not an absolute, power over the citi

every Roman seized upon a Sabine virgin and carried her zens. (b) The monarchy was not hereditary, but elective.

off into the city. This outrage gave rise to a war between When the king died there was an “interregnum." The

the Sabines and the new colony. The two armies were direction of affairs was taken by the Senate or Council, whose

already opposed to each other, when the abducted virgins ten chief men (Decem Primi) exercised the royal authority,

rushed between the combatants, and put an end to the strife each in his turn, for five days. It belonged to the Senate to

by declaring that they would share the fate of the Romans. elect, and to the people to confirm the king. (©) Under the

A treaty was arranged, in consequence of which the Sabines king, was, first of all, an hereditary nobility (patricii), mem

who dwelt on the Capitoline hill agreed to unite themselves bers of certain noble families, not deriving their nobility

in a single community with the Latins, who lived on the from the king, but possessing it by immemorial descent.

Palatine, and the Etruscans, who lived on the Cælian hill. (d) All the males of full age belonging to the nobility pos

It was decided further, that the Sabine king, Titus Tatius, sessed the right of attending the public assembly (comitia),

should share the government with Romulus; and that a where they voted in ten bodies (curice), each composed of the

Latin and a Sabine should be elected alternately from the

Senate to the office of king. Romulus disappeared from the members of ten houses. (e) Every change of law required the consent of both the Senate and the Assembly.

earth in an unknown manner, and received divine honors (f) In addition to the members of the

under the name of Quirinus. The citizens from this time

gentes,'' the early Roman state contained two other classes.

bore the name of Quirites, conjointly with that of Romans.

The warlike Romulus was succeeded by the wise Sabine, These were the clients and the slaves. The slaves

Numa Pompilius, who reduced the rising state to order by resembled persons of their class in other communities; but the clients were a peculiar institution. They were

his laws and religious institutions, and improved and civ

ilized the inhabitants. He built temples and established a dependents upon the noble “houses,” and personally free, but possessed of no political privileges, and usually either

form of religious worship, increased the number of priests, cultivated the lands of their “patrons,” or carried on a trade

and made regulations respecting sacrifices and divinations.

He dedicated a temple at the entrance of the forum to Janus under their protection. They resembled to a considerable extent the “retainers” of the middle ages.

Bifrons, the god who presides over the beginning of every

Under this constitution Rome flourished for a period which is some

thing, both in time and space. The doors of this temple

were open in time of war, and closed during peace. As the what vague and indefinite, without the occurrence of any

Greeks confirmed their law by the means of oracles, so important change. According to one tradition, a double

Numa maintained that he had derived his system of religion monarchy was tried for a short time, in order that the two

from conversations with the nymph Egeria, who had a elements of the state--the Roman and the Sabines--might each furnish a ruler from their own body.

wood sacred to her on the south of Rome. The two followBut the experi

ing kings, Tullus Hostilius, the Latin, and Ancus Martius, ment was not tried for very long. In lieu of it we may sus

the Sabine, enlarged the territory of the little state by sucpect that for a while the principle of alternation was em

cessful wars; so that four other hills were added to the ployed, the Romans and the Sabines each in their turn furnishing a king to the community.t

three before mentioned, and gradually supplied with inhab

itants. For this reason, Rome is called the seven-hilled DIVISIONS OF ROMAN HISTORY.-It simplifies our inves- city. Under Tullus Hostilius the Romans engaged in a tigation of the long period of Roman history when we know

war with Alba Longa. Just as the armies were about to that when the Gauls sacked the city, 389 B. C., they de engage, it was agreed to decide the fate of the two cities by stroyed all the records, and that the trustworthy history

a combat between three brothers, the Horatii and the really begins no earlier than 281 B. C. We may consider Curiatii, chosen from each of the parties. Two of the chamthat there are three periods to be remembered : (1) The pions of the Romans had already fallen, when the victory mythical and traditional age of the Kings, 753-510 B. C.; was decided in their favor by the cunning and bravery of (II) The heroic age of the Republic, 510-27 B. C.; and (III) the third, and the possession of Alba Longa fell at once into The golden age of the Emperors, 27 B. C.-455 A. D.:

their hands. The city was destroyed, and the inhabitants

transplanted to Rome. The same fortune happened to ROME UNDER THE KINGS.- We are told by an old legend,

many other cities in the neighborhood during the reign of that King Numitor, of Alba Longa, a successor to the Tro Ancus Martius. The conquered citizens settled in Rome, jan Æneas, was deprived of his crown by his brother Amu

where they received houses and small estates, but were not lius, and his daughter, Rhæa Silvia, placed among the

admitted to the privileges of the elder citizens. The latter sacred virgins of Vesta, that she might remain unmarried

from this time were called "patricians,” the new comers bore and without offspring. But when she bore the twins

the name of “plebeians." Ancus Martius founded the seaRomulus and Remus to the god Mars, her cruel uncle com

port of Ostia, at the mouth of the Tiber. The last three manded the children to be exposed on the banks of the

kings, Tarquinius Priscus, Servius Tullius, and Tarquinius Tiber, where, however, they were discovered and brought Superbus, belonged to the Etruscan race, as is evident from up by shepherds. Informed by an accident of the mystery the buildings they erected, and the Etruscan institutions *William Smith, LL. D.

they introduced into Rome. The elder Tarquin laid the +George Rawlinson, M. A,

foundation of the vast structure of the Capitol, which was Gilasan's General History,

completed by his son, Taryuinius Superbus, in accordanog

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