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32. Q. What is the fourth inference, as to the earnestness 54. Q. What is the sixteenth inference as to those arts of and passions of the ideal orator? A. The ideal orator has eloquence of which the ideal orator is a master? [NOTE.great earnestness, together with strong and healthy pas In numbering the inferences fifteen is omitted in the printed sions.

book. To avoid confusion I have followed the numbering 33. Q. What three species of unction are enumerated? A. as there given. A. M. M.] A. The ideal orator is a master Physical unction, intellectual unction, and the unction of of those arts of eloquence bordering upon the department of the Holy Ghost.

rhetoric. 34. Q. What is the fifth inference, as to the self-possession 55. Q. In what recommendation is there a very general of the ideal orator? A. The ideal orator is always self- agreement among orators and rhetoricians for the perfection possessed.

of one's style? A. Through the untiring use of the pen. 35. Q. What does Bishop Simpson think are the two 56. Q. What other methods are recommended for the pergreat requisites for ready and correct extemporaneous fection of the style of the orator? A. Careful revision of speaking? A. Self-possession and command of language. literary productions, translation from one tongue to another,

36. Q. What is the sixth inference, as to the moral fear constant study of the best literature of the mother tongue of lessness of the ideal orator? A. The ideal orator is mor the orator, and the patient study of words. ally fearless.

57. Q. With what must the ideal orator become thoroughly 37. Q. What did Goldsmith say were the only rules of familiar, by the study of models and constant practice, as eloquence he could offer? A. To feel your subject thor stated in the seventeenth inference? A. The forms of exoughly, and to speak without fear.

pression known as figures of oratory, or figures of emphasis. 38. Q. What is the seventh inference as to the convic 58. Q. Mention six among the more important of these tions and opinions of the ideal orator? A. The ideal orator figures. A. Antithesis, rhetorical repetition, climax, interis a man of strong convictions and positive opinions. rogation, exclamation, and vision.

39. Q. What is one of the first and best established laws 59. Q. What is the eighteenth inference as to the tactics of oratory? A. That the speaker must himself be first per and artifices of oratory? A. The ideal orator must become suaded, if he would persuade others.

familiar with all the tactics and artifices of oratory. 40. Q. What is the eighth inference as to the persever. 60. Q. What is said of some of these tactics that have not ance and industry of the ideal orator? A. The ideal orator been classified ? A. The circumstances under which they is a man of untiring perseverance and industry.

can be legitimately used must be left to the instincts and 41. Q. What chapter in the history of oratory is espec intuitions of the orator. ially full of interest and encouragement to the aspirant for 61. Q. What is the first mentioned of these forms of the honors of public speech? A. The one which records speech among those classified, technically called “Anacethe severe application of distinguished orators.

nosis ?'' A. Counseling with the hearer and asking an 42. Q. In what is the ideal orator a master, as stated in the opinion. ninth inference? A. The arts of poetic representation. 62. Q. What is the second form, involving a compliment

43. Q. What does Fenelon affirm of the true orator? A. to the hearer? A. Presuming upon the agreement and That he is a poet, a philosopher, and a man of passion in knowledge of the hearer.

63. Q. What are four other forms given? A. Admission 44. Q. What is the tenth inference as to the logical in of difficulty, self-correction, self-interruption, and self-destincts and methods of the ideal orator? A. The ideal preciation. orator has logical instincts and methods, but is not tram 64. Q. What remark is made as to the use of these and all melled by them.

other figures of speech, to be adapted to oratory? A. They 45. Q. What are some noted illustrations of untram must be expressed with simplicity, conciseness, and premelled logical powers in the field of secular oratory? A. cision. The orations of Cicero, Burke, Pitt, Erskine, and Webster. 65. Q. What is the nineteenth inference, as to the natur

46. Q. What is the eleventh inference as to the ideal ora alness of the ideal orator? A. The ideal orator must regain tor? A. The ideal orator is a philosopher.

the lost art of naturalness. 47. Q. What is the twelfth inference as to the memory of 66. Q. In what department of oratory is there perhaps the ideal orator? A. The ideal orator has a philosophical more unnaturalness than in any other? A. Modern pulpit memory

oratory. 48. Q. What is the surest way to come into possession of 67. Q. What is the twentieth inference as to the populara philosophical memory? A. The practice of constantly ity of the ideal orator? A. The ideal orator has the ingeneralizing.

stincts and graces of popularity. 49. Q. What is the thirteenth inference as to the learning 68. Q. What are two evils that interfere with a true of the ideal orator? A. The ideal orator is a man of exten- popular expression on the part of the orator? A. The pressive learning.

ence of the modern reporter, so far as the speaker gives him 50. Q. What are the three fundamental factors that con any thought, and a needless show of learning. stitute the orator? A. What he is, what he knows, and his 69. Q. Under the twenty-first inference, what is the first power of using himself and his knowledge.

requirement to which the ideal orator is expected to conform in a given oration ? A. He should have a thorough

knowledge of the persons addressed. 51. Q. What is the fourteenth inference as to those arts of eloquence in which the ideal orator is a master? A. The between the speaker and hearer? A. The aim from the ideal orator is a master in those arts of eloquence adjoining start should be to shorten as much as possible the distance, the fields of elocution.

figurative and literal. 52. Q. Under what are these arts chiefly included? A. 71. Q. What is the third requirement, as to singleness Gesture-culture and voice-culture.

of aim ? A. The aim, when possible, should be single.

72. Q. What is the fourth requirement? A. He must be to the student of oratory in this connection ? A. The study able to seize upon what is passing. of models, constant practice, and professional elocutionary 73. Q. What is the fifth requirement, as to the cause adinstruction.

vocated ? A. He must believe in the cause advocated.


of 70. Q. What is the second requirement, as to the distance

53. Q. What three important recommendations are made o7

74. Q. What is the sixth requirement, as to winning his this form of debate! A. It requires the exercise of great case ? He must be determined to win his case.

skill and judgment. The well-nigh universal rule is to stato 75. Q. What is the seventh, and final, requirement? A. and refute objections either in the middle of the argument His self-assertion should be supplemented by entire self or near the introduction. renunciation.

98. Q. In the form of debate in which the opponent is

present and states and defends his own views, what should 76. Q. Of what does the science of argumentation treat, the speaker guard against ? A. Accusations of insincerity; and in what field does it rest? A. It treats of the different reflections against the character or standing of the oppovarieties of reasoning, and of the different modes of conduct nent; misrepresentation of an opponent; treatment of an ing an argument, and lies in the field of logic.

opponent's views contemptuously; resort to sophistry; mis77. Q. In what is the basis of an argument? A. In the taking violence or rashness for either chivalry or courage. use of one or more statements in proof of some other state 99. Q. What is the leading step in debate? A. Clearly ment.

and accurately to define all terms to be employed. 78. Q. What are the principal requirements in regard to 100. Q. What has the public already decided as to logical those statements ? A. That they shall be both correct and exactness in speech? A. That he who dares not reason is clear.

a slave; that he who will not is a bigot; and he who can 79. Q. What are four classes of subject matter that form not is a fool. a basis for argumentation ? A. Primary mental judgments; facts; opinions; revealed or Bible truth.

LOCAL CIRCLES.* 80. Q. What are the mental acts included in primary mental judgments? A. Conscience, consciousness, instinct, in For the month of April the Required Reading is tho tuition, memory, perception, and common sense.

second volume of Dr. Townsend's Art of Speech; and in 81. Q. What are facts given in evidence? A. Premises

THE CHAUTAUQUAN, Mosaics of History, Christianity in from which a conclusion is to be drawn.

Art, Mountain of Miseries, readings about Mathematica 82. Q. What five classes of facts are enumerated ? A. and Chemistry. There are one hundred questions and anTruths resting upon first principles, of general experience,

swers printed in this number of THE CHAUTAUQUAN, based of special experience, of testimony, and of experiment.

on the second volume of Dr. Townsend's Art of Speech. 83. Q. What is the first step in dealing with facts as evi

We divide the work for the month into four parts, one for dence? A. To acquire a strong belief of the truth of the each week, as a matter of convenience to members of local facts.

circles, and others who wish such a division, as follows: 84. Q. In estimating the force of evidence built upon facts,

FIRST WEEK.-1. The Art of Speech, Studies in Elohow many degrees are there ? A. Four: The possible, the

quence, to page 58.-Introductory, History of Eloquence, plausible, the probable, and the certain.

Life and Character of Demosthenes, and Oration on the 85. Q. Under one or the other of what two general types is

Crown. it found that all forms of reasoning fall ? A. The inductive 2. Questions and Answers on the Art of Speech, from No. method, and the deductive method.

1 to No. 25, inclusive. 86. Q. When is the reasoning inductive? A. When a 3. Mosaics of History, and Mountain of Miseries, in The general conclusion is drawn from particular instances.

CHAUTAUQUAN. 87. Q. What is the deductive method ? A. A general con

SECOND WEEK.-1. The Art of Speech, Studies in Eloclusion having been reached, the application of it to some

quence-Inferences—from page 58 to page 114, inclusive. particular instance, is reasoning by the process of deduction.

2. Questions and Answers on the Art of Speech, from No. 88. Q. When the inductive can be supplemented by the

26 to No. 50, inclusive. deductive method, what is said of the conclusion? A. It be

3. Christianity in Art, and Mathematics, in The CHAJcomes a moral certainty.

TAUQUAN. 89. Q. According to what may certain varieties included

THIRD WEEK.-1. The Art of Speech, Studies in Elounder these two general types of reasoning be classified ? A. quence-Inferences, continued-from page 115 to page 179, Quality, rhetorical form, and logical method.

inclusive. 90. Q. How is reasoning classified as to its quality, further

2. Questions and Answers on the Art of Speech, from N.. specified. A. As probable reasoning, demonstrative reason

51 to No. 75, inclusive. ing, and divine reasoning.

3. Readings about Chemistry, in The CHAUTAUQUAN. 91. Q. Give some of the divisions of reasoning classified FOURTH WEEK.-1. The Art of Speech, Part Secondas to its rhetorical form. A. Reasoning illustratively, in

Studies in Logic, froni page 183 to end of book.-Introdueferentially, suppositively, interrogatively, syllogistically, tory, Argumentation, Classification, Practical Observaand oratorically.

tions upon Argumentative Speech. 92. Q. What are the two general divisions of reasoning

2. Questions and Answers on the Art of Speech, from No. classified as to its logical method. A. Sophistical forms of

76 to No. 100, inclusive. argument, and correct forms of argument. 93. Q. In ordinary discourse, the use of what kind of ar

The Forest City Circle of the C. L. S. C., Cleveland, Ohio,

held its annual meeting on Thursday evening, February guments should be avoided by the speaker? A. Weak arguments; those which prove too much; and those which

9th, at which time the following officers were elected for the

ensuing year: President, Judge G. M. Barber; vice presimay be turned against him upon some other occasion. 94. Q. What is said of technical terms? A. Avoid, es

dents, L. J. P. Bishop and Mrs. T. S. Paddock; secretary, pecially in popular addresses, all technical terms.

Mrs. Dr. A. C. Miller; treasurer, E. B. Grover; executivo 95. Q. What should the speaker seek to present fully and

and educational committee, the officers, and Mrs. J. C. fairly? A. The more important arguments.

Covert and Mr. S. A. Bradbury; music committee, Mrs. J. 96. Q. In the form of debate in which the opponent is

Ingersoll, Miss Marian L. Barber, and Mr. Howard Yost.

The circle is in a flourishing condition, having a memberabsent or silent, what should the speaker guard against ? A. A too elaborate refutation of unimportant objections, and * All communications from local circles intended for Tue Chavvehemence while refuting objections.

TAUQUAN should be addressed to Albert M. Martin, General Secre 97. Q. What is said of the correct placing of objections in tary of the C. L. S. C., Pittsburgh, Pa.

ship of forty in good standing. It has ever aimed to follow proper, but I am proud to report that each member of the the Chautauqua idea, believing it better to instruct than to class is reading THE CHAUTAUQUAN 'for all there is in it,' amuse. While this has tended to drive several members of and all enjoy it thoroughly." the local circle away, it has proven quite a boon for all students who have come into the circle. The exercises are Miss Fanny L. Armstrong, the corresponding secretary, conducted somewhat as follows: Opening exercises of relates the manner in which they organized a local circle in prayer and music, followed by a short essay on some topic New Orleans, La., as follows: “When I was young, they connected with the reading of the circle. Then perhaps a used to keep wood on the andirons, light wood splinters class exercise consisting of the voluntary answering of ques under it, with a few coals, all in order, with a match lying tions by the members. The questions are printed and dis on the mantelpiece, so a fire could be kindled in an instant. tributed at the previous meeting. Occasionally a talk is In some such way our C. L. S. C. was formed. Rev. D. L. had on an important subject by some of the ablest literary Mitchel, ex-Secretary of the Y. M. C. A., had all things in talent obtainable. Music and miscellaneous business close order; I went to Chautauqua, and saw him the next day. the exercises.

after my return, and he said, 'What about it?' I said, 'All

right. At least that is the substance of our remarks. So The O. W. Holmes Local Circle, at Trenton, New Jersey, we promised to meet that week, and on the 10th of Septemwas organized in October, 1881, with fourteen members, ber ten persons met, and I told them about it, and we orwhich number has since been increased to thirty-four. The ganized and elected officers." officers are: Rev. John R. Westwood, president; Ed. C. The recording secretary, in a report of a meeting of the White, secretary; A. Zimmerman, treasurer, and Miss circle, gives the following information: "The meeting was Hannah Davis, orthoëpist. The secretary writes as fol- opened with reading of Scriptures and prayer. An essay lows: "Our meetings are held on Saturday night of each was read on 'The Third Period of Egyptian History,' by week, in the Central M. E. Church. 'Our membership, Mr. A. F. Godat; Miss Mitchel conducted an exercise from however, is not confined to the Methodists, as we count the questions and answers on language and writing; Mr. among us some Baptists, Presbyterians and Lutherans. Riply gave a discourse on geology. The exercises closed We all agree wonderfully on the C. L. S. C. Questions for with a recitation of Longfellow's 'Ladder of Augustine,' further study are assigned different members each week, by Miss Prospect. The circle numbers sixteen, nine of and the week's reading reviewed in a general way. We whom are women, and seven men." have a basket which is passed around the circle for any questions the members are desirous of having answered.

The Mansfield Valley, Pa., local circle had a very enjoySome of these questions are answered in open circle, in February, and were royally entertained by the Captain

able reunion at the residence of Captain Glenn, one evening while others are referred to some one to hunt up the an

and his estimable wife. During the evening a history of swers. No names are attached to the questions. We set

the circle since its first organization, now nearly four years apart a portion of the meeting nearest a memorial day as 'memorial night.' On Milton's night we divided the hymn ago, was read by one of the members, commencing with on the nativity into sections, which were read by seventeen

this poetic prologue: of our members. 'Satan' was read by Miss Ida McMahon,

"While rowing o'er the pearly lake,

In the bright and sunny days, and a five-minute sketch of his life by the secretary.

Comes joy in tracing back our path, similar manner we remembered ‘Bryant's night.''

O'er the ripples and the waves; The visit of Miss Lucy M. Washburn, the former secretary

As the sunlight on the dimples of the California Branch of the C. L. S. C., to Chautauqua

Gives the most resplendent sight,

So we'll give the sunlight picture last summer, awakened much interest on the part of other

Of our Chautauqua days to-night." members in the membership on the Pacific coast. The pre

The circle has kept its work up to a high standard from sent secretary, Miss Mary E. B. Norton, in a recent letter

the beginning, and has exerted a marked influence in the says: “Our Pacific Branch' moves on slowly, but we hope community. Those who have persevered through the ensurely toward a more prosperous future. We have an in

tire course feel their enthusiasm and zeal growing as they crease of seventy members upon the number who paid their

near the end. The close of the year of study will be celefees last year, including a circle of nine just formed in Idaho.

brated by the circle in a manner befitting the occasion. I hope to set a little torch burning in each of the States and Territories on this coast before the year closes, and we have The following account of the manner in which a minister already, as you will see when the membership records are in one of the Western States organized a local circle conall in, members in Oregon, Washington, Nevada and Idaho. tains hints that might be acted upon with profit by others. In view of the delays and changes at the opening of the

I preached on 'mental girding' on New Year's, year, I do uot feel discouraged, and my interest in the grand and presented the 'Chautauqua idea’ as a practicable method work deepens each month. In no part of our country can of doing it. The subject was taken up and talked on the there be greater peed of its growth and onward progress than streets and in the offices. I answered many questions, and on this coast."

distributed several copies of the Hand-book No. 2. Last

Sunday I announced a meeting at the parsonage of all interAt Bryan, in the northwestern corner of Ohio, they have ested in a Chautauqua class. The evening and the mornorganized a local circle of the C. L. S. C., with a member ing were the first day.' And this morning I find that of the ship of twenty, eighteen of whom are women. The meet- forty-five or more who came last evening, thirty-five have ings are held on Saturday of each week. The time is occu left their names and orders for the books required, and othpied in reading and discussing the required reading in The ers who were not here will have their names added. We CHAUTAUQUAN. The vice president acts as teacher. On hope to have a working circle. Let me mention some of our the first Monday of each month a meeting is held for gen. material: Three preachers, one lawyer—and we expect aneral review and a discussion of all the matter in THE CHAU- other or two-one physician, three active school teachers, TAUQUAN of the preceding month. At this meeting the and several that have been teachers, the assistant superinpresident acts as teacher. The secretary writes: “I am tendent of a Sunday-school, and many other men of weight sorry not to be able to say that we all belong to the class and experience in society and business circles."


In a

He says:

The Chautauqua Young Folks' Reading Union comes so House and City Hall. They had a ludicrous but instructive near being a preliminary course of the C. L. S. C. that re search. They discovered that the City Hall and Custom ports as to its progress are appropriate in this department. House were grand buildings. They wrote beautifully about Local circles will, in some instances, find it interesting and the Ironic, Byronic, or whatever it is, order of architecture, profitable to have meetings combining features of both and gave fine descriptions of the buildings, both within and courses. A lady writes from the state of New York con without. Next week they will hunt some others to describe cei ning a local circle or union of the C. Y. F. R. U.: "Early for us. I believe a genuine Greek church will be next in in last December I forwarded thirteen names for member order. I don't know what they will do when they get ship in the Chautauqua Young Folks' Reading Union. We among the old Spanish and French buildings." have an organized class, and since the time I wrote have met every week, with twenty-five or thirty persons in attend

A lady member writes from Iowa: “I am pursuing my ance. We have had some 'talks' on the etiquette and his

studies alone, and I feel that I have not accomplished as tory, but our main work has been with the chemistry, and

much as I would if I could have had the benefit of a local we have been very successful in experiments with the can

circle. The nearest one is eigbteen miles from my home. I dle. We have smoked a good many glass tubes, and broken

attended once, and saw how much I was losing. But I have some, made hydrogen, and attempted two or three other been greatly benefited, and I hope to help others, for I things wbich we expect will succeed next time. We shall

awakened no little interest among my neighbors rummagmeet every week until the evenings get short and farm ing their books to find answers to those art questions. I do work begins.”

the most of my work on a large dairy farm, but have kept

up with my reading, and hope to organize a large circle next The secretary of the local circle at Boise City, Idaho Terri year in the neighborhood." tory, writes as follows: "The members of the C. L. S. C. have organized a local circle in Boise City. We have six

A lady who would like to correspond with some other menubers of the C. L. d. C. and five local members. We member of the circle for mutual help, says: “I am inmeet on Wednesday evening of each week. Our officers terested in the lady in Alabama who is a terminus of a consist of a president and secretary. At each meeting the straight line, and whose neighbor is the other terminus: president appoints a critic and leader, or questioner, for also, in the lady who is changing the social atmosphere of the next meeting. Our programmes are made up of the re

that country store. Are their names among those desiring quired reading, and questions as divided in TheCHAUTAU- correspondence ?" If either of the ladies referred to would QUAN. A portion is read aloud at the meeting, and the rest like to open such a correspondence she will please commuis left for home study. We also have two essays each week,

nicate with the C. L. S. C. office at Plainfield, N. J. and exercises in pronunciation. We are all very enthusiastic,

In the most of our large cities the canvass is now being and enter heartily into the work. We are few in numbers,

made for the city directories. The C. L. 8. C. should be but expect our enthusiasm will incite others to join us, and hope they will also unite with the 'parent circle.'

represented among the organizations given in these publi

cations. The officers of the local circles will do well to give The Athens, Ohio, readers of the C. L. S. C. have formed the subject attention. The C. L. S. C. is a permanently es. a local circle with officers as follows: Mrs. J. D. Brown, tablished society, and members in a city away from home President; Miss Lucy Ballan, Vice President; and Miss

should be able to find the time and place of a meeting Jennie Sloane, Secretary. From a letter by the secretary we

through the help of the directory, as readily as members of take the following: "We have been reading for some time,

other organizations. a few of our members belonging to the class of 1882, others to

The memorial day for the present month is Shakspere's 1883, and the remainder to 1884. We number in all four

Day, April 23d. As that date falls on Sunday, local circles teen members, but until quite recently have not organized

can either observe the preceding Saturday, the following a local circle. Now, however, we wonder how we ever did

Monday, or the nearest time to it for a regular meeting. without it. We make our meetings very interesting by

The selections to be read are “Fall of Cardinal Wolsey," securing the services of our college professors in the way of

from the second scene of the third act of Henry the Eighth, lectures on geology, etc.; also make very useful one of our

and Hamlet's “Soliloquy on Death,” from the first scene, members who has just returned from Europe."

third act, of Hamlet. A member of the C. L. S. C. writes from Illinois as fol

A member of the class of 1882 says: “While I intend to lows: “In connection with others I have been enabled to

complete the prescribed four years' course this year, yet I organize a ' Literary and Social Circle,' one of the features

do not expect to sever my connection with the C. L. S. C. I of which is that old-time debating system that you advised

am enlisted, not for three or four years, but during the war,' in your last address. There is considerable interest mani.

and I will reënlist at the end of my term of present service, fested, and I think that by the next commencement suffi

and if we have any more definite terms I will continue to cient interest will be sustained to join the C. L. S. C. as a

enlist as often as 'mustered out.'" society, the name of each menuber becoming enrolled upon Che C. L. S. C. books."

There is an error, or rather an omission, in the answer to

question No. 34, February number of THE CHAUTAUQUAN, C. L. S. C. NOTES AND LETTERS.

The answer reads, seven thousand volumes."

Of course it should read, “geven hundred thousand volA member asks for the address of the publishing house

umes,” referring to the Alexandrian library. that has “Conversations on Creation" in pamphlet form. The address is London Sunday-school Union, 56 Old Bailey, A lady from Ohio would like to open correspondence with London, England.

some of the C. L. S.C. members relative to conducting local

circles. Any person willing to render such assistance will The corresponding secretary of the New Orleans, La.,

please report to the C. L. S. C. office at Plainfield, New Jersey. local circle writes: “Not long ago we made an innovation.

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page 297.

We thought"New Orleans might have some architecture; so the members of a local circle composed mostly of ladies,

we appointed a committee of two, Miss Riggs and Miss Prophet, to look around and write essays on the Custom

are alluded to by a Young America as she-talkers," and an ungallant newspaper refers to them as “she-tauquans."


“Trade is not luck” was used by a speaker. Does luck

mean the same as chance? A. Though luck sometimes DR. VINCENT: I am never thoroughly satisfied with a occurs by chance, we think the phrase illogical. meeting of the Round-Table, for I have a feeling always that How do you pronounce duty ? A. Diúty. we might have done something to make you remember the A speaker said sin-e-cure and ex-hil-yer-ate; was he occasion with greater satisfaction. 'I believe that our old right? A. No; si'-ne-cure; and egz-bil-a-rāt. plan with which we began, of holding students' sessions of Is it bronchitis, broncheetis, or bronkītis? A. Bron-chithe C. L. S. C., is a wise one, and I think we must come tis. back to that. Do you remember those beautiful evenings in Is it ker-rect, or cor-rect? A. Cor-rect. the amphitheatre, with outline lessons in English history, Is this correct: "This occupied a couple of centuries?" and outline lessons in every department we were to study A. It may be, according to the intention of the speaker. A the coming year? I think that with next year we will be couple is two things of the same kind taken together; as, gin with students' sessions as we did before, and make more "He had a garden a couple of miles out of town.Dickens. of those sessions as illustrations of how to teach. When we Some of the speakers pronounce nauseous and genius in come to the natural sciences in the regular course, whether three syllables. Is this correct ? A. As to the first, no. It we have much of natural science in our public program or should be naw-shus. As to the second, there are two words not, we will have some scientific conferences which will be spelled alike. (1) Gen-yus-special taste, inclination; menhelpful in our local work.

tal superiority; a man endowed with mental superiority; Now, will Prof. MacClintock make a report on the pro- peculiar constitution. (2) Gen'-i-us-a good or evil spirit, nunciation of the words submitted to him the other day? hence a supernatural spirit; the animating spirit of a people

PROF. MACCLINTOCK: We are asked such questions as or period. "Is there a standard for English pronunciation ?" "Would The word agriculturalist was used by a speaker. Is it. two differing standards be equivalent to none?" “Does correct? A. There is no such word. The word intended not long usage establish, in a measure, the pronunciation of was agriculturist. words?" We can not take the time here to state the condi. Should the words papa and mamma be accented on the tions of English pronunciation, or propose any laws for its first or last syllables ? A. According to Webster, on the last governance. As long as the three laws, according to which Pronounce laryngitis. A. Lår-in-ji-tis. the sounds of a language change, hold their force, it may be How shall we pronounce envelope? Then, bow develop ? doubted if we will ever arrive at a uniform pronunciation. A. En'-vel-õpe or en-věl'-ope. Envelope sometimes preThese laws are:

serves a semi-French pronunciation, as ong'-ve-lõp', or (1) The chronological law. Changes in sounds take place ong-vel-ope'. Dě-věl'-op. in time, not by insensible degrees, but per saltum, from gen Doubtful words: Dynasty, decade, prelude, Prussian, eration to generation.

Louisville. A. Dy'-nas-ty; děd'-ade; pre'-lude, noun; pre(2) The individual law. A series of spoken sounds ac lude', verb; either Průsh'-ian, or Proo-shian; Looʻ-is-vil, forquired during childhood and youth remain fixed in the merly Loo'-1-vil. individual during the rest of his life.

Give the pronunciation of isolated. A. According to (3) The geographical law. A series of spoken sounds Webster, Ys-o-la-ted.

in one locality, when wholly or partly adopted by another which a living language grows. “Slang is merely a form community, are also changed, not by insensible degrees, of dialect.Elis. “Such phrases betray their original but, per saltum, in passing from vne individual to another. syntactical relation, and penetrate out of the more rapid

Now, all of us are familiar with the fact that there is a colloquial into the written language.”—Moetzner. Cf. This great diversity of opinion among our authorities. Mr. from Lowell's essay on witchcraft: “. Though at the Ellis (Early English Pronunciation, vol. II, page 630) says:

risk of bringing it to a no-go." "At present there is no standard of pronunciation. There Shall we say “can not but," or "can but?” A. We prefer are many ways of pronouncing English correctly, that is "can not but," though it would take some time to defend according to the usage of large numbers of persons of either the phrase properly. I can but think I can (not do, etc., sex, in different parts of the country, who have received a anything) but think. But only implies a negation. The superior education. All attempts to found a standard of difficulty lies in supposing that there is a negation in but pronunciation on our approximate standard of orthography itself. It merely implies a suppressed thought which is are futile." The only expedient, then, seems to be to take either a positive negation, or at least a restriction. Since, the average pronunciation of the persons of superior educa- then, we always understand the negative spirit of the phrase, tion with whom one is thrown in contact, counting the dic it is according to the spirit to insert the negative. Howtionaries among these. Let me commend to all the work ever, all the arguments must be drawn from the literary above mentioned, by Mr. Alexander J. Ellis, by far the most usage. Cf. “What we can not but consider as his error."-masterly treatment of English sounds, and destined to have Macaulay's Essays, III, 1. See further under Moetzner, great influence in the future. He admits that when asked | Vol. III, page 467. for a pronunciation, he gives his usual way, and then adds Why say “very like” rather than "very much like?” A. that he has heard it pronounced otherwise, and has no Very like is objected to, though it was originally good. Cf. means of saying which ought to be adopted, or even of say Moetz., I, page 388. ing which is more customary. The standard used in these Is every-whither as good as every-where? A. Every-whither corrections is Webster.

is unauthorized by Webster or Moetzner. "It gave a good deal of satisfaction,” was an expression

Which is better, shone or shone? A. Shõne. There is no used by a speaker. A. A good deal is incorrect. Cf. more permanent law in the transitions of English sounds Moetzner's English Grammar, vol. I, p 282.

than that of Anglo-Saxon à (a in father), into modern EngSome of our speakers say Italian (i). A. Wrong. It

lish 0. should be Italian (1).

How pronounce truths ? Should the th be pronounced as.

in the singular, or as th in this ? A. Before an inflectional * The Fifth Round-Table Conference of the C. L. S. C. for 1881, held in the Hall of Philosophy, Chautauqua, Monday, August 15th, at 5

& the th is softened. Cf. Moetzner's English Grammar, vol. o'clock p. m., Rev. Dr. J. H. Vincent presiding.

I, page 57.

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