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since received. Most men felt, and felt rightly, that every what the tone of the parsonage used to be, and, in many lad who was going up to the university would be the better cases, still continues to be. The villager, with no clergyfor a year or two's preparation by a private tutor, and the man or his family to drop in and gossip, and consult, and tutor was almost always a clergyman. Any country parson befriend on the old footing, would inevitably sink into a in those days who chose to look out for them could get "hand" engaged in chronic warfare with his "employer." pupils, and very many did so when their cures were small You would soon educate him up to that-would you ever •or the calls upon them increased. In many cases this led educate him beyond it? For the rest, the farmers' daughto that enlargement of the parsonage houses, which I believe ters, better dressed and better set up with luxuries and acto be one of the great rocks ahead for the rural clergy. Now, complishments than the young ladies at the rectory, with a too many of them find themselves quite overhoused. Since wider knowledge of the outside world, handsomer drawingthose early days the schools have improved beyond our rooms and trimmer lawns, yet do lack something. Somemost sanguine hopes, and the standard of acquirements ex how a man feels that in marrying into the one class all he pected at Cambridge and Oxford has risen to a point which would lose would be dower; in marrying into the other is alarming to the modern bidder for pupils. Even where there would be little else that he could expect to gain, men are qualified for the work, no wise father now takes I am inclined to think that the laborer's material gains away his son from a school to put him with a tutor if he can have been appraised a little too highly. The increase in help it, and no intelligent undergraduate would dream of money wages has been considerable, but I am satisfied reading in the long vacation with the average country that directly and indirectly he has gained less than has been ·curate for "Mods” or “Specials.” Imagine the dismay of a supposed. Thirty years ago, in harvest-time, a man's wife Cambridge pass-man on being asked to read the Ethics earned at least half as much as her husband, every child with his Squire's first-born! or the clammy terror of the gained a little, every house was shut up. On Sunday men, newly ordained deacon from St. Aidans invited to assist a women, and children were asleep from sheer Weariness. As freshman at Trinity with his Trigonometry! Even the cold for the gleaning, I have known instances where a family lege livings are not filled as they used to be; college fellows has been kept in bread over Christmas day, the flour ground no longer "resort to orders' as formerly; the benefices are exclusively from the corn picked up in gleaning time. In offered, even the most valuable of them, to men certainly

those days farmers kept few accounts, and then not very below the first rank in culture and intellect; and, with an trustworthy ones, but they roughly guessed that the harvest infatuation which I wonder some good people have not long cost them ten or twelve shillings an acre against sixteen or ago stigmatized as "judicial blindness,” the bishops as a

seventeen which it costs them now. There is good reason to body seem to be doing their very best to keep out of the think the old estimate too low, whatever may be thought of ministry the whole race of schoolmasters, i.e., the only men

the new reckoning. However, there can be no question who, being ordinarily “scholars and gentlemen," have still

that the laborer of to-day is a great deal better off tlan his some kindly prejudices in favor of the Establishment; and father was, with one notable and shameful exception, which whose alliance, if rejected at the present moment with sus we shall come to by-and-by; his children are cleaner, better picion and hauteur, may one of these days be given cordially taught, better looked after, better dressed than they were; to the other side. Be that as it may, the fact remains, tui- his wife is no longer the poor drudge she almost invariably tion and the remuneration it brings are rapidly passing, and

became after her fourth or fifth child; she has her perambu• have almost altogether passed, out of the hands of the coun

lator, and in many instances her sewing machine, she even try clergy.

talks to you of her dressmaker;* she takes great pride in Thus the parsons with many sons and daughters and sending her little ones to school, with all due regard to their small private means—it is still very rarely that they are personal appearance; she is fastidious in the Christian living only on their cures-have dropped behind, and, rela names she selects, especially for the girls; Mary Ann and tively to their parishioners, are much poorer than they were.

Susan Jane are fast disappearing from some districts. Now and then one hears some kindly tenant, of what used

“Why don't you have that baby called Maria for a change?” to be the manorhouse and its domain land, dropping into a

I said to one dirty, gaunt mother, some time back, who had patronizing tone, and pitying the poor rector and his family, a string of daughters christened Bertha, Florence, Ethel, and while in a gauche though well-intentioned way, he wounds

what not? “Lor, sir! Would you now? It's so wulgar!” their feelings as he offers them friendly assistance. At

The truth is, the peasantry have begun to have tastes as times the two men are at war, and then the parson knows

well as other people: they have shorter hours of work, many a sleepless night. But whatever the relations may i. e. more leisure; the women have almost passed out of the be between them, it is clear enough that the one class has labor market altogether. I have found them reading novels; gone up, the other down. The increase in the cost of educa- they like to see things looking pretty, they put up neat tion, the terrible pressure of the local rates—for the clergy- papers on their walls; something must cure the cracks and man suffers for the sin of being a clergyman by being rated

flaws that let the wind in; they buy pictures such as they on his gross income—the greater rigor of the law of dilapi- are, they have an eye for art after a fashion, they, too, will dations, the burden of having to keep up houses, buildings,

come to adore the sunflower all in due time. And all this .and fences erected by a predecessor richer than himself, and

is so much gain: but there is something to be said on the the general prodigality in our social habits, all contribute to

other side. I doubt whether the agricultural laborer is make the country parson's life a far more anxious struggle much more of a grumbler than he was, but he is certainly and a far sadder one than it used to be thirty years ago.

more defiant in his tone and bolder in his self-assertion. It may be asked, "If what one class has lost another has He has become a very keen bargainer, suspicious, exacting, gained, has not the community, on the whole, benefitted by mercenary, and this to an extent which I should not have the change?” The answer is that this is not a question which thought possible thirty years ago; he knows the price of admits of being narrowed to the limits of a tradesman's bal- everything; he will do nothing for nothing; he is greedy for ance-sheet. When we mount to that region where the af money, and accepts any substitute for money with relucfections, sentiments, and aspirations have their play, we

tance. “I like the real thing!” said one to whom I repreneed not be afraid of the reproach of “talking vaguely.” It

*Nothing has astonished me more than the amazing number of would be an immense calamity to the rural population if dressmakers to be found in the new Arcadia. They were so rare in the clergy were to sink in the social scale. Say what we the old Arcadia that I fancied dresses were like babies--the prowill, the tone of the farmhouse is not, and never can be, duce of gooseberry bushes.

sented that he got his cottage rent free and was, so far, bet- | power means right, to the middle man who is paid by com-ter off than his neighbors. Retaining too many of the habits mission or paid by the job. It would be idle to suggest to and traditions of pauperism, he takes what is given to him the modern land agent, autocratic plenipotentiary as he too at Christmas or Whitsuntide less as dole than as due, and often is, that there is some truth in the maxim, -"Summa he is loud in denouncing "favoritism," a word which he has lex summa injuria." But here I am on very delicate learnt since my younger Arcadian days.

ground. With all this that is unpleasant about the new peasantry, I am bound to say that they have made one very remarkable step forward. As a body the laborers now pay ready I have said that the agricultural laborer of to-day is better money for their commodities, far more commonly than they off on the whole than his father waswith one notable and did. Of course there are those of them who will always be shameful exception. I may not shrink from touching on behindhand, and who live all their lives in debt. But this part of my subject. debt is no longer universal as it once was. Formerly every It has been estimated that during the last thirty years. man had a score at the village shop, and very dearly he had nearly twenty millions sterling have been spent in building, to pay for the credit he expected and received; but the com restoring, or enlarging the places of worship of the Estabpetition which beggared the small shopkeeper compelled lished Church alone. I rejoice in the fact, if it be a fact. him to resort to the machinery of the county court, and How much has been further spent upon parsonage houses, the dread of that terrible power has scared many into it would be difficult to guess, but the amount must be large. economy and self-denial, and these have brought their own The erection of schools and residences for teachers, under thereward. So it has come about that the laborer who is hope-enactments of recent legislation, has been, and will long lessly behindhand is quite the exception; the rule is the continue to be, a sore burden to the ratepayers. other way.

The number of country houses of the gentry that mean-But if the agricultural laborer has been a gainer to the ex while have been built anew has not been so considerable, tent indicated, he is not a bit more-nay, he is much less, though it is rare to find one that has not been added to, contented with his lot than he was. How should he be ? made more luxurious, or improved in the stables, the garThe old men remember the roadsides, the wastes, and com dens, or in the conservatories. mons, and village greens, and patches of no man's land, As to the farm-houses, it would make Gainsborough or which have gone from them for ever. The donkey munched Constable weep to see how the dear old places they loved the thistles or rolled in the dust, the cow, half starved per- have been replaced by mansions, or at least by ample family haps in winter, yet gained a certain sort of sustenance and houses such as the scientific agriculturist-the high farmer picked up its livelihood under the hedge or on the green. in more senses than one-expects to bring his wife and The geese hissed at strangers intruding upon this or that daughters to. patch of verdure, and brought in a few shillings, if their Nor is this all. The cattle and beasts of burden have owner were lucky with them, at Michaelmas time. There benefitted by what has been going on. The stables and bulwas a charm and amusement and the excitement of a com lock-sheds, the cow-houses and piggeries, the very kennels. mercial speculation about it all. The men had something have become commodious, substantial, costly, not seldom to come back to in the evening besides the bare walls of ornamental. On all these things no expense has been their cottages, the women something to do in the daytime spared. But here progress has stopped. Yes! The houses besides gossip and stare. The children, too, had their part in of God and their ministers, the owners of the soil and their the game, if it was only to keep an eye on the "Dickey," tenantry, the sheep and the oxen, the dogs and the swine, and sometimes ride him if he did not kick too high. Then, are decently. housed and cared for. What have the peastoo, there were always some playgrounds where the young- antry of England done, and what is their crime, that they sters could "get into mischief," as the phrase is, i. e. where alone have been left as they were? “As they were?” No! they could hope to find a rat or a weasel-peradventure, too Not as they were—ten times worse than they were! Let a (oh, the shocking crime!) disturb a rabbit, snare an "old man of fifty ride five miles in any direction from his own hare" (why the peasant should insist so much upon the age door in some of the most carefully tilled counties of Engof a hare I never could understand), scotch a snake, or turn land, and he must be fortunate in his surroundings if he can up a hedgehog. All these are things of the past. The plain, find ten laborers' cottages that have been built with three ugly fact is patent to all who do not resolutely keep their sleeping-rooms since he arrived at manhood. Let him at eyes shut, that the agricultural laborer's life has had all the the same time take a note of the "houses” of agricultural joy taken out of it, and has become as dull and sodden a life laborers in which large families have been brought up-God as a man's can well be made. There are scores-perhaps knows how—and on which fifty pounds have been spent durhundreds-of villages where the inhabitants have absolutely | ing the same time. Let him end by counting the number of no amusements of any kind outside the public-house, where dwellings that have been allowed to fall down, and from cricket, or bowls, or even skittles, are as unknown as bear which the last occupant has escaped only just soon enough. baiting—where the children play at marbles in the gutter in Let him do all this, I say, and I think that man will be bodily fear lest the road surveyer should come down upon startled and shocked if he has any heart or any pity in him. them. It is all very well for philosophers, born and bred The peasantry are huddling under roofs which our grandin Bloomsbury, to discourse learnedly upon the wasteful- fathers raised; but roofs and walls have had half a century ness of the commons, or for lawyers in Lincoln's Inn to or more of wear and tear. This one is propped up by an old assure us that there can be no doubt about the rights of dead tree, that one has been “daubed with untempered morthe lord of the manor. As to the commons, I have ob- tar," the other one has been made habitable by the wretched served that the noisiest advocates for enclosure are the "ad tenant with some old sleepers fetched from the nearest railvanced thinkers" of the squares and streets, the absentee way, or the thatch mended by his own hand with straw that squire who has outrun the constable, and is in his agent's ought to have gone to the pig. hands, and the people afflicted with that mania called Men pretend to wonder that the population of our villages "land-hunger.” As to the rights of the lord, again, I have goes on decreasing. It would be wonderful if it were otherobserved that the word rights is getting used more and more wise. The peasantry have acquired migratory habits, and generally as a synonym for powers, as though the two no gone into the towns from sheer necessity. We have been tions were identical. Right always does mean power, and doing our best in our schools to teach the rising generation

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decency and self-respect, and in proportion as they learn into, who has perhaps two or three children that may be that lesson in that proportion do they take the earliest | anybody's, and whom moreover he has in his power as long opportunity to get out of the shameful hovels which cruel as he can dismiss her at a week's notice. mockers call their "homes." The wrong and the sin are Meanwhile, the young men, having once broken away those of omission as far as the larger proprietors are con from the parents' nest, acquire roaming habits, go to the cerned. I grant; but what then?

‘pits,' run up to London for a spree, become navvies, and Non hominem occidi.- Non pasces in cruce corvos.

speedily learn the coarse vice and foul language of the soSum bonus et frugi.-Renuit negitatque Sabellus.

ciety into which they have plunged, and if they come back

to their birthplace they come back brutalized, unsettled, The mischief is all the harder to deal with because the

reckless; always with empty pockets, and bawling against larger number of our laborers' cottages are not the property and denouncing every class except their own with a set of of the great land-owners, but of small, sometimes very phrases from the new Gospel of Hate which ribald agitators small, proprietors. These latter manage to get a very hand ply them with. But these men do not marry; too often some return for their investments, and are quite safe in

they return at thirty, broken-down sots, and badly diseased, asking what rent they chose to demand. Tell them they and not seldom become the disseminators of such poison as are living in a fool's paradise, and that Mr. A.or Mr. B. will I do not care to speak of. build some decent dwellings soon, and empty the old tum

Thus, spite of improved machinery, spite of increased ble-down shanties, and they laugh at you. “I know better

wages, spite of shorter hours of toil, the labor market conthan that,” said a coarse, foul-mouthed old drover to me. tinues to exhibit the remarkable anomaly of a steady decrease **Gentlemen don't like building houses for them sort of peo of supply, varying inversely with the increase of demand. ple. We ain't got no game-keepers here, nor no gentlefolks To explain it by saying that it is a mere question of wages neither!” So the small capitalist invests in the row of cot is to show an entire ignorance of the facts. Taking the rutages within easy reach of the public house, and very well

ral population in the mass and comparing their income man he makes it pay. Even looking at the matter from the meanest by man with that of the mass of the townsmen, I have a point of view, it appears doubtful whether he is not more

strong suspicion that the countryman would be found by no shrewd than the richer proprietor, who tells you that the means the poorer of the two. As to that industrious, sober, broad acres cannot run away, while laborers can and do. able-bodied agricultural laborer who has to bring up a famAy! They can and do. But as William Colbett said in his

ily on twelve shilling a week, he exists only in the speeches own strong way nearly half a century ago, “Without the

of the demagogue. Such a man in the eastern counties is laborer the land is nothing worth. Without his labor there not to be found; he would be as hard to meet with as a pole. can be no tillage, no enclosure of fields, no tending of flocks, cat. no breeding of cattle, and a farm is worth no more than an The truth is you have increased the laborer's daily wages, equal number of acres of the sea or of the air."

but that is absolutely all that you have done for him. He It is when we come to deal with the results directly trace asks for a decent home, for a chance of bettering himself, for able to the general decay and neglect of the laborers' dwell

the possibility of a future which may raise him to the rank ings that the outlook appears most serious. Unhappily we of a small proprietor; for some prospect of trying his luck are all too well aware that in the best times chastity never with a cow or a horse and cart; for some innocent recreation was a virtue held in very high estimation among the rural and amusement when his day's work is done; for some tiny population. Two young people "kept company for a while, playground for his children in the summer evenings;* for and the result was accepted as a matter of course. Thirty some object of ambition. What answer can you make to years ago marriage also followed as a matter of course, and

him? Are you going to point to the sign of the Chequers a man was looked upon as a bad fellow who delayed to creaking in the breeze? Our agricultural friend refuses to 'father his child' by making the mother his wife. Of late

take the hint, and angrily shakes his head. The very beer years this remnant of honorable sentiment has been dying is so bad that it has ceased to tempt him to a debauch. out, and, by much that I can hear from those on whose in I do not pretend to be a prophet, but, looming through the formation I can rely, the conviction has been forced upon mists of the future, there are some ugly shapes that seem to me that female prostitution in country villages is by no be frowning on us. The cry for tenant right has not yet means uncommon. The young men have no houses to bring | made itself heard on our side of the Channel, but are we their wives to, the young women will not be content with sure there are no mutterings of a storm whose thunder may the ruinous hovels. So the child is born, weaned, and left be only the echo of the Land League's roar? I fancy, if with the grandmother; the young fellow slinks off into the

some gentlemen were to find themselves at a farmers' orditown or takes a jog’ in some remote county-the order of nary on market-day, they would hear more than they exaffiliation is never served, and the girl goes out to service or pected. Tlfe great capitalists among the farmers, again, she hangs about the village with nothing to do, and hoists are giving up the game, and sullenly telling you that high her flag again in hopes that sooner or later she may capture farming doesn't pay. I think they don't mean what they some weak besieger of the citadel and be made an honest say; but they do mean that farming on a large scale and in woman of by bearing another's name. If this should not the grand style does not pay. If they are right, there is a happen as soon as might be wished, and if youth passes and mauvais quart d'heure for such as have pulled down three middle life is beginning, she has still another chance. A or four farmhouses and thrown the fields into one large holdlaborer finds himself suddenly a widower with three or four ing. If landlords be compelled to reverse a policy to which young children and no female to look after them. What is they have been pledging themselves for so long, they may he to do? The natural course would be to marry again. find that it was an evil day for them when they began to Formerly this used to be invariably done, and usually with "burn one house to warm another." very little delay. Now he tells you he can do better than But the labor market. Oh, the labor market! there's the that. He takes a housekeeper and pretends that he means rub! There stands the ominous fact that for years an exodus to look out for a wife. He has not the least difficulty in has been going on from the country villages of the best and finding the housckeeper, and forthwith new relations are en most ambitious of the laboring class. It is going on still. tered into. He has nothing to gain by marriage-nothing as far as he can see-and something to lose by tying himself

*I have seen children crying because it was holiday time at the for life to a woman whose antecedents will not bear looking school, and they had nothing to do at home and no place to play in.

Village life has ceased to present charms to the sons of THE ORIGIN AND HISTORY OF THE the soil. There have been many causes operating to bring

WORD" CHAUTAUQUA.” this about; no one remedy can be trusted to meet the evil. But yet something may be done.

Men do not run away in shoals from homes where their The excellent reputation that Chautauqua Lake bears as childhood was happy and their youth blessed with joyous a place of rest, and the remarkable school of learning estabmemories, and in which they may look forward in their lished on its shore, have drawn many there. They who go turn to pass their best years in some decency, comfort, and to enjoy these privileges, naturally feel an interest in the self-respect. They do run away from the odious thought of Lake, and all that relates to it; even in the origin and living and dying in a squalid hovel with a clay floor and meaning of the Indian name by which it is known. It is two dark cabins under the rafters, reached by a rickety lad the purpose of this article to give a history of the word, and der; in the one of which sleep father and mother as best what is known of its signification. they can, while in the fætid air of the other their offspring The country extending along the southern shore of Lake of both sexes huddle, sometimes eight or nine of them, Erie remained unexplored and almost unknown to Euroamong them young men and young women, out of whom peans until nearly as late as 1750. The French, who held you are stamping all sense of shame. Yes! people do run possessions in Canada, had either been excluded from that away from a life like this; leaving it behind them as a region by the fierce and warlike Iroquois, or their enterdreadful past which they remember only with indignation, prising spirit had not drawn them that way. Communicaor rebelling against the prospect of it as a future too hideous tion between the French forts and settlements in Canada, to be entertained, except with scorn. I, for one, do not and their posts on the Lower Mississippi, was first mainblame them.

tained by the long and circuitous route of the Ottawa River,

Green Bay, and the Mississippi River; and afterwards by NIGHT AND MORNING.

Lake Michigan and the Illinois River; and, at a still later

period, by the Maumee and the Wabash. The direct and Sorrow and storm upon the deep,

easy communication that could have been had between Wild light, and thunder-roar!

Canada and the Mississippi, by the way of the short portThe good ship laboured heavily

age between Lakes Erie and Chautauqua, and thence to the A mile away from shore.

Ohio, seems to have been for a long time unknown to the "Ah me, what will the morning bring?” French. Indeed, we find no early mention of Chautauqua I heard a woman cry;

Lake. It is not marked upon Champlain's map of 1632, nor “The waves are strong, the night is long. does his map contain evidence that he had an accurate No helping hands are nigh!”

knowledge of this part of the country. No white man, it is Oh, bitter, bitter was the wail

probable, ever beheld the Lake previous to 1700. Of wives upon the beach;

Baron La Houton, who accompanied De Nouville, GovLove wrestled there in fervent prayer

ernor General of Canada, in a warlike expedition against For those it could not reach.

the Iroquois in New York, in 1687, subsequently extended

his travels further to the west, and in 1688 visited Lake Sorrow and sighing in the room

Erie in company with a party of western Indians, and in-
Where lights were burning low;
A soul was called away from earth,

vaded the territory of the Iroquois, to the south of it, in the

State of Ohio. He wrote a very interesting description of
And longed, yet feared to go,
For thoughts of bygone doubt and sin

the Lake and the country around it, in the course of which O'erwhelmed it like a tide,

he says: "Lake Erie is justly dignified with the illustrious And darkness lay across the way

name of Conti; for assuredly it is the finest upon earth. That leads to Life untried ;

You may judge of the climate from the latitude of the

countries that surround it. Its circumference extends to two "Ah me, what will the morning bring?' I heard the watchers cry;

hundred and thirty leagues, but it affords everywhere a Love wrestled there in fervent prayer,

charming prospect; and its shores are decked with oak But death was drawing nigh.

trees, chestnut trees, walnut, apple, plum trees, and vines

which bear their fine clusters, up to the very tops of the The day broke slowly, cool and grey

trees, upon a spot of ground that lies as smooth as one's And calm from east to west;

hand. Such ornaments as these are sufficient to give rise The ship was safe within the bay,

to the most agreeable idea of a landscape in the world. I The soul had gone to rest;

can not express what quantities of deer and turkeys are to For God was greater than the wave,

be found in these woods, and in the vast meadows that lie And stronger than the blast;

upon the south side of the Lake. At the foot of the Lake we Oh, soul and bark, through storm and dark find wild beeves (buffaloes), on the banks of two pleasant Ye came to peace at las'!

streams that disembogue into it, without cataracts or rapid

currents. It abounds with sturgeon and white fish, but The eye is the window of the soul; the mouth the door. trout are very scarce in it, as well as other fish that we take in The intellect, the will, are seen in the eye; the emotions, Lake of Hurons and Illinese (Michigan). It is clear of sensibilities, and affections, in the mouth. The animals shelves, rocks, and banks of sand, and has fourteen or fiflook for man's intentions right into his eyes; even a rat teen fathoms of water. The savages assure us that it is when you hunt him and bring him to bay, looks you in the never disturbed by high winds, except in the months of eye.- Hiram Powers.

December, January, and February, and even then but selAll sects are different because they come from men; mor

dom, which I am very apt to believe, for we had very few

storms when I wintered in my fort in 1688, though the fort ality is everywhere the same because it comes from God.Voltaire.

lay open to the Lake Hurons. The banks of this Lake are

commonly frequented by none but warriors, whether IroThe superiority of some men is merely local; they are quois, the Illinese, the Oumiamies, etc., and it is very dangreat because their associates are little.-Johnson.

gerous to stop there. By this means it comes to pass

stags, roe-bucks, and turkeys run in great bodies up and upon that shore of the lower Lake. Its helve had nearly down the shore all around the Lake. In former times the gone to decay, and in 1816 an old musket was also found Errirouons and the Andastogueronons lived upon the con near the same shore upon the same side of the Lake. It apfines of the Lake; but they were extirpated by the Iroquois, peared to have been standing near a' large ash tree. The as well as the other nations marked upon the map."

stock fell to pieces when the gun was taken up; the barrel Although Lake Erie was well-known to Europeans so early and its bands were badly rusted; the letters inscribed upon it was not until the long and earnest contention between the gun indicated that it was of French manufacture. England and France, respecting the boundary lines between these ancient relics may indicate the place where Celoron their possessions in America, that Chautauqua Lake was and his party encamped. On the 24th the expedition made first brought to notice. The French claimed dominion over little progress. They passed down the narrow and crooked all the country lying west of the Alleghenies. The English outlet, the light of day being nearly shut out by the overalso claimed the territory westward of their colonies, to the reaching forest; they encamped the night of the 24th at Pacific Ocean. The latter, in 1722, established a trading or near the present site of Jamestown, Celoron was propost at Oswego, and a little later built there a fort. The vided with a number of leaden plates to deposit at various French thereupon, to enable them to command communica- points on his route, to indicate formal acts of possession and tion with the west, in 1725 reoccupied and reconstructed dominion. Upon each of these plates an appropriate in. Fort Niagara, which had been deserted for over thirty-f ve scription in French was engraved, expressing the purpose years. They made it a strong fortress. In 1749 the two of the expedition, with a space left in each in which to enrival countries proceeded more directly to assert their rights grave the place of its deposit when determined upon. The to the territory lying west of the Alleghenies. The English Iroquois, who were extremely jealous of the movements of government granted five hundred acres of land on the Ohio the French, managed by some artifice to obtain one of these to the Ohio Company, which included persons in London, leaden plates, which they delivered to Sir William JohnMaryland, and Virginia as its members; among whom son, and which was afterwards probably carried to England. were Lawrence and Augustine Washington. The objects of The following is a translation of the inscription engraved this Company were the settlement of this territory, and the upon it, prepared, it is believed, to be buried at the outlet establishment of trade with the Indians.

of Chautauqua: The French, the same year, sent from Lachine, in Can "In the year 1749, of the reign of Louis XV, King of ada, Captain Bienville de Celoron with two hundred and France, we, Celoron, commander of a detachment sent by fourteen soldiers and Canadians, and fifty-five Iroquois and Monsieur the Marquis de la Galissoniere, Governor General A benakis Indians, to the Ohio country to take possession of of New France, to re-establish tranquility in some Indian those disputed regions in the name of the king of France. villages of these cantons, have buried this plate of lead at In June, 1749, this party ascended the St. Lawrence, and the confluence of the Ohio and the Chautauqua (Tchadcoasted along the eastern and southern shore of Lake On akoiu in the original), this 29th day of July, near the river tario, passed up the Niagara River, and along the southern Ohio, otherwise Belle Rivere, as a monument of the renewal shore of Lake Erie as far west as the mouth of Chautauqua , of the possession we have taken of the said river Ohio, and Creek, at the hamlet of Barcelona, Chautauqua county, of all those which empty into it, and of all the lands on where they arrived July 16, 1749. They then passed over the both sides as far as the sources of the said rivers, as enportage between Lakes Erie and Chautauqua, and arrived | joyed, or ought to have been enjoyed, by the kings of France at the head of the latter Lake on the 22d. Celoron and his preceding, and as they have there maintained themselves men, from the heights of Mayville, first beheld this secluded by arms and by treaties, especially those of Ryswick, water. Remote from the obscure paths of the wilderness, it Utrecht, and Aix la Chapelle.” was seldom visited by savage, and perhaps never before by The name Ohio, or Beautiful River, was applied by the civilized man. Celoron embarked on the Lake on the 23d. French to the Allegheny, as well as to the river below PittsIn his voyage over its upper expanse, he passed the conse burgh. By the inscription it would appear that it was becrated groves of Point Chautauqua and Chautauqua, which lieved by Celoron, either that the Chautauqua outlet empwere then but the haunts of the wild deer, or where it may tied into the Ohio at Warren, or that the Conewango and be, the wolf made his lair. He passed the narrow cape, Canadaga were the main branches of the river, and were now know as Long Point, which, stretching far into the consequently entitled to the appellation of Ohio. The first deepest waters of the Lake, narrows to a long and slender plate buried by Celoron, was at the confluence of the Ohio thread of land scarcely wide enough to bear its single line and Kanaaiagou (Conawango), on the 29th of July, as apof graceful forest trees, or to hide the glistening bay beyond. pears by the leaden plate placed there. It was buried at This charming bay, shut in by Long Point, Thomas Point, the foot of a red oak, on the south bank of the Allegheny, and Bemus Point, forms a miniature lake. When Celoron at the confluence of that stream with the Conewango, near passed over its bright waters, it was a marvel of natu ral

the village of Warren. Celoron continued his journey beauty. On this day Celoron passed Bemus Point, and down the Ohio, as far as the mouth of the Great Miami, through the narrows into the lower expanse. Rude as were when he ascended the Miami and returned to Canada. these forest rovers, as they paddled their boats over its clear, He buried leaden plates inscribed with similar inscripsparkling waters, they must have been impressed with the tions near the famous rock below Franklin, known as rare beauty of the Lake. Fed by springs beneath its sur the Indian God; at the mouth of Wheeling Creek, in West face, or by streams of purest water, in which the brook Virginia; at the mouth of the Muskingham, which plate trout dwelt, that rippled down over beds of gravel, through was found by some boys in 1798; also at the mouth of the leafy shades, from springs among the hills; its gracefully Great Kanawba, which was found in 1846, and lastly, at the curving shores nearly hid by overhanging foliage that mouth of the Great Miami. spread densely from the water's margin on every side, to The first that we find a name applied to Chautauqua the summits of the encircling hills, the Lake must have Lake, or its outlet, is the word Tchadakoiu, in the inscripbeen even more beautiful than now. On the night of the tion upon this leaden plate, thus surreptitiously obtained 23d, Celoron encamped on the shore of the Lake, about by the Indians from the French, and presented to Sir Wilthree miles above its outlet; at what place it is not pre liam Johnson; and in the journal of the expedition kept by cisely known.

Celoron, where it is written Chatacoiu, and Chatakouia; About 1811 a French ax of a peeuliar pattern was found and upon a map of the route of the expedition made at the

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