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DUTCH EXPEDITIONS IN THE ICE.

through the ice fields of the Arctic Ocean. And the subse the polar night. But the sorrowful issue of all her enquent renewal of polar exploration, therefore, proves that deavors to find a northeastern coinmercial route to China the controlling motive was not that of commercial expe and Japan deterred Holland from further attempts. The diency.

necessity for such a route also soon passed away; for as BAFFIN'S DISCOVERY OF THE “NORTH WATER."

Nordenskiöld in his new book observes, “Houtman re

turned with the first Dutch fleet from the East Indies the Passing over the semi-commercial voyages made, under the auspices of the Muscovy Company, by Captain Poole in

same year that Barentz's companions returned from their 1611, and by Captain Joseph in 1613, we reach the remarka- wintering,” and on April 25, 1607, the Dutch fleet defeated ble voyages of Fotherby along the western coast of Spitz

the Spanish at Gibralter, thus securing unmolested navigabergen in 1613. But these were followed up in 1616 by the

tion of the ocean highways to the East. memorable Arctic expedition in which the old navigator,

ARCTIC MUNCHAUSENS. William Baffin, figures so conspicuously. This last was the

From 1612 to 1676 numerous minor expeditions from Westmost successful Arctic voyage of the seventeenth century.

ern Europe were sent to the northeast, but with no results "The Discovery, a bark of thirty-five tons, under Sir Thomas Smith, Sir Dudley Digges, John Wolstenholme and others, under De La Martinière--"the Münchausen of the northeast

of a very tangible nature. The Danish expedition of 1653 was fitted out, and placed under the master, Robert Bylot, voyages," as he has been well called-probably got so far as with Baffin as pilot. Leaving Gravesend in March, the

the north coast of Norway, and that of Wood and Flawes, Discovery by July 1 reached the “North Water” of Baffin's Bay, eventually circumnavigating that vast ex

sent out from England by Charles II, in 1676, was absolutely

without result. Nothing surely could have been expected panse of water to which Baffin's name is given, and attain

from this last undertaking, prompted by and planned in acing the then high latitude of 78 degrees north at the en

cordance with three famous publications in England, trance of Smith sound. "It was exactly 200 years,'' Markham observes, “before any other vessel pursuing the Dis: gravely representing, on authority of alleged voyages, that

the Kara Sea is a fresh water inland lake, that at some dis.covery's track reached the 'North Water.'” The tardiness

tance from the Arctic shores "it never freezes, even at the of explorers to follow Baffin was probably owing to his rep

Pole, except occasionally,” and that the pilot of a Greenresentations that Smith's, Jones' and Lancaster sounds

land ship reported he “had sailed two degrees beyond the were enclosed gulfs, precluding any extensive advance to

Pole," and "found no land or islands about the Pole," and the northwestward.

when asked what weather his ship had at the Pole, replied,

"fine warm weather, such as was at Amsterdam in the Before the close of the sixteenth century Holland en summer time, and as hot!" tered the frozen fields of the north in earnest emulation of

RUSSIAN NORTHEAST VOYAGES. England. At the instigation of the renowned cosmographer, Peter Plaucius—the original exponent of the "open

Near the close of the seventeenth century (1690) a Russian polar sea" theory—the merchants of Amsterdam in 1594

seaman named Rodi van Ivanov, with two vessels, penefitted up a small vessel, the Mercurius, of 100 tons, and

trated the Kara Sea, among the lofty ice fields of which he despatched her under command of William Barentz.

suffered shipwreck and wintered there, with the loss, by Barentz left the Texel on June 14, and on July 4 sighted

scurvy, of eleven out of his crew of fifteen. Not until 1757 did Nova Zembla, rounding Cape Nassau and reaching the

any well authenticated Russian expedition follow Ivanov's, edge of the ice, and subsequently on August 11, in latitude

when Juschkov, the mate of a hunting vessel, visited Nova -70 degrees 45 minutes, "found upon a headland a cross

Zembla in quest of precious metals, which he never brought

home. erected, and in the neighborhood of it three wooden build

Three years after Savva Loschkin, according to ings, the hull of a Russian vessel and several sacks of

Baron Nordenskiöld reached Nova Zembla on a hunting exmeal.” But this was a poor beginning toward finding a

pedition, and proved for the first time by journeying around route to "the land of silks and perfumes," so ardently de

it that it was an island. sired by the Dutch merchants, under whose auspiees he

ROSSMUISLOV. was operating. In a second voyage Barentz got as far as In 1768-9, Lieutenant Rossmuislov in a leaky ship-a verithe entrance of the Kara Sea—"North Tartaric Ocean," as

table "floating coffin'--reached and wintered in the vicinity the Dutch seafarers called it, and returned home in the vain

of the Kara Sea. Says the author of "Voyage of the Vega": confidence that the long agitated problem of “a route

“Rossmuislov appears to have been a very skilful man in through the ice" to China was completely solved. Dis

his profession. Without meeting with any obstacle from pelled though this dream quickly was, the brave Barentzice, but at all events with difficulty enough in consequence in 1596 made a third and most important voyage, in whieh of the unsuitableness of the vessel, he arrived at Matotschkin he discovered Spitzbergen and examined its whole western

Sound, which he carefully surveyed and took soundings in. and part of its northern coast. He was the first European

From a high mountain at its eastern mouth he saw, on the to winter in the Arctic area, where he was detained by his

10th of September, Kara Sea completely free of ice, and the vessel having been hemmed in, and where the next year, way to the Yenisei thus open; but his vessel was useless for just after leaving his winter hut to return home, he ex further sailing. He therefore determined to winter at a bay pired.

named Tjulanaja Guba, near the eastern entrance to MatotRELICS OF BARENTZ.

schkin Sound.

The crew remained during the This hut was discovered by the Norwegian Captain Carl winter whole days, indeed whole weeks in succession, in -sen in 1869, its interior containing all the old explorer had their confined dwellings, carefully made tight, without takleft in it. "There stood,” says Markham, “the cooking- ing any regular exercise in the open air. We can easily unpans over the fireplace, the old clock against the wall, the derstand from this that they could not escape scurvy, by arms, the tools, the drinking-vessels, the instruments, and which most of them appear to have been attacked, and of the books that had beguiled the weary hours of that long which seven died, among them Tschirakin. It is surprisnight 273 years ago.” Sixteen men had left Holland with ing that any one of them could survive with such a mode of Barentz, of whom twelve only returned. They brought life during the dark polar night. The brewing of quass, the home the first information as to the physical conditions of daily baking of bread, and perhaps even the vapor baths, the high northern regions during the oppressive reign of mainly contributed to this."

LUDLOW, LUTKE, PACHTUSsov.

within 511 miles of the Pole, then the extremest northerm Fifty years elapsed before Rossmuislov's track was fol point ever reached. But in 1819 Parry began his memoralowed (in 1807) by the miner Ludlow, sent out to investigate ble voyages in the Hecla and Griper, spending two winters. the mineral riches of Nova Zembla, who returned with the on the coast of Melville Peninsula, and four years later first accounts of its geological formation, but with no pre

Clavering penetrated the massive ice of the East Greenland cious ore. But in the summers of 1821, 182, 1823, and 1824 Sea to enable General Sabine to take pendulum observaCaptain (afterward Admiral Count) Lütke made important

tions on its upper coast. On his return from his third scientific surveys and investigations in this island, which Arctic voyage, in 1827, the indomitable Parry 'made his: guards the western entrance to the famed Northeast Passage. celebrated attempt to reach the Pole from Spitzbergen, in He was followed in 1832 by Pachtussov, of whom Nordensk

boats fitted on runners. But the ice fields on which he iöld says: "Pachtussov could not penetrate into the Kara Sea, traveled north drifted southward faster than his party but wintered the first time on South Nova Zembla, in 70

could advance. Nevertheless he attained the extraordinary degrees 36 minutes north latitude and 59 degrees 32 min latitude of 82 degrees 45 minutes! This was the highest utes east longitude (Greenwich), in an old house which he point reached by man until, in 1875, the Nares expedition found there, and which, according to an inscription on a

exceeded it, reaching, by sledge journeying over the “Sea cross in its neighborhood, had been built in 1759. This of Ancient Ice," which, it seems, hermetically closes the ruinous house was repaired with drift-wood, which was northern outlet of Smith Sound, to: 83 degrees 20 minutes. found in great abundance in that region. A separate bath 26 seconds. Not without some show of reason does Harthouse was built, and was connected with the dwelling

wig say: "He who laments over the degeneracy of the huhouse by a passage formed of empty barrels and covered man race may perhaps come to a different opinion when with canvas. Eleven days were spent in putting the old

reading of Parry and his companions." house in such repair that it could be occupied. It was af

DISCOVERY OF THE MAGNETIC POLE. terward kept so warm that the inmates could stay there in

It was only four years after Parry's wonderful journey on their shirt sleeves without freezing. The commander,

an ice floe that his young countryman, James Ross, attendclear-headed and specially fitted for his post as he was, did

ing his uncle, Sir John Ross, on his second Arctic cruise (in not permit his crew to fall into habits of idleness, dirt and

the Victory), made the important discovery of the North laziness, but kept them to regular work, bathing and

Magnetic Pole and planted the British flag on its site in change of linen twice a week. Every second hour meteoro

Boothia, latitude 78 degrees north, longitude 97 degrees west logical observations were taken. During the whole winter

-a discovery of the greatest interest to the science of terresthe crew remained in good health, but in spring (March)

trial magnetism and the cause of navigation in every quarscurvy broke out, notwithstanding the precautions that

ter of the ocean. were taken, and two men died of it in May."

The journeys of the English explorers-Mackenzie, Sir No very fruitful and important Russian expedition to

John Richardson, Franklin, Simpson, Dease, Back, and Nova Zembla is to be noted after this till Paul von Krusen

Rae-over the dreary regions of Arctic America and along tern's in 1862, which, though it met with disaster, gave the

the shores of the American polar seas, carried out mostly world the first complete sketch of a passage from west to

between 1832 and 1846, fill many chapters replete with east over the Kara Sea, so long mare incognitum. The meteorological, geographical and ethnographical discoveries Norwegians who first visited the Nova Zembla seas were

in the annais of northern research. Although these overElling Carlsen in 1868, Edward Johannseen in 1869, Mack

land journeys were not prosecuted to very high latitudes, in 1871, Tobiesen in 1872, all of whom made valuable con

their scientific results were such as to demonstrate that the tributions to our knowledge of these seas, which have been

value of Arctic explorations is by no means determined by recorded by Petermann and other writers, and which made

the latitude in which they are conducted, and that often the the way clearer for the Swedish expedition in 1878, when it largest benefits of such investigations can be secured withsuccessfully solved the problem of a Northeast Passage.

out going beyond the seventy-fifth parallel. THE POLE FIRST SCIENTIFICALLY ATTEMPTED.

SIR JOHN FRANKLIN. Returning to England's geographical work, we find that Following on the heels of these continental journeys was the first scientific polar expedition was sent out at the sug the last expedition of Sir John Franklin, the most memorgestion of the Royal Society in 1773, under Captain Phipps able of all voyages to the polar ocean. Franklin's ships, the and Lutwidge (in the two ships Racehorse and Carcass), Erebus and Terror, of Antarctie fame, sailed from England who reached Spitzbergen June 28 and attained the latitude May 26, 1845, to make a new and grand attempt to trace the of 80 degrees 48 minutes north--only twenty-five miles fur Northwest Passage from the Atlantic, round North America, ther north than Hudson got in his “cockboat” 166 years through Behring Strait, into the Pacifie Ocean.

Franklin, previously. In 1778 the famous Captain Cook, on his third then in his sixtieth year, commanded the Erebus, and Capvoyage with the Resolution and Discovery, passed up the tain Crozier the Terror. For two years the expedition was northwest coast of North America, determined the west not heard from; but, incited by the devoted wife of the comernmost coast of this continent, surveyed Behring Strait, mander, several ships were sent in search of it. The great and on August 17 was arrested by the ice in 70 degrees 41 search was pushed energetically up to 1850, when the Invesminutes, near Icy Cape. But little was done after this by tigator, under Captain McClure, galantly forced her way the English until 1818, when Sir John Barrow, discarding through the Behring Strait channel and up Prince of Wales the idea of finding polar commercial routes, proposed Strait within sight of Melville Sound. As Sir John RichArctic explorations avowedly designed for the aequisition ardson said, “Captain McClure, by this perilous voyage, of useful knowledge and obtaining scientific data within found a strait connecting the continental channel with Melthe north polar circle. At his instance two expeditions ville Sound, and thus discovered the Northwest Passage."" were started-one under Sir John Ross, which circumnavi But no trace of Franklin was found, and not until 1854, when gated Baffin's Bay; the other under Buchan pierced the Dr. Rae was informed by the Esquimaux that a party of hig pack north of Spitzbergen. As respects reaching high lati-countrymen had perished by starvation about 1850 on King tudes within the glacial zone these voyages fell short of William's Land, was any clear clew to their fate obtained. Captain Scoresby's of 1806, when the last named and illus- The following year Mr. Anderson, of the Hudson Bay Comtrious navigator penetrated to 81 degrees, 30 minutes north, pany, crossed overland to the mouth of the Great Fish River,

and in 1857 Captain (afterward Sir) Leopold McClintock the public memory to require extended notice in this paper. started in the Fox to examine the whole scene of Franklin's Suffice it to say that Lieutenant Schwatka accomplished, in disaster. The facts brought to light show that in the summer the opinion of veteran Arctic explorers, one of the most exof 1845 Sir John reached his highest latitude-77 degrees traordinary journeys, with small resources and amid very north-in Wellington Channel (the same parallel at which great difficulties in the wilds of the frozen area, on record. the Jeannette, in the polar ocean north of the New Siberian As the London Times said, “ Lieutenant Schwatka has now Islands, was moving last June when she was crushed in the resolved the last doubts which could have been felt; he has ice). In 1846 Franklin's ships were finally beset near King gathered the relies by which friends and relatives may William's Land in 70 degrees 5 minutes north, and 98 de identify their dead, and he has carried home with him the grees 33 minutes west, where, on June 11, 1817, the great material evidence to complete the annals of Arctic explorexplorer died. Though the crews of both his ships perished ation.'' to the last man, Franklin had actually discovered the North

"NORTHEAST PASSAGE” EXPEDITION. west Passage, and, as an able geographer, J. Francon Williams, and others have shown, “ ninety niles more of open

The full accounts of the American Arctic expedition in water would have enabled Franklin to carry his ships into

the Jeannette not having been yet received, it would be the open Arctic Sea."

premature in this resume of the leading expeditions of Arctic In the great search for Franklin a host of explorers joined, history to attempt a description of its movements or to

estimate the value of the results which it has achieved in a prominent among whom were MacClure in the Investigator (1850-1854), Collinson in the Enterprise (1850-1855), Austin

part of the Polar Ocean never before traversed. in the Resolute (1850-1851), Om many in the Assistance

The Jeannette expedition, which we know bent its course (1850-1851), Penny in the Lady Franklin (1850-1851), For

northwest from Behring Strait, falls into that long category syth in the Prince Albert (1850), Lieutenant De Haven,

of northern enterprises which are ranked by geographers as of the United States Navy, in the Advance (1850-1851), having been conducted in the Eastern or Asiatic Polar Sea, S. P. Griffin, United States Navy, in the Rescue, titted

and hence as the “Northeast Passage” expeditions. Some out at the expense of Mr. Henry Grimell, of this city

of these have been already noted above, but in tracing the (1850-1851); besides Sherard Osborn in the Pioneer, McClin history of the “Northwest Passage” expeditions we have tock in the Intrepid, Pullen in the North Star, Inglefield

for the moment lost sight of others. With the failure of the in the Isabel, and Kellett in the Resolute, during the years

British expedition under Sir George Nares in 1875 to find 1852-1854.

the Smith's Sound route to the Pole open, and their discov.

ery that to the immediate north of the eighty-second parAMERICAN EXPEDITION-KANE AND HAYES.

allel this long-reputed polar gateway is blocked and barriTo the American expeditions just noted, under Penny and caded by the “ Palæocrystic Sea" of ancient ice, answering Griffin, must be added that of Dr. Kane in the Advance in solid reality to (1853), which is known as the American-Grinnell Expedi

Those wastes of frozen billows that were hurled tion. Though it failed in its chief object of finding Frank

By everlasting snow storms round the Pole, lin's relics, its results are thus well summed up by Guernsey:

- the last reasonable hope of finding a way to the coveted "1. The survey and delineation of the north coast of Green

goal of northern voyagers in that direction died. Sir land to its apparent termination by the great glacier.

George's brief telegraphic summary was: "Pole impractica"2. The survey of this glacier (“Humboldt" glacier) and

ble," "No land to northward," and some of the ablest physiits extension northward.

cists, as Professor Houghton, have recently expressed their “3. The discovery and delineation of a large tract of land

conviction that the "Northwest Passage' will never be forming the northward extension of the American con

made, as it never has been, by ship. Otherwise, since the tinent.

Vega's voyage, we know it is as respects the "Northeast “4. The discovery of a large channel to the northwest, free

Passage," and hence at this time public attention and inof ice and apparently leading to an open sea.

terest is most centred on voyages tending to throw light on “5. The completed survey of the coast as lar south and west

the latter route. as Cape Sabine in Smitli's strait, connecting with the previous surveys of Captain Inglefield and completing the circuit of the straits and bays opening from Davis Strait Besides the northeastern expeditions we have named, anlleading into the Polar Sea."

there are others which essayed to reach and survey the The late Dr. Hayes in 1860 carried forward Kane's bril Asiatic or Siberian Polar Sea both from the Atlantic and liant work in the ship United States up Smith's Sound, al Pacific sides. taining by boat and sledge expedition the remarkable latitude of 81 degrees 35 minutes, within seventy miles of

When the details of the Jeannette's perilous voyage north Parry's "furthest north." and, with this exception, bearer

of the Northeast Passage” are in hand, geographers will the Pole than any previous Arctic traveler had gone.

then be in a better position than ever before to determine

how far the Northeast Passaye?' is likely to become in any After two minor journeys to Arctic lands the American large degree open to navigation, as well as to guage more explorer, Charles Francis Hall, -ailed from New York in acrurately the gigantic ice forces which tend to close its the ill-fated Polaris June :9, 1871. Entering Smith's Sound,

gates to the navigator. Happily, though apparently withHall pushed across Kane Sea and Kennedy Channel up to

out concert, the expeditions of Nordenskiöld and De Long the high latitude of 82 degrees 104 minutes, on August 30 of

dovetail into and supplement each other. Though the Jeanthe same year, thus making higher northing by ship than

nette returns not from the far off polar bourne to which, had ever before been mile within the frigid zone.

amid storm and darkness and the crash of colossal glacial

masses, she advanced, it can not but be that the discoveries SCHWATKA'S SFARCII.

made by herg:ulant crew will not only fecundate science genTh: details of the schwatka expedition made in 1878-80, erally, but will also afford the most complete solution ever with the desi n of clearing up more fully the mystery of yet made of the grand geographic problem which from Frankiin's fite, of finding his records and of conducting Cabot's day to the present has agitated northeastern extographical research in Arctic America, are too fresh in plorers.- New York Herald.

EXPEDITIONS NORTH OF ASIA.

THE JEANNETTE.

IIALL.

QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS. 22. Q. Two years later what befell France and Napoleon ?

A. France was invaded by the allied forces of Europe, and ONE HUNDRED QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS ON Napoleon was forced to abdicate the throne and retire to the BOOKS FIRST AND SECOND OF MACKENZIE'S

Island of Elba. NINETEENTH CENTURY.

23. Q. In less than a year what course did Napoleon take?

A. He returned to France, overturned the Bourbon govern1. Q. At the opening of the century how was all Europe ment, and again assumed the position of Emperor. occupied ? A. With war.

24. Q. What historic battle in 1815, between the English 2. Q. How long had this condition existed, and how much and the French, resulted in the final overthrow of the power longer was it to last? A. It had already lasted ten years, of Napoleon ? A. The battle of Waterloo. and was yet to last fifteen years more.

25. Q. To what place was Napoleon banished where he 3. Q. Where did these wars originate? A. With France. spent the remainder of his life? A. St. Helena, an island

4. Q. What is said of the power of the king of France at in the South Atlantic. this time? A. He held in his hands the unquestioned right to dispose, at his will, of the lives and property of the people. 26. Q. When the French revolution began how many

5. Q. Who was king in France during sixty years of the sovereign powers were there on the continent of Europe? A. eighteenth century, and how is he characterized ? A. Louis Between three and four hundred. XV, one of the meanest and basest of human creatures. 27. Q. What three countries were composed of large num

6. Q. Who stood next to the throne of France, and what bers of these small powers? A. Italy consisted of a muitipositions were held by them? A. The noble families, num tude of petty states; Germany was composed of nearly three bering one hundred and fifty thousand persons. All po hundred independent powers; Switzerland was a federation sitions of dignity were held by members of these families. of twenty-two little republics.

7. Q. Who were beyond the nobles ? A. The French peo 28. Q. What effect bad the revolution on these petty ple, who could never cease to be despised.

powers? A. Many of the Italian states were combined; the 8. Q. What are some of the causes that led to the revo number of German governments was reduced from three lution of 1789 in France ? A. The exactions of the great hundred down to thirty, and numerous small powers were lords, the enlightenment of the people by literary influences, united with others. the American independence, and the disorder of the national 29. Q. What powers were supreme in the Congress of finances.

Vienna ? A. The sovereigns of Russia, Austria and Prussia, 9. Q. What was the first important enterprise of the and the representatives of Great Britain. insurgents at the commencement of the revolution ? A. 30. Q. What was the avowed object of this Congress? A. The capture and destruction of the Bastile.

To restore to Europe as nearly as possible the political ar10. Q. What is the period following the execution of Louis rangements which existed before the war. XVI by the insurgents called? A. The “reign of terror," 31. Q. What does the light which falls upon the condition during which it is estimated a million of persons were mur of the British people during the earlier years of the century dered by the French people.

serve mainly to show ? A. Sights of woe. 11. Q. Where and when was Napoleon Bonaparte born? 32. Q. To what classes did the war bring much prosperity ? A. On the island of Corsica, in the year 1768.

A. To those who had to do with land, and to the mercantile 12. Q. What is said of Napoleon at twenty-nine years of

classes. age? A. He had completed the conquest of Italy, and re 33. Q. What corn law was passed in 1815 that for thirty turned to Paris with the first military reputation in Europe. years was a blight and a curse to the British people? A.

13. Q. State three of the results following Napoleon's at No foreign grain was to be imported until wheat in the tempted Oriental conquests. A. His subjugation of Egypt, home markets had been for six months at over eighty shilthe destruction of the French fleet by the English under lings per quarter. Nelson, and Napoleon's failure to capture Acre by siege. 34. Q. What was the law in reference to the importation

14. Q. Upon his return to France what position did Na of cattle? A. Cattle, living or dead, were admitted on no poleon assume? A. Under the title of First Consul he be terms. came the supreme ruler of France.

35. Q. What is said of taxation? A. It was monstrous, 15. Q. At the conclusion of the Peace of Amiens, in 1801, and was so imposed as to produce the maximum of evil. what is said of Napoleon ? A. For the first and last time in 36. Q. What was the character of the criminal laws? A. his public life he found himself without any war upon his They were savage, and were administered in a spirit approhands.

priately relentless. 16. Q. In the European war that soon followed, what 37. Q. How many capital offences did the law recognize? celebrated naval contlict with the allied fleets of France A. Two hundred and twenty-three. placed the naval supremacy of Great Britain beyond chal 38. Q. How was military and naval discipline mainlenge? A. The battle of Trafalgar.

tained ? A. By a savage use of the Jash. 17. Q. What two great powers did Napoleon overthrow in 39. Q. What is said of slavery? A. It still existed throughquick succession ? A. Austria and Prussia.

out the world to an enormous extent. Though prohibited 18. Q. In what noted battle did Napoleon gain a signal in England, it prevailed in her colonies. victory over the Prussian army? A. The battle of Auster 40. Q. What were some of the employments of women litz.

and children: A. Women and children did the work of 19. Q. With what did Napoleon endeavor to surround brutes in coal pits. Boys and girls of five and six were emhimself? A. With tributary thrones occupied by his own ployed to sweep chimneys. relations.

41. Q. What is said of the manufacturing skill, which 20. Q. By what English cominander were the French has since made Great Britain so famous, in the early years finally driven from the peninsula of Spain and Portugal? of the century? 1. It was still in iis infancy. A. Lord Wellington.

42. Q. Down to 1807 what was the character of the appli21. Q In 1812 what campaign did Napoleon undertake aners by which the manufacture of wool was conducted? that resulted in overwhelming disaster? A. The Russian A. The appliances were searcely superior to tho.-e which campaign to Moscow.

had been introduced by the Romans.

On sea,

A.

The people of England had little influence, and no authority 6

43. Q. How was traveling accomplished? A. On land, balance is contributed by the wealthier class in the form of by mail coaches at seven or eight miles an hour.

income tax, stamp duties, and otherwise. in little trading ships whose movements were grotesquely 60. Q. What are four important problems that the British uncertain. Poor people ordinarily journeyed on foot. people have yet failed to solve? A. The land question, the

44. Q. What is said of the manners of the times? A. A liquor question, the labor Question, and extravagant general coarseness of manners prevailed. Profane swear cost of government. ing was the constant practice of gentlemen, and ladies 61. Q. In what way have large improvements been made swore orally and in their letters.

in the condition of the English people during the present 45. Q. What was the educational condition of the Eng. century? A. In the sanitary condition, and the duration of

human life. was found that more than one-half of the children were 62. Q. What classes have been largely relieved from growing up without education.

ancient disabilities of an irritating and insulting description ? 46. Q. What method of settling disputes was familiarly | A. Dissenters from the Established Church of England, and practiced during the earlier years of the century? Jews. Dueling.

63. Q. What reform bill was passed' in 1837 ? A. One 47. Q. What produced undue mortality in the cities? A. greatly extending the electoral franchise. The filth of the streets and of the dwellings of the poor. 64. Q. What important measure was enacted into a law

48. Q. In the forty years from 1780 to 1820 how much did in 1870? A. A bill providing for national education, and the average duration of human life lengthen? A. From giving powers to enforce compulsory attendance of children one death in every forty of the population to only one in at school. every fifty-seven.

65. Q. In 1869, what law was passed in reference to the 49. Q. What is said of the political power of the people of Irish Church ? A. An enactment for the disendowment and England and Scotland at the opening of the century? A. disestablishment of the Irish Church.

66. Q. After the passage of the reform bill of 1832, in what over their government. The people of Scotland were ut document did the extreme members of the liberal party emterly excluded from any part in the representation.

body their demands ? A. In a document which they termed 50. Q. After many years of agitation, what great reform

the “People's Charter.” measure in the representative system was passed in 1832? 67. Q. What six points did this document embrace? A. A. The reform bill, inaugurating government of the people, Universal suffrage; annual parliaments; vote by ballot; aboby the people, and for the people.

lition of property qualifications for a seat in the House of

Commons; payment of members; equal electoral districts. 51. Q. Within a few years previous to the passage of the 68. Q. How did the more numerous section of the Chartist reform bill what three measures had been passed in redress party seek to attain their ends? A. By violence; but with of existing wrongs ? A. In 1824 combination of workingmen the return of prosperity the agitation for the "People's Charwas legalized; in 1828 the test act, which excluded Roman ter” soon passed into forgetfulness. Catholics from Parliament or any office of the crown, was 69. Q. What is said of Chartism now?' A. Much of it is repealed; in 1829 a bill was passed removing Catholic disa embodied in British law. bilities.

70. Q. For how many years during the eighteenth century 52. Q. In 1833, the year following the passage of the reform was England engaged in war? A. For more thar. fifty bill, what two measures were passed in redress of wrongs? years. A. The abolition of slavery in the West Indian possessions, 71. Q. Since the battle of Waterloo what is the most imand the prohibition of the employment of children under portant war in which England has been engaged? A. The nine in factories, followed later by a reduction of the hours war of the Crimea, with Russia. of labor to ten a day for all females, and males under eigh 72. Q. Name six of the countries with which England has teen.

been engaged in petty wars during the past sixty years. A. 53. Q. Within a few years following the reform bill men Turkey, India, China, Persia, New Zealand, and Abyssinia. tion three subjects that received the attention of parliamen 73. Q. How have England and America given to the world tary enactments in the way of reform. A. The education the first great example of the peaceful settlement of differof the people, the privilege of self-government in local af ences ? A. By reference to the judgment of impartial perfairs, and the evils of pauperism.

sons of the matter of the Alabama claims. 54. Q. What heavy tax on the spread of intelligence was 74. Q. What is said relative to differences between Englargely removed in 1836? A. The tax of four pence on each land and other countries ? A. It is scarcely possible that a copy of the newspaper.

difference could arise between England and America, Eng55. Q. What measure was adopted in 1839, the example of land and Germany, or England and France, in regard to which has been gradually followed hy every civilized state? which a peaceful solution is not attainable. A. The penny postage law.

75, Q. How does England expend a net revenue of seventy56. Q. In 1843 what measure was passed in reference to one millions sterling? A. Twenty-eight millions in interest the employment of women and children in mines? A. on debt incurred by the wars of the past, twenty-seven milHenceforth women were forbidden to work in mines, and lions on her preparation for the wars of the future, and sixchildren were not suffered to be employed until they were teen millions for her civil charges. ten years of age, and then with limitation of the hours of work.

76. Q. What proportion of the goods imported from all 57. Q. The two hundred and twenty-three capital offences the foreign countries of the world goes to England? A, at the opening of the century were reduced by 1837 to what Nearly one-half. number? A. Seven.

77. Q. How do the exports from England compare with 58. Q. What law was totally repealed in 1816, leading the those of all the rest of the world? A. They are equal to oneway to British free trade? A. The corn law.

third of all of the rest of the world. 59. Q. How is the net expenditure of the British nation 78. Q. How many of the seventy millions of spindles emof seventy-five millions raised ? A. Forty millions is levied ployed in the production of cotton fabrics belong to the peoon intoxicating drinks and tobacco; tive millions on tea; the ple of the British Islands? A. Forty millions.

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