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afternoon "picnics,' evening "excursions on the lake,” the 4. The Greek and Latin Department, under the direction German "camp-fire," where German songs are sung, Ger of Prof. Henry Lummis, of Watertown, Mass., will present, man stories told, and German speeches made. The educa in addition to a sharp analysis of every lesson, a discussion tional museum will be open, with maps, books, charts, pho- of metłods and principles, and an exhibition of the value of tographs, engravings of educational institutions, and the the knowledge of Greek and Latin in reference to our own toy-language department. Here, too, in the archæological tongue, a close comparison of idioms, a presentation of the department, one may find the Assyrian Winged Bull and laws of pronunciation and syllable making. In Latin, the the Winged Lion, the Rosetta Stone, Codex Alexandrinus, advanced class will study Horace or Virgil, and give attenphotographs recently taken by the Palestine Exploration tion to prosody. The intermediate class will study Cæsar Fund, rare books, relics, casts, etc., etc. Vespers, philological or Sallust. The beginners' class, the reader. In Greek the conferences, soirées, conversazioni, lectures in French and advanced class will study Homer and Greek prosody; the German, Sabbath-school sessions, Assembly services, ser intermediate class will study the Anabasis; and the beginmons, praise meetings, even-songs, find their place in the ners' class will use White's Reader. rich and rare and varied programmes of the School of Lan 5. The German Department, under the direction of the guages and the Teachers' Retreat.
distinguished author and teacher, Prof. J. H. Worman, A.
"M., of the Adelphi Academy, Brooklyn, N. Y., will give The payment of $12 will secure instruction in two lan instruction in Prof. Worman's own method, and in his own guages at Chautauqua for six weeks; $15 in more than two inimitable way, in primary, intermediate, and advanced languages for the same time. The ticket of the School of German. He will use his own text-books—"The ChautauLanguages entitles its holder to all the General Exercises qua German Series," after the Pestalozzian method. Teachof the Assembly.
ers of German are warnestly requested to come prepared to: Six dollars will admit to the General Exercises of the enter at least two classes, in order to obtain a better insight Teachers' Retreat for three weeks, admission to two sessions into the workings of.the metlod used at Chautauqua. A of each of the several classes in the School of Languages, normal class in German will be organized the third week, and all the General Exercises of the Assembly to August 21. and will be in session twice a week or oftener, as the case
The price of tickets to the Public Meetings, beginning may require. This class will train teachers for their work. Saturday, July 8, is as follows:
Applicants for admission to the “Normal Class should Single day, 25 cents. July 29 and after that, 40 cents a day. send their names to Prof. J. H. Worman, 401 Washington VI.-THE CHAUTAUQUA ORGANIZATION.
avenue, Brooklyn, N. Y., by or before June 1, 1882. Lec. The Chautauqua Meetings are under the direction of a tures in German, critical readings of standard authors, conBoard: Lewis Miller, Esq., of Akron, Ohio, President; and versations, juvenile class teaching, with objects provided as Dr. J. H. Vincent, of New York, Superintendent of Instruc- illustrations, etc., will render the various German classes tion. There are under the direction of this Board six De invaluable to all students and teachers. partments:
The peculiar features of Prof. Worman's new method are: 1. Chautauqua School of Languages.
(1) The language is taught without the help of English. 2. Chautauqua Teachers' Retreat.
(2) It appeals to pictorial illustrations for the names of 3. Chautauqua Foreign Missionary Institute.
objects. 4. Chautauqua Sunday-school Assembly.
(3) The learner speaks from the first lesson understand5. Chautauqua Literary and Scientific Circle.
ingly. 6. Chautauqua Young Folks' Reading Union.
(1) Grammar is taught to prevent mistakes in composition. Of all these Lewis Miller, Esq., is President, and Dr. J. (5) The laws of the language are taught analytically to: H. Vincent is Superintendent of Instruction.
make them the learner's own inferences (deductions). VII.--GENERAL INFORMATION.
(6) Rapidity of progress is insured by dependence upon 1. Board can be obtained at Chautauqua at reasonable associations and contrasts. rates, at the Hotel and at cottages on the ground. Tents or (7) Strictly graded lessons and conversations on familiar rooms in cottages may be rented. Day-boarding may be and interesting topics, providing a stock of words and ideas secured at all prices. Good substantial table board can be had needed in the conversation of every-day life. in many cottages at $5 a week. For boarding arrangements, 6. Prof. A. Lalande, of Kentucky, who has for several correspond with A. K. Warren, Esq., Chautauqua, N. Y. years been engaged in teaching French at Chautauqua, will
2. Certificates of attendance and attainment will be given give instruction in French to primary, intermediate, and to members of the Sehool of Languages and of the Teach advanced pupils. Prof. Lalande has established an enviable ers' Retreat who remain during the entire term
reputation at Chautauqua. Ferdinand Böcher, Professor in 3. The following is a tentative programme for each day of Modern Languages in Harvard College, says: “Professor the School of Languages:
Lalande's pronunciation is remarkably clear and correct; 8-8:55 a. m.-Greek.-Homer.
his enunciation distinct without the least tinge of provinFrench.-Intermediate.
cialism. He has great facility in finding apt illustrations to 9:05-10 a. m.--Greek.- Beginners.
explain difficult points." Prof. Böcher also speaks of the Latin.- Advanced.
patience, energy, and vivacity of Lalande. Prof. Lalande German.-- Beginners.
will weekly give Une Réception Française, to which all are French.- Advanced.
invited, and at which French alone will be spoken. 10:05–11 a. m.--Greek.-Xenophon.
7. Dr. James Strong, of Drew Theological Seminary, Latin.- Beginners.
Madison, N. J., editor of the great M'Clintock & Strong's French.-Beginners.
Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological, and Ecclesiastical LitGerman.-Intermediate.
erature, an eminent author and professor, and a remarkable 11:05–12 m.-German.-Advanced.
teacher, will have charge of the Department of Hebrew at 3:30-4:30 p. m.-Latin.-Advanced.
8. Prof. W. D. MacClintock, of Kentucky, recommended Anglo-Saxon.
to Chautauqua by Prof. A. S. Cook, will have charge of the 5-6 p. m.--Lectures in the several Departments, He department of Anglo-Saxon and English Literature. Al
brew, German, French, Latin, Greek, etc. though a very young man, Prof. MacClintock won golden
opinions by his success at Chautauqua last summer. He up in the amphitheater at Chautauqua for use during the will give a course of lessons in Anglo-Saxon and Historical School of Languages and the Teachers' Retreat, and all the English, with halfhour talks on the History of the English meetings of 1882. There will be a grand Organ Concert on Language. A daily course in Shakspere will be conducted Saturday, July 8, the opening day of the Teachers' Retreat during the first four weeks of the term. A daily course in and the School of Languages. Chaucer will be conducted during the last two weeks of 17. The C. S. L. and the C. T. R. have both grown steadily the term, and weekly lectures will be given on Represen- since their organization. The School of Languages for 1881 tative English Poets. Most of the books needed as aids enrolled 148 members, of whom 18 studied Greek, 47 Latin, will be found in the small reference library in connection 84 German, 81 French, 12 Anglo-Saxon, 22 English Literawith the School of Languages.
ture. There were 43 who studied both German and French. 9. Two prizes, of ten and fifteen dollars in money, will be One hundred and two certificates were issued for attendpresented for proficiency in Anglo-Saxon; this to be de ance upon the entire six weeks' course. cided by an examination next summer at Chautauqua. The One hundred and sixteen took lessons in Elocution. In papers will be examined by Prof. A. S. Cook, the former the Teachers' Retreat there were, in 1881, 105 members. Anglo-Saxon professor, now in Germany. The names of Most of these completed the course. the successiul contestants will be published in the HERALD 18. In connection with the C. S. L. and the C. T. R. in together with two or three others deserving of honorable 1882 a Committee of Reception and Entertainment will be mention. All who apply may enter the examination on appointed, whose duty it shall be to arrange for and direct condition of reporting his or her name three days before the the Recreations, Concerts, Receptions, Sociables, etc., of
19. glo-Saxon Reader.” Ample tinie will be given for the ex ago with his matchless performances on the violin, will be amination, which will be exclusively in writing. In decid in attendance during the sessions of the Teachers' Retreat ing upon the merits of the work, account will be taken, and the School of Languages. Leon H. Vincent, of Syrafirst, of the faithfulness and general excellence of the trans cuse, N. Y., will also be present in charge of the Archæolations; second, of the grammatical knowledge exhibited in logical, Educational, and Art Museums. He will also asthe parsing of selected passages, and in the answers to a sist in the Musical Department. series of written questions.
20. It is too early to make definite announcements con10. Hon. J. W. Diekinson, of the Massachusetts Board of cerning the attractions of the Assembly. John B. Gough, Education, has consented to give a course in Rhetoric at Esq., Bishop R. S. Foster, Bishop H. W. Warren, Dr. L. T. the Chautauqua Teachers' Retreat the coming summer. Townsend, and many others will be present. A rich proHe will give lessons in Rhetoric, in topics on the two parts gramme of lectures, concerts, etc., is guaranteed. into which Rhetoric may be divided: “Figurative Language" and "Style." The topics will be taught objectively: THE ROYAL HAND-BELL RINGERS. Prof. Dickinson will prepare his class with a good method of teaching Rhetoric to their own pupils. And though The lecture hall of Mr. Spurgeon's Tabernacle was never never teaching the subject as a science, the knowledge they filled with a gayer set, and never resounded with more will gain will be most valuable to them as a guide to teach laughter than it did on Friday, when Mr. Duncan S. Miller ing language and composition writing in three grades: pri- and the Royal Hand-bell Ringers commenced a series of mary, intermediate and scientific.
entertainments in connection with Sunday-school work, 11. The Department of Standard Phonography will be which, Mr. Spurgeon very properly said, it was to be hoped under the direction of Prof. William D. Bridge, V. D. M., would extend all over the land. It is needless to say much of New Haven, Conn. Prof. Bridge is the phonographic of Mr. Duncan Miller; by this time he is pretty well known. secretary of Dr. J. H. Vincent, has been an expert, practical | The Queen has sent for him twice, the Prince of Wales four short-hand writer for more than twenty-five years, and un times, and as to myself, I meet him at all times and places, derstands most thoroughly the science and art which he always with that wonderful music of hịs, charming not only teaches. He will be able to render valuable instruction
the savage breast, but even that unhappy product of our age, during the Chautauqua School of Languages and the Teach the man of culture, whose drawing-room is made hideous with ers' Retreat, to beginners or more advanced students; classes old cracked China plates, and who is apt to faint if you go being formed in both grades.
so far as to call a spade a spade. Mr. Miller, as a boy, was 12. Prof. Frank Beard, of Syracuse University, will give given to bell-ringing in the ancient city of Norwich, where a course of lessons in Art, beginning the 10th or 12th of he first saw the light of day, and in 1866 he and a few young July.
friends connected with the Poland Street Temperance 13. Prof. J. W. Churchill of Andover, Mass., will again Society launched forth on their public career, little anticigive a series of lessons and public readings in Elocution at pating the success they were to achieve and the fame they Chautauqua during the Assembly.
were to win, at one of the great people's gatherings origin14. Edward A. Spring, Sculptor, of Perth Amboy, N. J., , ated by the Rev. G. M. Murphy. Then they had seventeen will conduct the School of Sculpture and Modeling at hand-bells, and now they have one hundred and thirty-one. Chautauqua in the summer of 1882. He will exemplify all But their success has led to many imitators, some of whom the processes of the sculptor, by having in process clay actually claim to be the originals themselves. Since 1866 modeling, plaster, terra cotta, and marble work, and so Mr. Miller and his men have given three thousand four make his pupils “at home," as far as possible in so short hundred entertainments in every part of England and a time, when they afterward hear or talk of sculpture. Mr. Wales and Ireland, and even Belgium—that land whose Spring will bring with him tools for modeling, and objects church bells chime more exquisite harmony than those of in terra cotta from the Eagleswood Art Potteries.
any other nation in the world. But Mr. Miller has a knack 15. Several “Memorial Days" will be observed during the of amusing children, and he has determined to devote his “Retreat," when the lives of illustrious educators will be energies in that direction. The time has come, as he told brought to the attention of teachers.
us on Friday, when it is the duty of Christian men to find 16. A powerful chorus-organ, built by the well-known wholesome moral amusement, not music-hall slang, for their house of George H. Ryder & Co., Boston, Mass., will be put young people, and that he succeeded, at any rate, I may say
there are a thousand of the Tabernacle Sunday-school chil
EDITOR'S OUTLOOK. dren ready to declare, to say nothing of their pastor, who never looked better than he did the other night, sitting at THE TRUSTEES of Chautauqua held their annual meeting the far end among the boys, with a fa all smiles and fun. January 18 and 19, at the Forest City Hotel, Cleveland, Indeed, it would be difficult to say who did enjoy them- | Ohio. Twenty-three of the twenty-four members were presselves most, Mr. Spurgeon or the children, or Mr. Miller and ent. Lewis Miller, Esq., President, was in the chair, and his men. The fact was, all had more or less to do with the contributed, as usual, valuable suggestions in the transaction success of the evening, for the children joined sweetly in of the business. The inception and development of the some of the well-known melodies, such as "Hold the Fort,” Chautauqua enterprise were carefully reviewed. Its steady, “ There is a Happy Land," "Rock of Ages,” and Mr. Spur- rapid, and persistent growth is proof positive that there geon made everyone roar with laughter as he poked his fun at was a vacancy in the educational world which nothing Mr. Miller, who is certainly an exception to the general rule could fill but Chautauqua.
It has a hold upon every of “laugh and grow fat;” and besides, we had a black State in the Union, and its influence is felt across the sea in brother, a Mr. Johnson, whom the children cheered when distant lands. he made his appearance almost as heartily as they did Mr. Considering that most of the trustees are manufacturers, Spurgeon himself. I must own that the sight of the chil each one carrying on an immense business, and that they dren was that which pleased me most. They all looked so have no pecuniary interest in the success of the place, their happy, so clean, so comfortable, so respectable, and I quite zeal and self-sacrificing spirit in promoting its interests deenvied them the enthusiasm with which they listened to the serve the highest commendation. They represent not only music, and the laughter with which they greeted Mr. the cottage holders, by whom they were chosen to their ofMiller's jokes--for Mr. Miller is a great talker as well as a fice, but a larger constituency of friends and patrons numgreat musical performer, and if the children are not wiser bered by hundreds of thousands in different parts of the for his talk, it is not his fault, but theirs. If I might ven country. As they sat down for deliberation in the parlor of ture to criticise, I would say he was almost too communi- the hotel they seemed to grasp the situation, and boldly to cative. People like a little mystery, and when he explained prepare for coming responsibilities. The reports of the that a companological performance was only another name secretary and treasurer were received with much satisfacfor bell-ringing, all felt, as Royalty did when it was shown tion. Between four and five thousand dollars of the floathow the apple got into the dumpling, that the mystery was ing debt had been paid. It was judged best to abolish not so great after all. One of Mr. Miller's hits was very monopolies and thus reduce the cost of living on the ground, happy, and was warmly applauded. Speaking of the uses and slightly to raise the entrance fees at the gates, that the of church bells, he intimated that one use was to show the revenues might not materially suffer. It is hoped that the people it was time to come to church; but in the case of the Hotel Atheneum may be completed this season, and the Tabernacle, it was shown that the largest congregation in services of General Lewis secured. In that case better hotel London could be got together without bells, and with the and boarding accommodations can not be found between most wonderful punctuality. Another of Mr. Miller's hits Saratoga and Chicago than will be offered at Chautauqua. was when, introducing the good old song,
Dr. Vincent was present with the trustees, as full of hope "Jolly tinkers we are, and courage, and as fertile of resources as ever.
He occuFree from sorrow or care,"
pied considerable time in developing his scheme for the he referred to the political tinkers, of which we have too Assenibly of August next. The School of Languages and mang with us at all times. Mr. Spurgeon was, as usual, Teachers' Retreat will open the 8th of July, and it is expected pre-eminently happy, whether grave or gay. How winningly he welcomed the children, as he told them how glad
that there will be a large attendance of students. he was to see them, and hoped they would give their At the next Assembly the musical department will take hearts to Jesus, and when they grew up to be men and an upward and forward stride. A large pipe organ of great women would become members of the Church of Christ.
power is to be built for and set up in the orchestra of the His personal remarks as to Mr.
Amphitheater, and the people will be treated to many ceived with a laughter that was irresistible as it was contagious, and when he called on Mr. Johnson, the grand organ concerts. The accomplished Prof. Case will be black man, to tell them of a land where the people had associated with Prof. Sherwin in managing the College of no hells, and did not know when Sunday canie, he was Music. The Royal Bell Ringers of England will be present in his happiest vein. For instance, when Mr. Jolinson described liow the people went to war, each holding a dor as a
as a special attraction in this department. The inimitable shield, said Mr. Spurgeon, "a baitledore, you mean," a Prof. Vitale will also be present with his violin. joke which sent the children into ecstasies-ecstasies On the platform we shall see many old and ever welcome which were continued when Mr. Spurgeon intimated what
faces associated with some who are as yet strangers to Chaua nice color black was, how handy to polish oneself up with a blacking brush, and so on; and then, when, toward the
tauqua.. Nothing very startling in this department can be end of the meeting, he thanked Mr. Miller for the treat he expected. Greater or better lecturers than we have heard had given them all that evening, how he hoped that Mr. at former assemblies, we need not expect ever to listen to Miller would continue his work among all the Sundayschools in England, and thus serve the cause of God, the anywhere. But the old standard of excellence will be fully response of the children was heartier than ever.
maintained with new attractions added. geon, however, soon relapsed into merriment, as when At the next Assembly the first class in the Chautauqua stating how delighted, pleased, charmesi, interested they Literary and Scientific Circle will graduate and receive were, and using all the adjectives of a complimentary char
their diplomas. Of the 8,000 whose names were enrolled acier at his command, he conduced by saying we all felt as refreshed as if we had had a glass of water. Finally, Mr.
upon the secretary's books in 1878, how many will enjoy Spurgeon, amidst sympathietii: laughter, conferred a patent that distinguished honor? Next August will tell. It is on Mr. Miller for his performance, as King James ha con
expected that from one to two thousand of this class will be ferred one on the man who had gone ip Salisbury Cathedral
present, and that their formal graduation will form an and had stood on his lead there. "Let him have a patent," said the King, "to do it;'' and so said Mr. Spurgeon, " Let epoch in the history of the Circle. No one knows better Mr. Milier have a patent for his entertainment for the chil than Dr. Vincent how to make such an event impressive dren of our Sunday-school." Only a day or two since a very
and fruitful of good results. wise man remarker to me that the Sway-school had done
Again for some months to come Chautauqua is to engage its work. It was a pity he was not with me at the Tabernacle on Friday viglit.-Christopher Crayon, in the “Chris
the attention of the reading and thinking public. As a tiun World."
theater of action it invites the consideration of the scientist,
of the philosopher, the theologian, the moralist, the scholar, ations in that direction. Almost insuperable obstacles also the teacher, the pupil, the artist, the musician, and the stand in the way of polar discoveries in the north. The Christian. As a center of influence it touches all the chords shortness of the summer season, the intense cold of the which vibrate worthily in society. A college or university Arctic winter, the danger to navigation from ice floes and may do more thorough work with a few hundred young icebergs, render the undertaking perilous in the extreme. people, but instead of hundreds Chautauqua reaches its tens Despite these difficulties and dangers, the search for a pasof thousands, and a large percentage of these are held rigidly sage to the Pole bas been continued almost without intermisto a course of reading and study during the entire year. sion for more than half a century, expeditions having been It has converted thousands of idle yawning firesides into sent out during that time by almost every maritime nation arenas for thought, reading and discussion. For the diffu in the world. One of the most notable of these was the illsion of general literature it is the first institution in the world. fated expedition led by Sir John Franklin, in 1845, consistIt has brought together in the same reading circle more ing of two vessels and one hundred and thirty-eight men, intellectual labor than has ever before been rallied around a none of whom ever returned to tell the story of their wancommon center. It has solved the problem of leisure and derings. For a number of years active explorations were recreation by making them pure, pleasant, and profitable.mainly devoted to searching after this missing expedition, It has leveled the partition walls which once kept different till in 1859 Captain Francis McClintock, who, in 1857, had schools of thought apart and brought their various repre sailed to aid in the search, returned with the first authentic sentatives together upon a common platform. It has taught records of the lost expedition. The vessels had been crushed us how to be absolutely loyal to our denominational intes by the ice, and their crews had died of starvation on King rests, and at the same time to be subject to the great law of William's land. charity toward our neighbors.
The voyage of Dr. Kane, who sailed from New York in Surely, then, this board of trustees has a great work in 1853 in quest of the Pole, was one of the most successful on hand, and such is the well-known character of these men, record. He advanced to latitude 82° 27', and claimed to that we have no fears of the results. Wisdom, prudence, have discovered in that latitude an open polar sea, stretchand foresight will characterize their proceedings. The small ing away toward the north, and perhaps to the very Pole advance made in the entrance fee at the gates will be more itself. In 1860 Dr. Hayes, who had been a member of Dr. than compensated to the people by the abolition of monop Kane's party, attempted to reach this polar sea, but was olies. Before making complaint every one should remem unable to accomplish his purpose, and returned without ber that means must be provided to meet the heavy expen making any further discoveries. Captain C. F. Hall, beditures of conducting an assembly. Thus far more than tween 1860 and 18733, made three voyages of discovery into $70,000 have been paid out for platform services. The peo the polar regions, with but meager results. He died during ple have paid about four cents for each lecture delivered, to the last voyage, and his vessel, the Polaris, was lost in the say nothing of sermons, concerts, normal class studies, and ice; the crew, however, succeeded in making good their the thousand other privileges enjoyed.
return. During the same period Lieutenants Payer and
Weyprecht, of Austria, attempted to reach the Pole by sailTHE INTEREST which is everywhere felt in the survivorsing to the north of Nova Zembla, and claim to have peneof the Jeannette has turned the attention of the public to the trated into the open polar sea discovered by Dr. Kane. A subject of polar explorations. For centuries the mystery of Swedish expedition under Nordenskjöld, and the one which the still invisible Pole has baffled all efforts to penetrate the went out in the Jeannette, which sailed from San Francisco veil of secrecy which surrounds it, and the icy bulwarks in 1879, are among the latest attempts to explore the polar which guard this ultima thule of great Nature have thus far regions, neither of which succeeded in obtaining any new proven an effectual barrier to the scientific conquest of the results. None of these Arctic explorers have been able to globe.
penetrate much, if any, beyond the eighty.third degree of The first voyage of discovery toward the North Pole was latitude. All beyond that is a terra incognita, the explorundertaken shortly after the discovery of America, in search ation of which, however, will doubtless continue to be atof a northwest passage to India, in the interests of com tempted as long as the mysterious and unknown continue merce. Such explorations, continued at intervals for more to exercise such a powerful fascination over the human mind. than three hundred years, have demonstrated the utter impracticability of utilizing a northwest passage for commercial purposes, even if discovered. The first expedition It is not amiss, after voyaging many days, for the voyager which attempted to reach the North Pole was sent out to inquire of the out-look. It may help to determine the under the auspices of the Muscovy Company, in 1607, and progress made and reveal the prospect ahead. After more was commanded by Henry Hudson, who claimed to have than sixteen years of labor on the problem of the negro since reached latitude 81° 30', nearly the utmost limit attained by his eman 'ipation and citizenship, it may prove helpful to modern explorers. In 1773 Lord Mulgrave was sent out hy ascertain, if we may, what ground has been gained and the English government with instructions to reach the what promise of the future. It would require a many-paged North Pole. He did not succeed in penetrating as far north volume to record the details of the negro's history for the as Hudson claimed to have gone, latitude 800 48' being the last half generation-a history larger than all the previous limit of his voyage. The celebrated Captaiu Cook, in 1776, history of his race. When this volume is written, as it yet led a Polar expedition, but failed to get as far north as his will be, it will contain a record of devotion, of benevolence, predecessors had. Since the beginning of the present cen- of faith, of sacrifice, of moral and physical heroism unsurtury numerous expeditions have undertaken to penetrate to passed in all history. It will record how benevolent men, the North Pole, some going by the way of Behring's Strait, societies and churches from the North, ba-tened to the asothers by Bathin's Buy, while still others have aimed to sistance of the new-fledged and ignorant citizen of the accomplish their purpose by overland routes, but all have South. It will tell how these toiled, never despairing. alike hitherto failed of success.
There will be some unpleasant, uncheerful things as well. The attempts to reach the polar regions have been con To be faithful to the mission of history, there must be a fined almost exclusively to the north, inasmuch as the chapter revealing the political trickery and chicanery, pubsouth polar region is surrounded by impenetrable mountains lic and private, wherein not the negro but his vote was all of ice which constitute an insurmountable barrier to explor- that men saw. Its pages will be soiled with the blood-stains
of the victims of cruelty and brutality, begotten of race and dation of superstition, ignorance and sensuality is no light sectional prejudice. Side by side with these, however, will task. But the Providence which over-ruled his enslavement stand the cheerful fact of a people inheriting the institution to his good will not forsake him. True to his present and of slavery, come at last to rec ize the hand of God in its future possibilities, he will stand erect and manly in this overthrow, and extending the hand of sympathy and help-western clime, and by-and-by, when he is made ready, he fulness to their brother in black. To this history the student will be the commissioned to lead his brethren in Africa must be referred for the details of these times.
from darkness to Him who is the light of the world. But what of the negro himself? What have these years revealed concerning him, his hopes and his destiny? In the light of facts it is not unwarranted to say that the negro THE RECENT advent of Oscar Wilde in this country as a has demonstrated the possession on his part of capabilities, lecturer on æsthetics has been productive of much discussion some of them little suspected in him, and these in a good concerning æsthetic principles. The term æsthetic is emdegree. He has, though in gross mental and moral ignor-ployed to designate the science of the beautiful, with its ance, and in the midst of outward conditions goading and allied conceptions and emotions. Its field is thus seen to irritating, shown his capability of good behavior. When be a wide one, and possesses special attractions for refined we remember the circumstances of four millions of slaves and educated minds; and, while large scope is given to both made free men and armed with the ballot in a single day, imagination and fancy, there is also much room for diverthe fact that such a change was followed by no measures of sity of judgment and opinion. The subject is one worthy of vengeance, by no uprising against the old masters and the most careful attention and study on the part of those drivers, is an exhibition of moderation without an historic who are anxious to acquire purity of taste and nice discrimparallel. But the negro has done more than to evince his ination as to what constitutes real beauty, and also of all ability to render obedience and loyality; he has shown, as who desire to attain to a correct understanding of the prinfar as might be expected, that he has in him the elements ciples of art. of which the statesman is made. Not only in those in The æsthetic faculty seems to have long lain dormant in stances where he has appeared in State, and National coun the race, and first ripened into fruitfulness among the cils, but preëminently in those church organizations under Greeks, whose literature supplies us with the first speculahis exclusive control, he has evinced his ability as organizer tions on the character and constitution of the beautiful. and legislator. He has proved within the last decade his Savages and barbarous people, both ancient and modern, capacity for a high degree of mental development--how seem almost entirely devoid of any perceptions or appreciahigh, time and opportunity only can reveal. Nor is it need tion of the beautiful. Only the most highly organized and ful to institute a comparison of his talents with those of the best cultured nations of even civilized and enlightened white race. It is enough to know that the man in black is lands have produced any literature on this subject, or have not slow of intellect, and that given encouragement, he shown themselves to be possessed of any exalted ästhetic manifests a mental hunger. From his first contact with conceptions. The various systems of asthetics which have. Christianity, the negro has evidenced the depth of his ethi- | arisen, and the manifold speculations concerning this subcal nature. Witness the fact that of six millions in our ject, may be reduced to two basal theories, which may be country one million are communicants in the church of styled the subjective and the objective theories of beauty. Christ. Crude and material his religious conceptions often, The former teaches that all beauty is ideal, and exists only but of his sincere devotion there is no doubt.
in relation to a percipient mind; the latter, that beauty is Having shown these things of himself, they become the organic, and is a simple property of the object to which it is bearings by which we forecast his future. Certainly they ascribed. As a result of these divergent theories of beauty, warrant the belief that the negro's out-look has in it vast a complete system of asthetical doctrines has never yet possibilities. Who will presume to prescribe their limits ? been formulated. True, he can not make his face white, but no more can his The esthetic craze of which Oscar Wilde is the apostle, white neighbor make his black. Surrounded and encouraged viewed from either standpoint, is utterly wanting in the by the agencies of a Christian civilization, the African essential elements of asthetic culture. The best judges in American is destined to perform no unimportant part in the æsthetic matters are a unit in declaring that fastidiousness, future history of the western continent. He will doubtless affectation, and sentimentalism, are unmistakable evidences continue to do his share, and more, of manual toil. He will of false taste and depraved æsthetic judgment. Real beauty not rise so high as to unfit him to pick the cotton and hoe does not require pomp, splendor, or unusual combinations the corn, but hereafter his dusky face will be met in the col as adjuncts in order to render it attractive to those possessed lege and university, in the training schools of doctors, law of aesthetic perceptions. yers and ministers, and afterwards amid the walks and Anything bizarre or outré in manner or appearance either duties of these professions. It is urged that his mission is in the individual or his works is indicative of the absence to his own race. Be it so; the field is large and the harvest of any real æsthetic culture and can only be indulged in by ready. In the eternal fitness he is to be the moral and the violation of all aesthetic principles. Pure ästhetic taste mental teacher of his people. He will take his place per is characterized by breadth, universality, simplicity and manently at the ballot box and in legislative hall, and there harmony. These are the distinctive but common marks in voice the needs and claims of his constituency. In short, all the great works of art, in the great poems which men in this promised land” of the negro, every door and avenue will not willingly let die, in the characters of all the truly will open to his individual merit. Prejudice and opposition great men of all ages and of all nations, and in great Nature will meet him and hinder him, but it can not hide his herself, which eternally manifests to man God's ideal of worth nor defeat him.
beauty. any of our readers desire to study this topic, let Let the negro, however, not forget that possibilities like them carefully read John Ruskin's thoughts on “The True his imply great responsibilities. Hitherto unto him little and the Beautiful,” or Lord Kames' “Elements of Critihas been given, but henceforth unto him much is given. cism,” both of which are trustworthy guides in the study We believe that he will acquit himself nobly and well. He of æsthetics. Works of this kind studied in connection will not hide "his lord's money," but will get "other with Nature's own treatise, which is to be found not only talents." The future of his race, its elevation and vindica in external nature, but also within the soul, will lead to a tion, is chiefly in his own hands. To lift it out of the degra true æsthetic culture.