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APRIL, 1882.

No. 7.

Chautauqua Literary and Scientific Circle of Spain. They traded with the Britons for tin, and with

the Frisians and Cimbri for amber. Wherever they found President, J. H. Vincent, D. D., Plainfield, N. J.

it necessary to protect their establishment with arms, they General Secretary, Albert M. Martin, Pittsburgh, Pa.

erected fortresses and planted garrisons. So far they met

with little resistance, and the people themselves among Office Secretary, Miss Kate F. Kimball, Plainfield, N. J.

whom they settled were easily induced to enlist in their Counselors, Lyman Abbott, D. D.; J. M. Gibson, D. D. ; Bishop H.

armies for pay. The forces which Carthage could wield conW. Warren, D. D.; W. C. Wilkinson, D. D.

sisted of Libyans and Moors from Africa, of Spaniards, of

Gauls and Greeks, and even of Italians. Trained under her REQUIRED REA DING.

own officers, chosen from the ranks of a proud and wealthy

aristocracy, these hired soldiers were formed into hardy and MOSAICS OF HISTORY.

disciplined warriors, and the ample and unfailing stipends VII.

they received kept them faithful to their chiefs and their standards. Their comfort was consulted by the politic measures

of enlisting the men together with their wives and families, ROME--II.

by which the mercenaries were attached permanently to the I roam

service for which they had once contracted, and, when sent By Trasymere's Lake in the defiles Fatal to Roman rashness, more at home;

on foreign adventure, left always hostages behind them. For there the Carthaginian's warlike wiles

The stern constitution of the Carthaginian polity was itself Come back before me as his skill beguiles

an element of strength. The traditions of the state suffered The host between the mountains and the shore

little innovation. An ancient oligarchy bore sway, and the Where courage falls in her despairing files,

foundations on which it was fixed had proved for ages imAnd torrents, swollen to rivers with their gore,

movable. The attempt of the Carthaginians to possess Reek o'er the sultry plain, with legions scattered o’er,

themselves of the Greek colonies on the coast of Sicily was Like to a forest felled with mountain winds.

the first false step which led eventually to their ruin. Al--Lord Byron.

ready Rome and Carthage had long watched each other CAUSES OF THE PUNIC WARS.-We now approach what

with jealousy. Each perhaps was afraid to make a stroke are called the Punic Wars, in which the Romans came in

which might draw down upon it the resentment of the conflict with a branch of the Semitic race. At this time the

other. The attack of Pyrrhus upon the Romans seemed to Romans and Carthaginians had become jealous of each

offer their rivals a favorable opportunity. But Carthage other, and were ready for war on any pretext. The pur

had given proof of her ambition, and Rome was on the alert poses of commerce made it necessary for the Carthaginians

to arrest her schemes, and present herself as the defender of to control the islands of the Mediterranean, and the pretext

the victims she had prematurely menaced.* for a war was found when the inhabitants of Sicily invoked the help of Rome against Carthage. The Roman people OUR AUTHORITY FOR THE HISTORY OF THE WARS.-Bewere willing and eager to enter upon the conflict, and thus fore entering upon the particulars of the great struggle bethe first Punic war was begun, 265 B. C.*

tween Rome and Carthage which now opens to view, it may

be well to remind the reader that from this epoch we obtain POWER AND IMPORTANCE OF CARTHAGE.-For a space of for the first time the guidance of an historian of good faith, more than a hundred years the conquest of the western

with sufficient means of verifying the events which he unworld was held in debate between the Romans and the Car

dertakes to relate. Polybius, our chief authority for the thaginians. The progress of Carthage toward universal do

main incidents of the Punic wars, was born within fifty minion in the west bad hitherto met with few and brief

years of their commencement, and had from his position checks, and might well be regarded as irresistible. The fate of many generations of the human race in the seats of its highest opportunity of communicating with many of the chief


in them. He was moreover an educated Greek writer, moral advance and material culture depended upon the re

familiar with the requirements of historical writing, and sult of the struggle that was about to commence, which

accustomed to seek and sift the evidence upon which he forms on this account, as well as from many of the details

founded his narrative. Whatever may be his defects of of its progress, one of the most interesting portions of human history. The Carthaginians had planted their emporia of insight into the spirit of the times and of the characters

which he delineates, he was, at least, truthful and impartial, trade on the coasts of Northern Africa, of Spain, of Sar

and what he tells us of his own knowledge we may confidinia and Corsica. They traded with the Phocæans of Mas

dently accept as fact.* silia, and through them with the teeming population of transalpine Gaul. They worked the gold mines of Ilva, NAVAL POWER OF ROME.-The circumstances of the the silver mines of the Balearic Isles, and the gold mines struggle with Pyrrhus, and the Southern Italians, had *Gilman's General History.

*Merivale's History of Rome.

forced Rome to become to some extent a maritime power. nounced their claims upon Sicily, and promised to pay a As she gradually mastered Italy, it became necessary to pro- large sum to defray the expenses of the war.* tect her coasts, exposed as they were to attacks from Epirus, from Sicily, from Carthage, even from Greece, as experience IMPORTANCE OF THIS WAR.-The great importance of showed. Accordingly, a fleet began to be formed is early this war was that it forced Rome to become a first-rate as B. C. 338, which received constant additions, and had by naval power. Though the Romans did not during its course the year B. C. 267 acquired such importance that four obtain the complete mastery of the sea, they showed them"quæstors of the fieet” were then appointed and stationed selves fully a match for the Carthaginians on the element at different ports of Italy with the special object of guard of which they had scarcely any previous experience. Their ing the coasts, and keeping the marine in an efficient con land force being much superior to that of Cartbage, and dition. But this new tendency on the part of the great their resources not greatly inferior, it became tolerably apItalian state could not fail to provoke the jealousy of the parent that success would ultimately rest with them. chief maritime power of the western Mediterranean, Car Their chief deficiency was in generalship, wherein their thage, whose policy it had always been to oppose the estab commanders were decidedly surpassed, not only by the lishment of any naval rival in the waters which she re Carthaginian patriot, Hamilcar, but even the mercenary garded as her own. Thus, unfriendly feelings, arising out Xantippus. Here the Roman system was principally to of a consciousness of clashing interesis, haud for some time blame, whereby the commanders were changed annually, been growing up between Carthage and Rome. Temporarily and the same person was expected to be able to command suspended during the height of the Pyrrhic war, when a equally well both by land and by sea. Carthage continued common danger for a while drew the two states together, her commanders in office, and had separate ones for the land they burst out at its close in greater forme than ever; and and the sea servioe. Even Carthage, however, was unnothing was needed but a decent pretext in order that the wise enough to deprive herself of the services of many an two lukewarm allies should become open and avowed ene experienced captain by the barbarous practice of putting to mies. The pretext was not long wanting. The Hamer- death any general or admiral who experienced a reverse. tines, a body of Campanian mercenaries who had seized Messina, being threatened with ciestruction by the com

INTERVAL BETWEEN FIRST AND SECOND PUNIC WARS. bined Carthaginians and Syracusans, applied for help to

-An interval of twenty-three years separated the first Rome.*

from the second Punic War. It was employed by both sides

in energetic efforts to consolidate and extend their power. FIRST PUXIC WAR.---The Romans did not long hesitate

Rome, in B. C. 238, taking advantage of the position in to enter into a defensive alliance with the rapacious Jam

which Carthage was placed by the revolt of her mercenaries, ertines, and to gain by this means an opportunity of sub

made herself mistress of the island of Sardinia, and when jecting the rich and beautiful island, although they saw upon the submission of the mercenaries, Carthage required plainly that the jealous Carthaginians, who were already

its restoration, played the part of the wolf in the fable, dein possession of the citadel of Messina, would oppose them

clared herself injured by her victim and threatened a rewith all their strength. A Roman army shorıly after suc newal of the war. Exhausted, Carthage had to purchase ceeded in driving back the disuniled enemy from the walls

her forbearance by the cession of the island, and the payof the city, in bringing the king, Hiero, into an alliance

ment of a fine amounting to 1,200 talents, B. C. 237.4 with Rome, and depriving the Carthaginians of the important town of Agrigentum. (pon this the Romans built a

SECOND Puxic WAR.- The second Punic War was defleet alter the model of a shipwrecked Punic vessel, and

clared by Hannibal of Carthage, one of the greatest generals won the first naval engagement by niealls of the consu!

xif the world. Hannibal had in his infancy been dedicated Duillius, at Myla'. Encouraged by this success, they now by his father, Hamilcar, to eternal hatred of Rome, and deteamined to deprive the Carthaginians of their supremacy this fact exerted a powerful influence upon his life, for a at sea, and passed over to Africa with a fleet and a large prophecy known becomes often a means of its own fulfillarmy, under the command of the heroic consul, Regulus.

ment. Fortified by this baptism of hate, and by his own Regulus gradually approaches, conquering and devasting firm purpose, the young general led a large army toward to the gates of Carthage. The terrified Carthaginians sued

Rome, crossing first the Pyrenees, and then, probably, by for peace, but when they found the conditions offered them

the Little St. Bernard, the Alps, and encamping in Italy, by the haughty conqueror too severe, they prepared for re

218 B. C. After minor battles, he engaged the Romans unsistance, and committed the conduct of the defence to an

der Flaminius, at Lake Trasimene, northeast of Rome, and experienced general, the Spartan Xantippus. This leader

utterly routed them. For a while Hannibal was opposed gave the Romans so severe a defeat at the sea-port town of by Fabius Maximus, whose policy of delay has ever been Tunes, that only two thousand of their splendid arniy es

known as Fabian. He was superseded by his eminent caped. In a few years, however, they recovered them

countrymen, and Lucius Æmilius Paulus, a man of rashselves; they maile a successful sally from Palermo, drove

ness and impetuosity, taking the command, precipitated back the Carthaginians, and took possession of all their

battle at Cannie, southeast of Rome, which resulted in the elephants. Victory remained for some years dubious. At

destruction of eighty senators and eighty thousand Roman length the admirable Carthaginian general, Hamilcar Bar

citizens. This victory left the Carthaginian armıy shatcas, made himself inaster of the citadel Eryx, and over tered, and the rest that Hannibal allowed it at Capua, delooked from a lofty rock all the movements of the Romans.

moralized it still more, giving the enemy an opportunity But this was only possible so long as there was no Roman

for recuperation. After the Carthaginians had lost most of fleet to prevent the communication with the sea.

their possessions in Spain, the command of the army of as two hundred ships had been fitted out at Rome, by pri- Rome, sent to oppose them, was accepted by Publius Corvate contributions, and by employing the treasures in the

nelius Scipio, a man of but twenty-four years, scarcely intemples, and the consul Lutatius Catulus had defeated the

ferior to Hanuibal. His campaign was successful, and in enemy's fleet at the Egatian islands, the Carthaginians

the year B. C. 204, he “carried the war into Africa," were compelled to consent to a peace, in which they re

* Dr. George Weber. * Rawlinson's "Ancient History."

† George Rawlinson.

As soon


forced Hannibal to leave Italy for the protection of Car were banished from Pome; the schools of oratory closed; the thage, and finally, at the battle of Zuma, 202 B. C., routed dissolute festivals of Bacchus and other religious customs the Carthaginian army, and obliged Hannibal to accept derived from abro:ut, interdicter; the Scipios punished as corterms of peace. He was thereafter called Scipio Africanus.* ruptors of morals; and laws proclaimed against luxury and

For the purpose of counteracting the influence of MACEDONIAN WAR.-Besides the Punic Wars, the Ro the new literature, he himself wrote works upon agricul. mans were involved in three with Macedonia. The first ture, the basis of Rome's former greatness, and upon the lasted from 214 to 205 B. C., and grew out of complications people of ancient Italy, whose simplicity and purity of arising from a treaty made by Philip with Hannibal after morals he wished to contrast with the cominencing degenethe battle of Cannæ. The Romans were fully occupied at racy of his time. But the example of Cato, who learned the time with wars at other points, and this war was not of Greek in his old age, shows that the rigid attachment to importance in its results. The second Macedonian War, the ancient and traditional invariably gives way before new from 200 to 197 B. C., arose from a request that the Athen efforts at progress.* ians made that the Romans would give them aid in their struggle against Philip. The war was closed by the terrible THIRD PUNIC WAR.-In the meanwhile, Carthage bad battle of Cynoscephalæ, 197 B. C., in which the Macedonian again recovered a portion of her prosperity. This rearmy was completely defeated, and a few years later a Ro awakened the envy of the Romans, and gave emphasis to man protectorate was established over the whole of Greece. Cato's expression that “Carthage must be destroyed.” MagThe third Macedonian War was precipitated by Perseus, the inissa, king of Numidia, relying upon Roman protection, eldest son of Philip, who desired to make one more effort to enlarged his own territory at the expense of that of the conquer Rome. It began 172 B. C., and was terminated by Carthaginians, and at last irritated them so much by perthe battle of Pydna, 168 B. C. In this battle Perseus was petual quarrels about boundaries, that they took up arms to defeated and taken prisoner, and, though treated mercifully, efend their own possessions. This was looked upon in was led, with his wife and children, through the streets of Roine as an infringement of the peace, and occasioned a Rome in the triumphal procession. The empire was divided declaration of war. The Carthaginians implored indulgence into four independent districts, with republican institu and delivered up, at the demand of the Romans, first, three tions, and thus its unity and strength were broken.*

hundred respectable hostages, and afterwards, their ships

and weapons. But when this was followed by a decree that ROMAN GOVERNMENT OF CONQUERED TERRITORY. Carthage should be burnt to the ground, and a new city While, however, professedly leaving the countries she had erected farther from the coast, the inhabitants determined conquered to govern themselves, Rome could not bring her. rather to perish beneath the ruins of their houses than subself really to let them act as they pleased. What she did mit to such a disgrace. A spirit of courage and patriotism was to substitute for government a system of surveillance. took possession of all sexes and conditions. The town preEverywhere she was continually sending commissioners sented the appearince of a (amp; the temples were conwho not merely kept her acquainted with all that passed in veriell into smithies for forging arms, and everything was the states which they visited, but actually interfered with made subservient to the lofty purpose of saving the state. the freedom of government, suggesting certain proceedings Even the veteran legions of Rome were unable to withstand and forbidding others, acting as referees in all quarrels be such enthusiasm as this. They were repeatedly repulsed, tween state and state, giving their decisions in the name of and reduced to a precarious condition, until the younger Rome, and threatening her vengeance on the recalcitrant. Scipio, the able son of Paulus Emilius, was appointed to

the consulate before the lawful age, with dictatorial power. INFLUENCE OF GREEK CULTURE.-The acquaintance of After a most desperate resistance, and a murderous conflict the Romans with Greece was attended with the most im for six days in the streets, it was he who at length sucportant consequences to their civiliza:ion, manners, and needed in reducing the city, after it had suffered all the exmode of living. The works of Greek art and literature that tremities of famine. The rage of the soldiers, and a conhad been taken from the conquered towns, produced in the

flagration that lasted for seventeen days, converted Carmore susceptible part of the nation, a taste for cultivation, thage, the once proud mistress of the Mediterranean, into a and awakened a fresh class of feelings. A powerful party, heap of ruins; 50,000 inhabitants, whom the sword had at the head of which stood the Scipios, Marcellus, Flaminius spared, were carried into slavery by the conqueror, who and many others, patronized the Greek philosophy, poetry from this time bore the name of the younger Africanus. and art, cherished and supported the learned men, philoso- The territory of Carthage was turned into a Roman prov. phers and poets of that nation, and sought to transport the ince called Africa, and the rebuilding of the city denounced spirit and language of the conquered people to Rome, to with a curse. * gether with their works of art. Under the protection of the Scipios, Roman poets wrote verses in imitation of iheir THE GRACCHI.—The same year Tiberius Sempronius Greek prototypes. But literature and the arts were not the Gracchus died in Rome. His father had been a consul, and only things that were borrowed; elegance and refinement his mother was Cornelia, a daughter of Scipio Africanus. in the arrangement of dwellings, luxury and extravagance in His mother encouraged him to enter polities, and hè, noticmeals and dress, politeness and suavity in social intercourse, ing the oppression of the poor by the rich, determined to be sensual enjoyment, and luxurious pleasures were copied by the friend of the helpless people. He proposed various radithe Romans from the Greeks and Orientals. An opposite cal schemes for the more equal listribution of wealth, which party, with Porcius Cato at its head, earnestly conibated only resuted in excitement, and he was assassinated in the new system that threatened to destroy the ancient man front of the temple of Jupiter. He left a brother, Caius Semners, discipline, simplicity, moderation, and hardihood. pronius Gracchus, who also befriended the people, but was The severity with which this remarkable man in his office likewise unsuccessful. He was an orator of terse eloquence of censor, opposed the new direction of things, has made and natural ardor, being ranked by many critics higher than his name proverbial. By his aid the Greek philosophers Cicero.f

*Gilman's General History.
+ Rawlinson's Ancient History.

* Dr. George Weber,
+ Gilnian's General History.

WAR WITH JUGURTHA.–After the time of the Gracchi, posed by the Consul M. Junius Silanus, they attacked and the next important event is the war with Jugurtha, king of defeated him; and from this time till B. C. 101, the war Numidia. The Romans declared war against Jugurtha in raged almost continuously, Marius finally bringing it to a the year B. C. 111; but he bribed the generals to make, peace close by his victory near Vercellæ in that year.* and then broke his agreement as he chose. At last he was summoned to Rome to answer for his conduct. Whilst he THE SOCIAL WAR.-In B. C. 91, M. Livius Drusus brought was at Rome he caused the murder of one of Masinissa's forward a set of measures, which had for their object the grandsons, who was living there. He was obliged to leave reconcilement at Rome of the Senatorian with the EquesRome instantly and war was declared. The Roman Senate trian order, and in Italy, of the claims of the Italians with made Cecilius Metellus the commander of their armies, and those of the old citizens of Rome. Drusus seems to have he chose Caius Marius to be next in command to himself. possessed mere good intentions, combined with average They were successful in the war against Jugurtha, and after ability. He carried his lex de judiciis, but was unable to some sieges and battles, bribed Bomilcar, Jugurtha's gen pass that extending the franchise. Once more the Roman eral, to take the part of the Romans. Bomilcar persuaded conservatives had recourse to assassination, and delayed a another of the Numidian generals to do the same; in fact, necessary reform by a bold use of the knife. Drusus was Jugurtha had no one really to depend upon, and, though he murdered before his year of office was out, and the laws fought bravely and commanded well, he was in great dan which he had passed were declared null and void by the ger of being entirely conquered. During this time Marius government. The murder of Drusus drove the Italians to and Metellus were learning to dislike each other more and despair. The tribes of Central and Southern Italy, finding more. Marius, hearing that consuls were to be chosen at their champion murdered, and their hopes dashed to the Rome, proposed to go and offer himself to be one; but Me ground, flew to arms. Eight nations, chiefly of the Sabine tellus openly scorned him, thinking it absurd that a man of stock, entered into close alliance, chose Corfinium, in the low birth should be chief ruler over a people like the Ro- Pelignian Apennines, for their capital, and formed a federal mans. Marius, however, did go, and was chosen; and the republic, to which they gave the name of “Italia.” At the first thing he did afterward was' to have Metellus recalled outset great success attended the effort, and it seemed as if from Africa. This was a great trial to Metellus, for Marius Ronie must have succumbed. Lucius Cæsar, one of the was to have the command instead of him. When Marius consuls, Perperua, one of his legates, and Pastumius, the landed in Africa, he and Jugurtha began the war in a mano prætor, were defeated. The allies overran Campania, dener which showed they were determined to carry it on reso stroyed a consular army under Cæpio, and entered into lutely. Jugurtha was assisted by his father-in-law, Bocchus, negotiations with the northern Italians, whose fidelity now king of Mauritania, but he could not stand against Marius wavered. But the sagacious policy of Rome changed the who went on taking one place after another until nearly the face of affairs, and secured her a triumph which she could whole of Numidia had submitted to him. Jugurtha took not have accomplished by arms alone. The “Julian law" refuge in the dominions of Bocchus when he found that the conferred full citizenship both on such of the Italians as had Romans were gaining ground so fast. Bocchus lost one taken no part in the war hitherto, the Etruscans, Umbrians, great battle, in which Lucius Cornelius Sylla distinguished Sabines proper, Hernicans, etc., and also upon all such as himself particularly, and then he began to think that it upon the passage of the law ceased to take part in it. By would be wise to make peace for himself. He delayed for this proviso the revolt became disorganized, a "peace party" some time, for Sylla, who was sent to settle the terms of was formed in the ranks of the allies; nation after nation peace, declared he would not consent to it, unless Jugurtha | fell away from the league; Rome gained successes in the was delivered up; whilst Jugurtha, at the very same time, field; and at last, when only Samnium and Lucania reendeavored to persuade Bocchus to seize Sylla. Bocchus mained in arms, the policy of concession was once more decided at last upon siding with the Romans, and, after adroitly used, and the “lex Platia," which granted all having told Jugurtha that if he would meet him at a certain the allies had ever claimed, put an end to the war.* place Sylla should be given into his hands, he treacherously caused him to be surrounded by the Romans, and made a FIRST MITHRADATIC WAR.–The allies were scarcely apprisoner. Marius returned to Rome as a conqueror, and peased before the Romans were threatened from the East was bonored with a splendid triumph. The unfortunate by an enemy as sagacious as he was bold-Mithradates, king of Numidia was led in chains before his conqueror, King of the Pontus, on the Black Sea. Like Hannibal, an dressed in his royal robes, and accompanied by his two enemy of the Romans, this warlike prince, who was a good

When the triumph was over he was thrust into the linguist, endeavored to unite the Grecian and Asiatic states cold, dark dungeon of the state prison; and, after being kept in a vast confederacy, and to free them from the Roman doseveral days without food, he died.*

minion. By his orders, all the Roman subjects in Western

Asia, 80,000 in number, were put to death in one frightful WAR WITH THE BARBARIANS.—Before the war with Ju- day of slaughter. At the same time he seized upon some gurtha was over that with the northern barbarians had be countries in alliance with the Romans, and sent an army gun. The Cimbri and Teutones—Celts, probably, and Ger into Greece to protect Athens, Boeotia, and other states that mans-issuing as it would seem from the tract beyond the had joined him. Hereupon the Romans gave the command Rhine and Danube, appeared suddenly in vast numbers in against Mithradates to Sylla, who had distinguished himthe region between those streams and the Alps, ravaging self in the social war, and been rewarded by the consulate. it at their will, and from time to time threatening, and even But Marius envied his opponent this Asiatic campaign, and crossing the Roman frontier, and inflicting losses upon the procured a resolution of the people by which he himself was Roman armies. The natives of the region especially subject appointed to conduct the Mithradatic war. Sylla, who was to their ravages, in great part, joined them, especially the with his army in Lower Italy, now marched upon Rome, had Ambrones, Tigurini and Tectosages. As early as B. C. 113, Marius and eleven of his confederates outlawed as traitors to a horde of Cimbri crossed the Alps and defeated the Consul their country, and adopted proper measures for the preserCn. Papirius Carbo, in Istria. In B. C. 109, Cimbri appeared vation of peace. Sylla now passed over into Greece, stormed on the borders of Roman Gaul and demanded lands. Op- Athens, seized upon the treasures in the temple of Delphi,


* Sewall's History of Rome.

* Rawlinson's Ancient History.

and overthrew the generals of the King of Pontus in two cus, a Thracian chief, who had been made prisoner, and engagements. He then marched through Macedonia and then forced to become a gladiator, persuaded those in the same Thracia into Asia Minor, and compelled Mithradates to a condition as himself, at Capua, to rise against their tyrants. peace, by which Rome not only recovered her dominion over Joined by vast numbers of slaves and outlaws, he soon found the whole of Western Asia, but was indemnified for the ex hiniself at the head of one bundred thousand men. Four penses of the war by the payment of a large sum of money, generals sent against him were defeated signally, and durand the cession of the Pontic fleet. *

ing two entire years he ravaged Italy at his will, and even

threatened Rome itself. But intestine division showed itTHE FIRST CIVIL WAR.-In the meantime Marius had self in his ranks; his lieutenants grew jealous of him, and in returned from the ruins of Carthage again into Italy, and B. C. 71, the war was committed to the prætor Crassus, who surrounding himself with a band of desperate men, had in six months brought it to a termination. Spartacus fell, marched to the gates of Rome, in conjunction with the demi-fighting bravely, near Brundusium. His followers generocratic leaders, Cinna and Sertorius. The city, weakened ally dispersed; but a body of 5,000, which kept together, by fanuine and dissension, was compelled to surrender; upon forced its way through Italy and had nearly reached the which Marius gave free course to his thirst for vengeance. Alps, when Pompey, on his return from Spain, fell in with After this gratification of his vengeance, Marius had him it and destroyed it utterly. About the same time Crassus -self chosen consul for the seventh time, but died about two crucified all those whom he had made prisoners, amountweeks after, from the effects of excitement and a dissolute life. | ing to 6,000.* In the year B. C. 83, Sylla landed in Italy, after the termination of the first Mithradatic war, and marched, with the sup WAR AGAINST THE PIRATES.—Pompey rendered his port of the aristocracy, upon Rome. In Lower Italy he de name even more illustrious in Asia, where he brought feated the democratic consuls in .numerous engagements, the war against the Pirates to a conclusion, than in the exdrove the younger Marius to self-destruction in the strong city | pedition against the slaves. In the sterile mountain reof Præneste, by the close siege he laid to the place, and in a gions, on the south of Asia Minor, lived a daring race of murderous battle before the gates of Rome, annihilated the free-booters, who disturbed the whole Mediterranean by Marian party and the rebellious Samnites, 8,000 of whom he piracy, visited the coasts and islands with plunder and desslaughtered before the eyes of the trembling senate. The olation, dragged off noble Romans as prisoners, for the civil war had already cost the lives of 100,000 men, when purpose of exacting a heavy ransom, and interrupted trade Sylla, for the purpose of completing his triumph, made public and commerce. Hereupon Pompey was invested with the bis proscriptions, upon which were written the names of the most unlimited dictatorial power over all seas, coasts and Marian party who were to be killed and plundered. Sylla, islands. With a splendidly equipped fleet and army, he who was named dictator for an indefinite period, proclaimed | cleared in three months the whole Mediterranean from the the Cornelian law, by which the whole power of the govern- pirates, subdued the towns and fortresses in their own counment fell into the hands of the aristocracy, and the influence try, and settled many of the inhabitants in the newly built of the tribunes was destroyed. After the conclusion of these town, Pompeiopolis.t Arrangements, Sylla retired to his estate, where he shortly After died.*


Mithradates, encouraged by Rome's internal disturbances, RISE OF POMPEY, AND SERTORIAN WAR. The individual had begun a fresh war. Lucullus was besieging the rich who had the greatest share in bringing about the reversal of island town of Cyzicus, and Mithradates attempted to reSylla's reforms, rose into notice under Sylla himself, but lieve it; but Lucullus fell upon him and gave him such an acquired the influence which enabled him to effect a great overthrow, that he retreated in haste to his kingdom of constitutional change in the wars which intervened be- Poutus; and when this also fell a prey to the victor, he tween the years B. C. 77 and 70. Cn. Pompeius, whose sought aid and protection from his son-in-law, Tigranes, father was a “new man,” and who was thus only just king of Armenia. But Lucullus defeated the enormous host within the pale of the nobility, secured for himself a cer of the Armenian king in the neighborhood of his capital, tain consideration by the zeal with which he worked for Tigranocerta, and was already making preparations for overSylla. Having crushed the Marians in Sicily and Africa, throwing the whole empire, and extending the Roman doand lent effectual aid to the consul Catulus against Lepidus, minions as far as Parthia, when the legions refused obedihe was rewarded in B. C. 71 by being sent as proconsul to ence to their general. Upon this Lucullus retired to his Spain, where Sertorius, recently one of the Marian leaders, wealth and his pleasure-gardens, and Pompey united the had established an independent kingdom, and defied all the command of the Armenio-Pontic army to his other digniefforts of the aged Metellus to reduce him. Originally the ties. He conquered Mithradates, who had assembled fresh object of Sertorius was to maintain himself in a position of forces, in a night engagement on the Euphrates, reduced the antagonism to Rome by the swords of the Spaniards; but Armenian king to homage and submission, and then put an when Perperua and the remnant of the Marian party fled end to the rule of the Seleucidæ in Syria. Mithradates, deto him, his views became enlarged, and he aspired to rein- prived of the greater part of his territories, and despairing state his partisans in authority at Rome itself. He would of a successful issue, destroyed himself. After Pompey, at probably have succeeded in this aim had not Perperua, his own pleasure, had disposed of the conquered lands in thinking that he had found an opportunity of supplanting Asia, in such a way that the Roman empire was enlarged him in the affections of the Spaniards, removed him by as by three provinces, and some of the more distant lands had -sassination. The war was after this soon brought to a close, been ceded to tributary kings, he returned to Rome, where Perperua having neither Sertorius' genius for command nor he held a public entry of two days, and filled the treasury his power of awakening personal attachment.t

with enormous wealth.t

WAR OF THE GLADIATORS.–Before the Sertorian war CONSULSHIP OF CICERO.-A short time before this M. was ended, that of the Gladiators had broken out. Sparta- Tullius Cicero, Pompey's friend and the companion of his

* Dr. George Weber,
+ Rawlinson's Ancient History,


*Rawlinson's Ancient History.
Dr. George Weber.

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