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VII.

state, and no preference can be given by any regulation of and that they would be better qualified to make the seleccommerce or revenue to the ports of one state over another. tion than the people at large.

The states are prohibited from forming any alliances; The President, with the advice and consent of the Senate, from authorizing privateering; from coining money; from appoints all the important officers of the national governissuing treasury notes to circulate as money.

ment. An appointment made by the President during the They are also prohibited from making anything but gold recess of Congress holds good till the close of the succeeding and silver coin a legal tender in the payment of debts. The session. Constitution does not prohibit Congress from making any. The Constitution is silent as to the power of removal from thing but gold and silver coin a legal tender; but it does office. From the commencement of the government, the not authorize it. The constitutionality of the act making power has been exercised by the President. The question the notes of the United States a legal tender may be fairly was discussed in Congress during the first administration questioned. The states are prohibited from passing any of Washington. Madison and other leading men thought bill of attainder-that is, a bill declaring a man guilty with that the power of removal ought to rest with the President. out a trial by law. They are also prohibited from passing At the same time they agreed that removal for partisan , an ex post facto law-that is, a law making an act criminal purposes would subject him to impeachment. The maxim, or unlawful which was performed before the passage of the "to the victors belong the spoils” had not then been law, and from passing any law impairing the obligation of adopted. contracts. This last provision has been found to be a very The President has power to make treaties with the advice important one.

and consent of the Senate. When a treaty has been negoCongress can make no law respecting an establishment of tiated, it is laid before the Senate. If the Senate approve religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof. Religious it, and the President sign it, it becomes a part of the “sufreedom is thus guaranteed by the fundamental law of the preme law of the land.” When the Senate has approved land. The freedom of the press and the right of petition are a treaty, the President may, if he chooses, withhold bis in like manner guaranteed. It also provides that no person signature. shall be deprived of life, liberty, or property without due If the stipulations of the treaty require an appropriation process of law.

by Congress, that appropriation must be made. The House of Representatives have no right to sit in judgment on the

treaty before making the required appropriation. The duty of the executive is to execute the laws. Ex per The President is Commander-in-Chief of the army and ience has shown that a single is better than a plural execu navy of the United States, and of the militia of the several tive. When the executive power is vested in two or more

states when called into the actual service of the United persons, there is a divided responsibility. The executive States. This gives to the President great power; but he is power is vested by the Constitution in a President chosen bound to exercise it in accordance with the Constitution by the people for four years. He must be thirty-five years and the laws. old, and a native of the United States.

It was thought that a shorter term of office would not allow one to carry out a well-matured system of policy, The executive power of the British government is vested and that a longer term was undesirable in view of the fact in the King. The maxim, "the King never dies," means that the long continued possession of power tends to that the office is never vacant. When the occupant of the abuse. The President may be re-elected as many times as throne dies, the hereditary successor is at once clothed with the people choose. No one has ever been re-elected but all the powers of royalty.

The power of the King is wielded by ministers appointed The President is chosen by electors chosen by the people by him, and holding office during his pleasure. He sends of each state. Each state is entitled to as many electors as for some one, and requests him to form an administration, it has Representatives and Senators in Congress. They that is, to select men for the different executive departmeet in their respective states on the same day, and cast ments. The person thus commissioned to form an adminis-, their votes for President and Vice-President. The votes tration is called the Prime Minister. are sent to Washington, and are opened and counted by He selects for himself an office, commonly that of first the Vice-President in presence of both houses of Congress. Lord of the Treasury, and distributes the other offices among *The persons having a majority of all the votes ara declared his associates. These constitute the ministry. elected President and Vice-President.

It is a maxim of the British Constitution that "the King In case no person has a majority of the electoral votes for can do no wrong.” The responsibility of all executive acts President, the choice devolves upon the House of Repre- rests with the ministry. A minister can not plead the comsentatives. The vote is taken by states, each state having mand of the King as an excuse for an illegal act. The minone vote.

ister is personally responsible. In case there is no choice of Vice-President by the elec If a member of the House of Commons accepts a ministors, the election devolves upon the Senate.

terial oflice, he thereby vacates his seat in the House. He In case of the death or disability of the President, the may, however, be re-elected, and thus be a minister and a Vice-President performs the duties of the President. In member of the House of Commons at the same time. In case there is no Vice-President, the president of the Senate our government, one can not hold an executive office and pro tempore acts as President. If there is no President be a Member of Congress. pro tempore, the Speaker of the House of Representatives In theory, the ministers hold office at the will of the King; acts as President.

in practice, they hold office at the will of the people as ex• The President may be removed from office by impeach- pressed by the action of the House of Commons. If the ment. Only one President has been impeached. He was measures proposed by the ministers do not receive the supacquitted by the Senate.

port of a majority of the Commons, they either resign or The plan of electing the President by Electors instead of advise the king to dissolve Parliament, and order a new the direct vote of the people, has not met the expectations election. They will do this, if they believe that a majority of those who formed it. The framers of the Constitution of the new Parliament will support their measures. If they thought that the Electors would select a man for President, are not confident of this result, they will resign at once, and

VIII.

once.

IX.

the King will send for some one to form a new adminis- compensation shall not be diminished during his contintration. The ministry changes as different parties secure uance in office. majorities in the House of Commons.

John Jay was the first Chief Justice of the United States, The executive of Great Britain is thus more under the and discharged the duties of the office with signal ability. control of the legislative department than is the executive On his resignation, Oliver Ellsworth was appointed. He of the United States. The administration must have a work was succeeded by John Marshall, who held the office for ing majority in the House of Commons or resign.

thirty-five years. His judicial decisions were quoted with The King is commander-in-chief of the army and navy. respect in the highest courts of Great Britain. All military and naval officers are appointed by him—that is, The Supreme Court is the final interpreter of the Constiby the ministers acting in his name.

tution. If a law is passed which is supposed to be unconThe King appoints the judges of the courts, the foreign stitutional, and a case relating to that law is brought before ministers, and, as head of the national or established church, the Court, its decision is final. If it declares the law unconthe bishops.

stitutional, it becomes null and void. If a state law is in The King appoints persons members of the Privy Council, conflict with the Constitution of the United States, the A Council distinct from the cabinet. The Privy Council have Supreme Court will declare it null and void, and from its charge of matters relating to colonies and navigation. Our decision there is no appeal. fathers appealed to the King in Council, that is, the Privy

Each state has its state courts. From these, in many Council.

cases, appeals may be made to the courts of the United States. The Supreme Court has frequently exercised appel

late jurisdiction in cases brought from state tribunals. The framers of the Constitution were duly impressed with the importance of an able and independent national judiciary.

X. It provides that “The judicial power of the United States The members of the Federal Convention resolved to form shall be vested in one Supreme Court, and in such inferior a national government, and they executed the resolve. The courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and preamble declares that the people of the United States orestablish."

dained and established the Constitution. It declares that Congress has established three national courts, viz: the "this Constitution, and the laws of the United States which Supreme Court, the Circuit Courts, and the District Courts. shall be made in pursuance thereof; and all treaties made,

The Supreme Court consists of a Chief Justice and eight or which shall be made under the authority of the United Justices, any six of whom constitute a quorum. It holds one States, shall be the supreme law of the land; and the judges term each year at Washington. The term begins on the in every state shall be bound thereby, anything in the consecond Monday in October. It is occupied chiefly in hear stitution or laws of any state to the contrary notwithstanding and deciding cases on appeal from other courts. A suit | ing." can originate in the Supreme Court only in cases affecting The passage expresses as strongly as words can express Ambassadors, other public ministers, and consuls, and those the supremacy of the national government. It is entirely in which a state shall be a party. In these cases, it is said inconsistent with the theory of Mr. John C. Calhoun, that to have original jurisdiction.

the Constitution was a league of sovereign states; that each The United States are divided into pine judicial circuits. state was the judge of infractions of the Constitution, and For each circuit a judge is appointed. They are called measures of redress. According to that theory, if any state Circuit Judges. They reside and hold courts in their thinks that the Constitution has been violated by a law of respective circuits. Each Justice of the Supreme Court must Congress, it is at liberty to nullify that law, or to withdraw attend at least one term of a Circuit Court in every period of from the Union.

In 1832 South Carolina declared the tariff to be unconstiThe United States are also divided into fifty-eight dis tutional, and declared it null and void within the limits of tricts. To each district a District Judge is appointed, except the State. President Jackson issued a proclamation setting that the States of Alabama, Mississippi, South Carolina and forth the supremacy of the Constitution, and declaring that Tennessee, have each one District Judge. The District the Constitution must be preserved. The vigorous measCourts are held by the District Judges.

ures preparatory to the forcible execution of the laws, led The officers of the national courts besides the judges are, South Carolina to accept the compromise offered by Mr. the Attorney General, the District Attorneys, the Marshals, Clay in Congress, and to withdraw her nullifying ordinance. and the Clerks. The Attorney General conducts all suits in It is absurd to speak of the states constituting the Union the Supreme Court in which the United States are concerned. as sovereign states. Sovereign power is supreme power. A He is also a member of the Cabinet, and gives his advice and sovereign state is one which possesses sovereign or supreme opinions upon questions of law when required by the Pres- power. No state in the Union possesses this power. The ident, or the heads of departments.

Constitution and laws of every state must be in accordance The District Attorneys are the attorneys for the govern with the Constitution and laws of the United States, ment, in the inferior courts. The duties of the Marshal are There are various specific acts which the states are prosimilar to those of the Sheriff' in the state courts. The Clerk hibited from doing. No state has power "to enter into any has the custody of the seal and records of the court, and signs treaty, alliance, or confederation; grant letters of marque and seals all processes and records of the proceedings and or reprisal; coin money; emit bills of credit; make any judgments of the court.

thing but gold and silver coin a tender in payment of debts; The judges of all the United States Courts are appointed pass any bill of attainder, or ex post facto law, or law imby the President with the consent of the Senate, and hold pairing the obligation of contracts, or grant any title of nooffice during good behavior. The provision of the Consti- | bility." These are acts which sovereign states are comtution relating to the judicial tenure of office received the petent to perform. The states of the Union are restrained assent of every member of the Federal Convention. This from performing them. They are therefore not sovereign tenure secures the independence of the judge. If he is states. It is true that they retain the powers not given to faithful to his trust, no earthly power can remove him from the national government by the Constitution, but that Conoffice. Further provision is made for his independence by stitution, and the laws made in pursuance thereof, are the that clause of the Constitution which declares that his supreme law of the land.

C

two years.

The Calhoun view of the Constitution was first brought forward and advocated by Senator Hayne, of South Caro

the of

The first new state formed after the adoption of the Federal Constitution was Vermont. It was admitted to the Union in 1791.

"Defender of the Cou-titution." Subsequently Mr. Cal- Missouri was admitted to the Union in 1820. Her consti

XI.

houn advocated his nullifying view in the Senate, and was ution sanctioned slavery. A large majority of the menreplied to by Mr. Webster.

bers of the free states were opposed to admitting her with When the Constitution was first made public, it met with that constitution. A dissolution of the Union was threatgreat opposition, on the ground that it gave the national ened. The struggle was finally ended by a compromise government power over the states, required that their con known as the Missouri Compromise. By this Compromise stitution and laws should be conformed to the Constitution Missouri was admitted as a slaveholding state; but it was and laws of the United States. The friends and framers of stipulated that slavery should never be established in any the Constitution admitted the fact that the government was states formed in future from land lying north of latitude not a league of sovereign states, and showed the wisdom 360, 30'. and necessity of the restriction made by the Constitution. This Compromise was repealed in 1854. The repeal was The Constitution was ordained and established by the peo one of the series of acts on the part of the South designed ple of the United States. The power that ordained is the to make slavery national. only power that can abrogate or change it. If changed or The constitutions of the states are similar to the Constituabolished it must be done by the people acting in a consti tion of the United States, and, of course, similar to one antutional way.

other. In all, the powers are divided into legislative, judiThe British Constitution is not a written document. It cial, and executive. The legislative power is vested in two consists of a series of usages which have been for many houses, and the mode of passing laws is similar to that generations recognized as the fundamental law of the laud. pursued by the Congress of the United States. It is the growth of centuries. Its leading provisions are as All the states are divided into counties except South Carclearly understood as are those of the Constitution of the olina, which is divided into districts; and Louisiana, which United States.

is divided into parishes. In each county there is a county seat where inferior courts are held. In the state of New

York, the Board of Supervisors elected by the township, The Constitution may receive amendments in two ways. form sort 'of a county legislature,-that is, they have cerCongress may, by a vote of two-thirds of both houses, propose tain legislative powers relating to the county. amendments to the Constitution; and if the proposed amend In the New England states, New York, and some other ments are ratified by the Legislatures of three-fourths of states, each county is divided into townships having certain the states, they become a part of the Constitution. This political powers. The inhabitants meet annually in "town is the mode in which all amendments have been made. meeting," and elect town officers, and make regulations in

On the application of the legislatures of two-thirds of the regard to local matters. states, Congress is required to call a convention for propos The township system has an important influence in the ing amendments. These may be ratified by the legislatures political education of the people. Townships furnish examof the states, or by conventions in three-fourths thereof. If ples of pure democracies. The people meet and choose offi. so ratified they form a part of the Constitution.

cers and make regulations, that is, enact laws for governing During the first Congress, many amendments were pro the township. Every citizen acts as a legislator. He beposed to the Constitution. Ten of these were laid before comes acquainted, to some extent, with the forms of trans. the legislatures of the states and ratified by them.

acting business, and with the responsibilities which rest Subsequently five additional amendments were made, upon him as a member of the body politic.* one declaring that a state is not suable in the United States Courts by an individual; one altering the mode of choosing The subject of African slavery was several times before the President, and three relating to slavery, and matters the Federal Convention. Provisions relating to slavery connected with the results of the rebellion.

were necessary; but it will be observed that the word When the Constitution went into operation, Rhode Is slavery or slave is not found in the Constitution. It was land and North Carolina did not belong to the United excluded by design. It was thought that slavery would ere States. They were isolated sovereign states. They did not long come to an end. Mr. Madisou remarked that he hold that position long. They adopted the Constitution, and wanted no word in the Constitution which implied that thus the thirteen states were united under the Constitution. there could be property in man.

When the Revolutionary War began, and the prospects of When the apportionment of representatives was under reconciliation became clouded, the states proceeded to form consideration, the Southern states insisted that, in deterstate constitutions. New Jersey had formed and adopted a mining the population, the slaves should be counted as well constitution two days before the Declaration of Independ as the whites. The free states insisted that freemen only ence. It contained a provision by which it became null should be counted. The result was a compromise, by which and void in case a reconciliation with the mother country all the whites and three-fifths of the slaves (called other took place. In a short time all the states formed constitu- persons), should be counted in fixing the basis of representions except Connecticut and Rhode Island. Those states tation. By that provision the slave states had, previous to continued to use their charters-Connecticut till 1818, and the rebellion, a larger number of representatives than the Rhode Island till 1812.

free states, that is, in proportion to the free population. The Constitution makes provision for the admission of When the question of giving Congress power to abolish new states. A territory, when it has a sufficient number of the African slave trade was before the Convention, an earnest inhabitants, forms a constitution, and applies to Congress debate arose. Some of the leading Southern statesmen were for admission to the Union. Congress bas power to reject for giving Congress power to abolish the trade at once. the application if it deems the reasons for so doing sufficient. Some few wished to withhold the power altogether. It was No state can be formed within the jurisdiction of any other finally agreed that Congress should not have power to prostate, or by the junction of two or more states, without the hibit it before the year 1808. This provision was carried by consent of Congress, and of the legislatures of the states concerned.

* Science of Government, p. 217.

XII.

the aid of New England votes. If all the Delegates from the cates had passed through many hands at varying prices. It free states had voted with Mr. Madison and his associates, was finally ordered that holders of the certificates, corresthe power to abolish slavery would have been given to Con- ponding to what we call bonds, should be paid in full, pringress without restriction.

cipal and interest. It is quite probable that some persons, It has been estimated that 300,000 slaves were imported foreseeing what would come to pass, bought up the certifibetween the time of the formation of the Constitution and cates at low prices and thus made fortunes. 1808, when its abolition by a previous act of Congress took The next measure of Hamilton was in relation to the place.

state debts. The United States were in debt, and each of Provision was also made for the return of fugitive slaves. the states was in debt for expenses connected with the War The Constitution required that persons held to service or of Independence. A law assuming the state debts by the labor in one state by the laws thereof, escaping into United States was passed. These measures established the another state, shall be delivered up on the claim of the party credit of the United States and of the several states. to whom such service shall be due.

The next financial measure of Hamilton was the estabA law was passed by Congress which required the claim-lishing by Congress of a national bank. The bank wasant or slave-owner to prove, before a competent magistrate, chartered with a capital of $10,000,000. Its opposers in Con-that the fugitive was his slave according to the laws of the gress questioned the constitutionality of the act. When the state from whence he came. If satisfactory proof was fur bill was laid before Washington, he required the opinion of nished, the magistrate remanded the fugitive to slavery. his Cabinet in writing, as the Constitution authorized him

This law awakened very little opposition at the North, to do. Hamilton and Knox gave their advice in favor of and was quietly submitted to. The Constitution required a the bill, Jefferson and Randolph against it. Washington fugitive slave law, and the one enacted was as unexception- gave it his signature and it became a law. able as a law meeting the requirements of the Constitution The charter expired by limitation during Madison's adsould be.

ministration. A bill chartering a new bank was passed by It is said that a Vermont judge required evidence from a Congress, and vetoed by Mr. Madison. A few years later a slave-holder which he was unable to furnish. A slave was new bank was chartered and received his signature. The caught by his master in Vermont, and brought before the new bank had a much larger capital than the old one, and . judge, full proof was offered of the fact that the fugitive was had branches in every important city in the Union. Itsthe slave of the man who claimed him. The claimant charter expired during Jackson's administration. Great waited for the decision of the judge. “I'm not satisfied,” | efforts were made to renew the charter, and bills for that. said the judge, "that you own that man."

purpose were passed by both houses of Congress. They were The slave-holder stated the points of evidence, and asked vetoed by President Jackson. Speeches for and against the if they had not been substantiated. “Yes," said the judge, constitutionality of a national bank were made by the most "your points are made out, but I'm not satisfied that you eminent statesmen of the nation. The question has been own that man."

before the Supreme Court and decided in the affirmative. " What will satisfy your honor?” asked the slave-holder. When the question with respect to the adoption of the "A bill of sale from Almighty God!" said the judge. Constitution was before the people, the friends of the Con-The agitation of the slavery question by the friends of stitution were called Federalists, and the opposers of the emancipation caused the enactment of a new and much Constitution were called anti-federalists. A number of the more stringent fugitive slave law. The enactment was anti-Federalists were elected members of the first Congress, made during Mr. Fillmore's administration. It authorized and opposed the measures of Hamilton. the slave-catcher tu call on any citizen to assist him in During the first Congress, though the friends of Hamileatching his slave, and a refusal subjected the citizen to fine ton and Jefferson were generally opposed to one another, and imprisonment. This law tended to increase the oppo- yet two parties could not be said to exist. When subse-sition to slavery at the North, and to hasten the events that quently an opposition to Washington's administration was. put an end to it. The thirteenth amendment to the Cousti formed under the lead of Jefferson, the opposition took the tution declares, "Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, name of Democrats, while the friends of the administration. except as a punishment for crime, whereof the party shall retained the name of Federalists. have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction."

xiv. A nation is composed of individuals. Each individual is

a moral being, and subject to the law of rectitude. Hence & The first Congress under the Constitution met in New nation is subject to the law of rectitude. York, May, 1779. Madison was a member of the House of The intercourse of nations must be regulated by certain Representatives. The most important measures which oc rules. The rules which regulate the intercourse of nations cupied the attention of Congress were proposed by Mr. constitute international law. That law should consist of Hamilton, as Secretary of the Treasury. His first efforts rules prescribe i by justice. It does consist of rules which were for the restoration of the public credit. Certificates of have received the assent of all the nations of Christendom.. indebtedness on the part of the United States had been sold The usages with respect to national intercourse recognized for two and sixpence on the pound. Hamilton proposed to by all Christian nations form what is termed the Law of pay the face value of all outstanding evidences of the debt Nations, or International Law. They are supported by the of the United States. Great opposition to this was made by public sentiment of nations. There is no international trimany members of Congress, but Hamilton's views prevailed. bunal for adjudicating cases arising under international law. The next question was, to whom should the debt be paid ? | Each nation must judge for itself with respect to violations The holder of the certificate paid perhaps two and sixpence of that law; the remedy in case of violation is war. on the pound. It was thought that he ought not to re International law regards all nations as equal with respect ceive twenty shillings for what he paid only two and six to rights, whatever may be their differences in extent of pence. It was proposed that the holder should be paid territory, power, cultivation, or form of government. Each what it cost him, and that the remainder should be paid to nation is regarded as independent of all other nations. No the original holder-the person to whom it was issued. This other nation has a right to interfere with its domestic conwas found to be impracticable. In many cases the certifi cerns so long as its action does not injuriously affect other

XIII.

seas.

nations. This is called the doctrine of non-intervention.

THE NEW EDUCATIONS. One nation is not to judge as to the legitimacy of the government of another nation. It is bound to recognize the

The old educations have been many. The Jews taught existing government as for the time being the lawful gov their children trades and the law. The Greeks first sought ernment, no matter by what means it came into power. to develop strength, then beauty of body, then beauty of

A nation has exclusive jurisdiction over all its territory, mind by the study of poetry. The Romans begun where including the rivers and lakes lying wholly within it, and the Greeks did; paused a briefer time in the physical sphere, the adjoining sea to the extent of a marine league from the and more generally cultivated their youth by eloquence and shore.

poetry. A decade of centuries later men were seeking physiThe open sea is the common property of all nations. Each cal mastery again by means of horses, lances and an imnation has exclusive jurisdiction over its vessels on the high penetrable fort of steel built around each individual. Half

it decade of centuries later and the nations are at Euclid, When a river separates two countries, the dividing line Homer, Virgil, Horace and the orators again. Are we to runs along the center of the channel. Both nations have the make the same round with the same dismal end as a finality! right to navigate its waters.

All the civilizations have begun by development of physiForeigners resident in a country are subject to its laws. cal strength, have continued through elegance, and ended in They can claim protection and justice, though they are effeminacy trodden down and supplanted by some barbaric not entitled to all the privileges of citizens. If oppressed, strength. the country to which they owe allegiance may demand and We have been going on the same road. The influence of secure redress.

our schools has been against labor that God saw was the A state of war renders all trading between the citizens of best training for the race; their natural product has been the nations at war unlawful.

clerks, drummers, bookkeepers and office-seekers. If a boy In case of an invasion, private persons making no resis-trained in the public schools should desire to become a tance are not to be molested, and private property is not to workman with his hands, or a girl show an anxiety to unbe confiscated. This recognized principle of international derstand the chemistry that changes crude material into law has been often violated.

best human food, or what to do if her brother should burn An enemy's property at sea is liable to capture and con his hand, or her mother faller for a day from her place fiscation. It may be captured by national ships of war, or at the head of the household, they would be regarded as by private vessels commissioned by the government. These

anomalies over which the schools bad no power. are called privateers. When a privateer has made a cap It is one of the most hopeful signs of our times that we ture, it must be condemned, that is, declared to be a lawful are trying with fair success to shun the mistakes of the capture before it becomes the property of the captor. Pri- buried nations, and to acquire physical training without vateering, though authorized by international law, is liable being sent back to the primary school of barbarism. Barto great abuse.

barism is not training of physical powers, but only coming Neutral nations may carry on their ordinary commerce into a condition of strength which may be trained. The unmolested, with the exception that they must not deal in training at present has two objects in view; first for the exarti les contraband of war. All warlike stores and articles ercises of handicraft, and second for mere development. It directly auxiliary to warlike purposes are contraband. recognized that man is a two-fold being, with parts so deli

Neutrals must not trade with blockaded ports. An at-cately related that both must co-operate for highest results. tempt to do so subjects the vessel and cargo to confiscation.

Hence there can not be the best mental success without exA port is blockaded when an adequate force is stationed

cellent physical ability. near it. Neutral vessels in port when the blockade is de This kind of training in Europe has almost exclusively clared, are allowed to depart with goods previously pur- had reference to the first of these ends, viz: The learning of chased.

trades. It is a little singular that far-off Russia should have Ambassadors are not subject to the jurisdiction of the

led the world in the matter of trade schools. The results of country to which they are sent. This immunity is nec their education has astonished the nations at international essary to their complete independence. If an ambassador expositions. These schools now pervade civilization. Belabuses his privileges the government may demand his re gium has schools for weaving; France for silks and laces; call, or may require him to leave the country.

Switzerland, for watches and toys; Bohemia, for glassSome specimens of the provisions made for the regulation making, and Austria, twenty-eight for weaving, three for of national intercourse have thus been given. As nations | lace making, and over forty others for various industries; make progress in civilization and moral culture, the rules of course, the pupils are taught related branches-drawing, of national intercourse will be more accurately conformed geometry, physics, singing, etc. to the dictates of justice.*

In America, also, the efforts to develop men more symmet(End of Required Reading for March.)

rically by manual education have taken the two-fold direc

tion alluded to. But the education for trades has been nearly * See Science of Government, p. 220.

confined to reform schools and houses of refuge, while other

schools seek instruction rather than construction; seek deINFLUENCE.

velopment of mind by means of the hand. Any student of

the universe as a means of development, as the primary But ah! earth will not be the same As thu' our paths had never lain

school for the larger and eternal life that is to follow, must Within its narrow bounds!

be impressed that that development must come from a close For earth still feels the power of those

examination of things. Every tree, flower, bit of rock, soil, Now silent in their sweet repose,

breath of air or gleam of light is an unsolved mystery. The Beneath the daisied mounds.

fact that the whole race has been set to labor is significant. And it remains for us to say,

It means that men should be brought into actual contact If good, or evil, shall have sway

with things, and that there are lessons enough in these daily When we shall be no more.

contacts of the humblest laborer to last him for this lifo For whatsoever wave is set To moving, in Life's ocean, yet

time. Will surely reach the shore.

The close observer finds more surprises at the greatness of

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