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versy in the early church, growing out of a difference in cus

LOOK-UP LEGIONS. tom concerning the day of the week and the day of the month on which the Easter celebration should occur. The contro In hundreds of churches have been formed Look-Up versy waxed hotter and hotter until the contending parties Legions, very largely under a Chautauquan inspiration. agreed to let each other practice their own views, thus avoid The leaders of those legions, successful or discouraged, are ing a schism in the Church. Iu 325 Constantine had the asking every month what more can they do to make them in of

of use.

for the whole Church by adopting the rule which makes Beside the thousands of young people who have "onnected

own.

Easter the first Sunday after the first full moon which occurs theinselves with such local societies, which are companies upon or after the 21st of March. Thus it will be seen that in “The Legion," other thousands of young people have Easter may happen as early as March 22d or as late as the connected themselves with "The Legion" who have no 25th of April.

chance to join a local company. These members are in the Q. I find so many names in ancient history which are dif- position of detached skirmishers in an army, or of officers ficult to pronounce, how am I to know when I have the cor on the general staff. We shall address to them a separate rect pronunciation ?

article. A. Consult Webster's or Worcester's dictionary for most This paper is prepared especially for officers of organized geographical or biographical names. Lippincott's Biograph- companies, which have distinct local arrangements, baving ical Dictionary indicates the pronunciation of all names been formed in some church, Sunday-school or town, under hard to pronounce. Also, the index to Appleton's Cyclope-such circumstances as admit regular and frequent meetings. dia is good pronouncing authority.

A Look-Up Legion may consist of three members, or it Q. Will you please tell me who were the “Lake Poets''? may number hundreds. In point of fact, there are legions

A. The name was applied to Coleridge, Southey and of four members, I believe, and certainly there are legions Wordsworth, by reason of their residence in the Lake Dis. each of which counts three hundred on its roll. trict of Westmoreland.

Generally speaking, a Look-Up Legion consists of some Q. Will you please inform me through the “Editor's Ta

of the older and more thoughtful members of a Sundayble why the Phænician language belongs to the Semitic school, who have agreed to meet more or less often on a family when the Phænicians were an Hainitic nation ? week day, for certain purposes, which accord with the

A. The original inhabitants of Phoenicia were Hamites as "four mottoes" of the legion, purposes inspired by Faith, stated in Genesis, but being surrounded by Semitic neigh- Hope, or Love, or by all three. A Sunday-school class, lovbors or overcome by Semitic immigrants from Arabia, they ing its teacher and inspired by him, is glad to meet him on gradually 'adopted the Semitic language and forgot their Wednesday as well as on Sunday. It agrees to meet him, Similar instances have occurred in history.

say on Wednesday afternoon, regularly, for two hours, and Q. I have a large roll of wood cuts of various sizes, too to spend those two hours in some way not inconsistent with large for a scrap-book. What shall I do with them? Please the Sunday, but which shall dispose the members to look advise.

up, to look forward, to look out, and to lend a hand. Such A. We suggest mounting them on card-board and binding

a class, meeting thus, and doing this, is a company of the for the library or center-table.

Look-Up Legion, whether it wear the cross of the order and Q. How pronounce the following words: Capitoline, Av

take its name or not. entine, Sabine and Goethe.

Now the teacher of that class, who becomes probably A. Cåp'-i-tol-ine, äv'-en-tine,'Sa-been': The word Goethe guide of this company, has to consider carefully what he presents to the foreigner the most difficult sound of the Ger shall prepare for this week-day meeting, that the hours of man language, that of o with the umlaut. It is impossible | it, all too short at best, may be utilized. It must be vito represent its equivalent by letters. Many English-speak tally religious; it must be entertaining, and it must be ing persons pronounce it almost like the girl's name “Ger- practical. tie,” which is far from correct; others give o the long sound It must be religious, else it ceases to be a legion meeting. of a, as Gā-teh, which is the other extreme. The best di It must be entertaining, else the children will not come. rections we know is to pucker the mouth as if going to whis It must be practical, else it wastes time. tle, and then try to pronounce the letter o; the sound pro. I met at Chautauqua last summer some five and twenty duced will be that of oe or ö in the name of the German poet. gentlemen and ladies, heads of companies in the legion, Q. Will you kindly give us some information on the ques

and in a short time we had some very interesting talk on the tion, "When and how did Mahomet kill the monk Sergius?" best way to gain these points. They promised to write to The question was given the entire circle to answer, but none me regularly letters which should announce their difficulties could find anything about it.

and their successes. I promised to print for circulation A. Miss De Ette Howard, of Janesville, Wis., answers the among chiefs of companies, selections from these reports. I question as follows: “One authority states that Mahomet therefore receive almost every day a letter of suggestions, killed Sergius in a battle near Medina, about 627. George or of questions, which gives to me some insight into the Sale, translator of the Koran, and the best authority I know workings of the legion in various communities, for it is very of, says, Mahomet, when thirteen years old, first met Ser- widely scattered, and there are not many states in the gius at Bosra; that nothing in the Mohammedan writers Union which are without representative legions. These leads to the inference that Sergius ever left his monastery. letters give me the experience of so many leaders of legions Mahomet may have visited him in after years, and have that this article may be looked upon as theirs quite as much gained from his discourses some knowledge of Christianity as it is mine, and the suggestions in it our suggestions, reand the Scriptures, which may have been of use to him in sulting from our experience. writing the Koran. Sale maintains that in no other way Whether it is well to seek for considerable numbers or did Sergius assist Mahomet in writing the Koran. The Ko not? This is one of the questions naturally arising. But ran is in the Arabic tongue, and is composed with great el the answer will come from the character of the work unegance. Sergius spoke a foreign language, and could, there dertaken. There is more than one Look-Up Legion, which, fore, have had no hand in this great work. Sale makes no in the vestry of the church provides, perhaps as often as mention of the killing of the monk by Mahomet. Matthew once a month, a public evening entertainment, open to the Paris says the monk Sergius outlived Mahomet."

whole village. If such an entertainment is well arrangedi

and carried through with care, it does a great deal toward “News of the Week," for instruction in astronomy, natural refining and elevating the tone of the public entertainments history, or other topics which the schools only touch on, and of the place. It overcomes evil by good. Now, it is clear most of all, for character. enough that the legion which undertakes such a duty ought 4. The providing the clothing and books for a boy who to be a large society. It must rely not on a few musicians, would not otherwise attend school. or on one or two who are willing to give readings or recita 5. The providing delicate food for sick children. tions, but on a large body of young people of the best 6. The providing a library and keeping it open in the House education, the best taste, and the best sense in the town. It of Correction of the town. must carry moral weight in its attempt to purify the public 7. Improvement of children in humanity to animals-by entertainment; and it will need for this the combined a little club arrangenient. power of many, and will fail if it relies on the energy or the It is clear that successive circulars will receive and extend brilliancy of a few.

new practical suggestions of the same kind. Of course each On the other hand, a club of twenty is large enough, as locality will have its own ways and its own resources. Still, has been proved in more than one instance, to establish a one American town is in some regards a great deal like anreading room, or even a library, if it have the right head and other. And all of us can be teachers to each other. consist of the right members. Twenty young men, who on If in such enterprises we succeed in showing to the chilSunday form a well-organized Bible class, find no difficulty dren that they also have duties, as well as their fathers and in contributing each a dollar a month, for the expenses of a mothers, we do a great deal. It has been noticed, by wise central reading room. Of course, if this is their own private observers, that our great public school system may develclub-room, it is like any other selfish club, and it is no op a bad conceit among boys and girls, simply because it is Look-Up Legion. But, if they open it, under whatever rules, so large and strong. When Tom is one of his father's famto other young men, or young women, who want a quiet ily, in the work of the farm, Tom knows, though he be but place in which to read after the work of the shop is over, six years old, that he must do his share in the world's afthey confer a great gift to the town they are in. To such a fairs. He must take the cow to pasture or bring her back. room there come accessions of magazines, books, and news He must ride the horse when his father ploughs. He must papers, almost unsolicited. But twenty is a large enough go into the woods with his "little hatchet” and cut brush. number for the beginning, for it is not money which is He must drop potato eyes into the holes made ready. This needed in such a plan so much as it is diligent personal lesson is of immense moral importance to Tom. And in the supervision, really cordial mutual confidence among the simple life of our fathers, Tom learned it well. But in the actors, and their personal presence day by day, and night more arbitrary and artificial life of our large towns, Tom is by night, to give their schemes success.

in danger of not learning it. Here is a palace built for Tom's Both these instances convey an idea of the work which schooling. Persons of great ability are paid by the city to such an organization can, if it choose, take in hand. I am' teach Tom. Books are bought for him which he did not pay aware that both instances involve work on a scale much

for. Tom is bidden, nay compelled to go to the school at a larger than most local legions dare attempt at the outset. particular time, but even this is done in such a way that But they are instances taken from real experience:-and Tom begins to consider his presence there a very important these very efforts may be repeated under kindred circum- thing. Has Tom's father a message to be carried out of stances,

town? Tom can not take it. The city requires him to be at But if the leader of a club is afraid to try anything on so school. Is there wood to be split for the stove? Tom's Jarge a scale, let him look around for some loose screw that mother may split it; but as for Tom, he is learning how to needs to be tightened and see if he cannot put his legion extract the square root in bis "evening lesson.” upon it. A club which I could name found a lame boy in Unquestionably there is danger in all this that Tom may somewhat destitute circumstances, who was kept much at learn to think that he is a very important little body, and home by his infirmity. The club managed by hook or by that he is worth all this care. He may forget, meanwhile, crook to procure for him the jig-saw and treadle which he that he has square, sharp duties in the world, and that if he coveted. They obtained patterns and wood for him to cut. do not address himself to them, he is lost. To teach this When he had learned to use these, they found chances to lesson-of our mutual dependence-to teach Tom that he is sell his pretty wares among their neighbors and friends. good for nothing unless he is good for something, that all the Here was a direct service which perhaps twenty children, books in the world will never help him, unless, with all his because they were in a legion-could render to another might, he be helping somebody else, this will be the busichild, which no one of them could render alone. And it ness of the head of a “Look-Up Legion." taught them, in the most distinct way, that we can as we should "bear each other's burdens and so fulfill the whole

CHAUTAUQUA DAYS, 1882. law of Christ."

At my request the "Welcome and Correspondence Club” Opening Day, C. T. R. and C. S. L., Saturday July 8. of Boston, issue once a month to the heads of clubs a printed Memorial Day, C. L. S. C., Sabbath, July 9. circular-letter, which contains results, both failures and suc Closing Exercises, C. T. R., Friday, July 28. cesses, which various clubs have attained. The material Mid-Season Celebration, Saturday, July 29. for this letter is selected from a large and interesting cor Fourth Anniversary, C. F. M. I., Monday, July 31. respondence by the conjoint efforts of an older club-of per Ninth Annual Assembly Opening, Tuesday, August 1. sons of some actual experience in the battles of life—who do Closing Exercises, C. F. M. I., Thursday, August 3. not often meet, but who might be called “The 1870 Ten." Memorial Day Anniversary, C. L. S. C., Saturday, Aug. 5. From the first two numbers of this circular I take the fol National Day, Saturday, August 5. lowing suggestions as to the directions which may be given Denominational Congresses, Wednesday, August 9. to the enterprises of different legions:

Alumni Day-Reunion, illuminated fleet, etc., Thursday, 1. "Flower Missions” or “Fruit Missions," whether to August 10. hospitals or to sick people in their homes.

C. L. S.C. Day, FIRST COMMENCEMENT, Saturday, Aug. 12. 2. Literary and musical entertainments of a high and im C. S. Theology Day, Tuesday, August 15. proving character, opened free to all who choose to come. College Society Day, Thursday, August 17.

3. A class of boys, each permitted to bring one visitor, for The Farewell, Monday, August 21.

CHARACTERS IN DICKENS.

(Charles Dickens occupies a high seat in the chamber of literature. By many he is regarded as the greatest novelist of his day, and it is not too much to say one of the greatest of all time. He was born at Landport, Portsmouth, but his life was nearly all spent in London. His parentage was humble, a fact of which he was not ashamed nor sought to disguise. His early education was meagre, having been taken from school at sixteen and made writing-clerk in an attorney's office. But Dickens was born for another sphere and work in life. His first introduction to the public was through his *Sketches by Boz," when twenty-two years old. Next came“ Pickwick Papers,” which created a sensation all over England. From this time on for more than thirty years he labored and wrote incessantly. Fron first to last his popularity was almost universal. His characters and incidents have become household knowledge. Mr. Gilbert A. Pierce has conceived a happy idea in preparing a ** Dickens Dictionary,” in which is described the p incipal characters of the author. The principal incidents in the whole range of Dickens' works are given in his own words. The work will prove of great value to the general reader, who may confidently refer to it when any allusion is made to Dickens. To one who has read or studied his works it will be a special delight as aiding to refresh the memory and bring back those parts which were specially pleasing. We give to our readers a few paragraphs from this work. It is published in excellent style by Messrs. Houghton, Mifflin & Co., of Boston.]

Oliver Twist.-A poor, nameless orphan boy, born in the work-house of an English village, whither his young mother, an outcast and a stranger, had come to lie down and die. He is brought op by hand," and "farmed out" at a branch establishment, where twenty or thirty other juvenile offenders against the poor-laws are starved, beaten and abused by an elderly woman named Mrs. Mann. On his ninth birth-day, Mr. Bumble, the beadle, visi's the branch, and removes him to the work-house, to be taught a useful trade.

Nicholas Nickleby, the younger.-The character from whom the story takes its name; a young man who finds himself, at the age of nineteen, reduced to poverty by the unfortunate speculations and death of his father, but possessed, notwithstanding, of a good education, and with abounding energy, honesty and industry. His mother being determined to make an appeal for assistance to her deceased husband's brother, Mr. Ralph Nickleby, he .accompanies her, with his sister, to London. On their first interview their relative receives them very roughly, and takes a dislike to his nephew, amounting to positive hatred: but he procures him a situation as assistant tutor at Dotheboys Hall-a school kept by Mr. Wackford Squeers, in Yorkshire. Nicholas proceeds thither to assume his new duties; but such is the meanness, rapacity and brutality of Mr. Squeers, that he soon forcibly interferes on behalf of the "pupils ;'' gives the master a sound drubbing; and then turns his back upon the place, taking with him a poor, half-starved, and shamefully abused lad, named Smike. He returns to London only to find that the story of his adventure, highly magnified and distorted, has preceded him. Learning that his sister will lose a situation she has obtained, if he remains at home, he quits London again and goes to Portsmouth, where he joins a theatrical company, and becomes a "star" actor. He is, however, suddenly summoned back to London to protect his sister from the insults and persecutions of two aristocratic roués, one of whom he chastises severely under circumstances of great provocation. He then takes his mother and sister under his own protection, and soon after makes the acquaintance of two benevolent merchants—the Cheeryble Brothers--gains their respect and confidence; is, after a while, admitted into the firm; and finally marries a friend and protégée of his benefactors.

Barnaby Rudge. – A fantastic youth, half-crazed, halfidiotic. Wandering listlessly about at the time of the Gordon riot, he is overtaken by the mob, and eagerly joins them in their work of destruction. His strength and agility make him a valuable auxiliary, and he continues fighting, until he is at last overpowered, arrested and condemned to death. “Aha, Hugh!" says he to his companion on the eve of their execution, "we shall know what makes the stars shine, now.” A pardon is finally procured for him by Mr. Varden.

Martin Chuzzlewit, the Younger.—The hero of the story: a rather wild and selfish young man.

He has been brought up by a rich grandfather, who intended making him his heir. But the young man presumes to fall in love with a young lady (Mary Gra

ham ) of whom the old man does not approve, and he is, therefore, disinherited, and thrown upon his own resources. He goes to study with Mr. Pecksniff, with a vague intention of becoming a civil engineer. His grandfather, upon ascertaining the fact, intimates to Mr. Pecksniff ( who is his cousin), that he would find it to be for his own advantage, if he should turn young Martin out of the house. This Mr. Pecksniff immediately proceeds to do, and Martin again finds himself without money, or the means of obtaining it. He determines to go to America, and accordingly makes his way to London, where he meets Mark Tapley, who has saved a little from his wages at the Blue Dragon, and who wishes to accompany him, They take passage on the packet-ship, "Screw," going over as steerage passengers, but with sanguine expectations of amassing sudden' wealth in the New World. Soon after their arrival in New York, Martin is led into investing the little money remaining to himself and Mark in a lot of fifry acres in the thriving city of Eden, in a distant part of the country; and they set out for it immediately. They find the city-which on paper had looked so fair, with its parks and fountains, its banks, factories, churches and public buildings of all kinds-a dreary and malarious marsh, with a dozen log cabins comprising the whole settlement. Worse than all, Martin is seized with fever and ague, and barely escapes with his life; and, before he is barely convalescent, Mark is also stricken down. When they are at last able to move about a little, they turn their faces toward England, and, after some time, arrive at home. Martin seeks an interview with his grandfather, but finds that Mr. Pecksniff's influence over him is paramount, and that not even a frank and manly avowal of error, coupled with a request for forgiveness, avails to revive the old love, or to save hinn from the indignity of being ordered out of the house. Miss Graham, however, has remained faithful to him, and with this one comfort he again turns his face toward London, to make his way in the great world as best he can. In the sequel he finds, much to his surprise, that his grandfather, distracted by suspicious doubts and fears, has only been probing Pecksniff, and accumulating proofs of his duplicity, and tha , all through their separation, he himself has remained the old man's favorite.

Dombey and Son.--Mr. Paul Dombey is a London merchant, very wealthy, very starched and pompous, intensely obstinate, and possessed by a conviction that the old banking house of Dombey and Son is the central fact of the universe. He has a daughter Florence, who is of no consequence in his eyes; and a son Paul, upon whom all his hopes and affections center, but who dies in childhood. He marries for his second wife a woman whose pride is equal to his own, and who not only has no love to give him, but refuses to render him the deference and submission which he exacts as his due. Goaded to desperation, at last, by his arrogance, and by the slights and affronts he puts upon her, she elopes, upon the anniversary of her marriage, with a confidential clerk whom he had chosen as an instrument of her humiliation, content to wear the appearance of an adulteress (though not such in reality) if she can only avenge herself upon her husband. But Mr. Dombey, though keenly sensitive to the disgrace she has inflicted upon him, and haunted by the dread of public ridicule, abates no jot of his pride or obstinacy. He drives his daughter from the house, believing her to be an accomplice of his wife, forbids the name of either to be mentioned in his presence, and preserves the same calm, cold, impenetrable exterior as ever. His trouble preys upon his mind, however; his prudence in matters of business deserts him, and the great house of which he is the head soon goes down in utter bankruptcy. But this crowning retribution proves a blessing after all; for it undermines his pride, melts his obstinacy, and sets his injustice plainly before him. His daughter seeks him out, and in her home he passes the evening of his days, a wiser and better man.

David Copperfield.—The character from whom the story takes its name and by whom it is supposed to be told. He is a posthumous child, having been born six months after his father's death. His mother, young, beautiful, inexperienced, loving, and lovable, not long afterwards marries a handsome and plausible, but hard and stern man,- Mr. Murdstone by name,-- who soon crushes her gentle spirit by his exacting tyranny, and by his cruel treatment of her boy. After being for some time instructed at home by his mother, and reduced to a state of dullness and sullen desperation by his step father, David is sent from home. He is sent to a villainous school, near London, kept by one Creakle, where he receives more stripes than lessons. Here he is kept until the death of his mother, when his step-father sends bim (he being now ten years old) to London, to be employed in Murdstune and Grinby's warehouse in washing out empty wine-bottles, pasting labels on them when filled,

and the like, at a salary of six shillings a week. But such is the se. Cloisterham, Edwin calls on Rosa's guardian, Mr. Grewgions, who cret agony of his soul at sinking into companionship with Mick gives him a wedding ring, which belonged to her departed mother, Walker, "Mealy Potatoes," and other boys with whom he is forced and charges him to look carefully into his own heart before making to associate, that he at length resolves to run away, and throw him. Rosa his wife; for, although the marriage was a wish dear both to self upon the kindness of a great-aunt (Miss Betsey Trotwood), his own father and to hers, he ought not to commit himself to such & whom he has never seen. but of whose eccentric habits and singular step for no higher reason than because he has long been accustomed manner be has often heard. She receives him much better than he to look forward to it. Edwin departs, and, deeply pondering the inhas expected, and soon adopts him, and sends him to school in the junction of Mr. Grewgious, becomes convinced that the marriage neighboring town of Canterbury. He does well here, and finally ought not to take place. He resolves to have a frank conversations graduates with high þonors. Having nade up his mind to become with Rosa, feeling well assured that her views will coincide with his a proctor, he enters the office of Mr. Spenlow, in London. Soon own. Repairing to the Nuns' House, he seeks her with this intenafter this, his aunt loses the greater part of her property; and tion, but finds himself anticipated; for sbe enters at once upon the David, being compelled to look about him for the means of subsist subject herself. The result is, that, although they agree to remaid ence, learns the art of sienography, and supports bimself conforta the best of friends, they cease to be lovers, and resolve to send at bly by reporting the debates in parliament. In the mean time he has once for Mr. Grewgious, and communicate their determination to fallen desperately in love with Dora, the daughter of Mr. Spenlow, him, but to be quite silent upon the subject to all others, until his but has been discouraged in his suit by the young lady's father. arrival. Edwin's sole anxiety, as he tells Rosa, is for his uncle, Mr. Spenlow dying, however, he becomes her accepted suitor. whom he dearly loves, and who, as he believes, has set his heart on Turning his attention soon after to authorship, he acquises a reputa

the union. Although Rosa does not declare her thoughts, she tion, and obtains constant enıployment on maguzines and period yet believes that the breaking-off of the match will not be so great icals. He now marries Dora, a pretty, captivating, affectionate a disappointment to Mr. Jasper as Edwin thinks, having good reason girl, but utterly ignorant of everything practical. It is not long be to know that he is hin self deeply in love wito her. They separate fore®David discovers that it will be altogether useless to expect that for the night, the young man going to his uncle's to meet Neville his wife will develop any stability of character, and he resolves to Landless, who, after proniising Mr. Crisparkle that he will curb estimate her by the good qualities she has and not by those which his i "petuous temper, directs his steps to the same place. she has not.

The next morning Edwin Drood is nowhere to be found; and Doctor Marigold.—The narrator of the story. He de young Landless sets out early for a two weeks' ramble through the scribes himself as a “middle-aged man, of a broadish build, in cords, neighboring country. Mr. Jasper, becoming alarmed at the disap leggings, and a sleeved waistcoat, the strings of which is always gone

pearance of his nephew, arouses the town. He says that the young

men, behind,” with a white hat, and a shawl round his neck, worn loose

after meeting at bis room, went out together for a walk near and easy. He is a “Cheap Jack," or itinerant auctioneer, born on

the river. The feud between them is well known; and dark suspicthe highway, and named "Doctor" out of gratitude and compliment

ions are entertained of foul play. Young Landless is followed and to his mother's accoucheur. He marries, and has one child, a little

arrested. The river is dragged, and no body is discovered; but a girl, but loses both daughter and wife, and continues his travels

watch, identified as Edwin's, is found; and a jeweller testifies that alone. Coming across a deaf-and-dumb child, however, who, he fan

he wound and set it for him at twenty minutes past two on the afcies, resembles his lost daughter, he adopts her, and sends her to

ternoon of his arrival, and that it had run down before being cast a school for deaf-mutes, to be educated: but she falls in love with a

into the water. Further than this, nothing can be discovered, and, young man who is also deaf-and-dumb, and he is forced to give her as there is not evidence enough to warrant Neville's detention, he is up. She sails for China with her husband, but returns, after an ab

set at liberty. So strong is the popular feeling against him, however,

that he is forced to leave the town, and takes up bis residence in an sence of a few years, bringing with her a little daughter who can both hear and talk; and the measure of the Doctor's happiness is

obscure part of London. He is visited by Mr. Crisparkle, who believes

in his innocence, and here he is watched and dogged by Mr. Jasper, once more full,

who has taken a solemn oath to devote his life to ferreting out the Edwin Drood.—The character from whom the story takes

murderer. its name; a young man left an orphan at an early age, and be

Although the reader is left in the dark, by the abrupt termination trothed, in accordance with his father's dying wish, to Miss Rosa

of the novel, as to who is the guilty party, he is led to believe that Bud, the daughter of an old and very dear friend. Ai the time the

Mr. Jasper is the real assassin. He is desperately in love witb. story opens, the young lady is attending the school of Miss Twinkle

Rosa; though she thoroughly dislikes and despises him. After the ton, at Cloisterham, and the young gentleman is studying engineer

death of Edwin, he visits her, and declares his love, promising to ing in London. Neither of them is reconciled to the thought that

forego his pursuit of young Landless, in whom she is deeply intertheir destiny in life has, in a most imporiant respecı, been predeter

ested, if she will give him some encouragement. He shows himself mined for them; yet the thought of questioning the arrangement

at least to be fully capable of the crime; and he is suspected by Rosa has not occurred to either; and Edwin runs down to Cloisterham,

herself and by Mr. Grewgious. every now and then, both to see his intended, and to visit his uncle, Mr. Jasper, who is but little older than himself, and is his most intimate friend and companion. On one of ihese occasions, he meets at the Reverend Mr. Crisparkle's a young man by the name of Ne

The second volume opened with the October number 1881. It is ville Landless, and his sister Helena, who are pursuing their studies,

enlarged from forty-eight to seventy-two pages. Ten numbers in the the one under Mr. Crisparkle's direction, the other at Miss Twinkle volume, beginnin: with October and ending with July, More than ton's establishment. The young men take a strong dislike to

half the course of study for the C L. C. the present year is bring each other. Edwin thinks Neville's sister vastly superior to her

published in THE CHAUTAUQUAN, and nowhere else, embracing: "Mo

saics of History,” “Christianity in Art,” “Christ in Chronology," brother; while the latter is disgusted by the air of proprietorship popular articles on Geology, Political Economy, Mathematics, with which Edwin treats Rosa, whom he thinks an altogether beau

Health at Home, Mental Science, Moral Science, together with artitiful and attractive girl. They escort the young ladies home for the

cles on Practical Life.

C. L. S. C. Notes and Letters, reports of Round-Table Conferences, night, and then repair, at the invitation of Mr. Jasper, to his lodg Questions and Answers on every book in the course of study, and, ings to have a glass of wine. The drink is mixed for them by their reports from Local Circles will appear in every number. host; and, though they take only a moderate quantity, it seems to

Also lectures and sermons on popular themes from many of the madden them; for from sarcastic remarks they soon come to open

foremost lecturers and preachers of the times.

George Borrow's excellent novel, entitled “Lavengro," is now being violence, when they are separated by Jasper, who takes young Ne. published as a serial. It is a dream or drama, the story of a Scholar, ville home, and reports his conduct to Mr. Crisparkle. In the morn

a Gypsy, and a Priest. It is scholarly and fascinating. ing Edwin departs for London, and Mr. Crisparkle is consequenily

The Editor's Outlook," "Editor's Note-Book," and "Editor's Ta

ble,” will discuss the live questions of the times. unable to bring about an immediate reconciliation; but he resolves

Subscription Price, per year, $1.50 Five Subscriptions at one time, Each, $1.35 to do so on the first opportunity that offers. He talks about the

A complete set of the CHAUTAUQUA ASSEMBI Y HERALD for 1881, containing more matter to Neville, who expresses himself willing to make an apology; than sixty lectures delivered at Chautauqua. Price, $1.00. and Mr. Jasper writes to Edwin, who replies that he shall be glad to

The CHAUTAUQUAN for the year, and a complete volume of the CHAUTAUQUA AS

SEMBLY HERALD for 1881, containing nineteen numbers, will be sent, postage paid make any amends for liis lasty display of temper. It is therefore by us, for $2.25 arranged that the young men shall meet again at Mr. Jasper's rooms,

bers of the current volume of The CHAUTAUQIAN can be supplied.

Send postoffice order or draft on New York or Pittsburgh., Address, and "shake hands, and say no more about it." Before revisiting

THEODORE L. FLOOD, Meadville, Pa.

THE CHAUTAUQUAN.

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THE CHAUTAUQUAN.

.

A MONTHLY MAGAZINE DEVOTED TO THE PROMOTION OF TRUE CULTURE. ORGAN OF

THE CHAUTAUQUA LITERARY AND SCIENTIFIC CIRCLE.

VOL. II.

MAY, 1882.

No. 8.

Chautauqua Literary and Scientific Circle.

AUGUSTAN AGE.-From the time he became emperor the

character of Augustus seems to have changed: he was merciPresident, Lewis Miller, Akron, Ohio.

ful and forgiving, instead of cruel and revengeful, and apSuperintendent of Instruction, J. H. Vincent, D. D., Plainfield, N.J. peared to give all his thoughts to the improvement of the General Secretary, Albert M. Martin, Pittsburgh, Pa.

laws, the erection of splendid buildings, and the encourOffice Secretary, Miss Kate F. Kiniball, Plainfield, N. J.

agement of clever men. The Augustan Age, as it is called, Counselors, Lyman Abbott, D. D.; J. M. Gibson, D. D. ; Bishop H.

has been celebrated ever since as a tiine when learning and W. Warren, D. D.; W. C. Wilkinson, D. D.

poetry, and accomplishments, were especially valued. Au

gustus had a great friend named Mæcenas, who was the REQUIRED READING. patron of all the men of talent in Italy. He was an indolent

person, fond of eating and drinking, but taking a great deal MOSAICS OF HISTORY.

of pleasure in all things which were splendid and elegant; VIII.

and if the persons were really clever, however humble they

might be by birth, they were sure to receive help from ROME-III.

Mæcenas. Virgil, Horace, and Ovid were the most famous STAGES OF ROMAN HISTORY.-We have now traced the

poets of the age. Cornelius Nepos wrote biographies, and progress and decline of the Roman constitution through its

Livy was a distinguished historian.* several stages. We have seen it pass from a monarchy into

WARS OF AUGUSTUS.--Though it was as a civil adminisà patrician oligarchy; from a patrician oligarchy into a lim

trator that Augustus obtained his chief reputation, yet much ited republic; from a limited republic into an oligarchy of

of his attention was also given to military affairs, and the wealth; and now, after a century of civil war, in which the

wars in which he engaged, either in person or by his state swayed from one extreme to the other, we close with

lieutenants, were numerous and important. The complete the contemplation of an absolute despotism.*

subjugation of northern and northwestern Spain was effected

partly by himself, partly by Agrippa and Carisius, in the FIRST EMPEROR OF ROME.—The history of the Republic

space of nine years, from B. C. 27 to 19. In B. C. 24, an atof Rome ends with the death of Antony. From that time

tempt was made by Ælius Gallus to extend the dominion the Romans were governed by emperors, the first of whom

of Rome into the spice region of Arabia Felix, but this exwas Octavius, or Augustus, as he was called by the senate on

pedition was unsuccessful. Better fortune attended on the his return from Egypt. This power, however, he only ac

efforts of the emperor's stepsons, Drusus and Tiberius, in cepted by degrees: at first it was given him for ten years;

the years B. C. 16 and 15, to reduce the independent tribes then five more were added, and so on, until at length he be

of the eastern Alps, especially the Rhætians and Dindelicame emperor for life, and was allowed to leave the title to

cians. Two campaigns sufficed for the complete reduction his successor. This was done with the full consent of all

of the entire tract between the Lombardo Venetian plain persons of sense and thought, for they were weary of the

and the course of the Upper Danube, the fortress of inodern perpetual wars which had been going on for so many years,

freedom. More difficulty, however, was experienced in suband saw that the people had become so turbulent and the duing the tribes of the Middle and Lower Danube. In Norinobles so luxurious that their only hope of quietness was in

cum, Panonia, and Mosia a gallant spirit of independence giving all the authority to one person. Every possible showed itself; and it was only after frequent revolts that houor, therefore, was paid to Augustus; three splendid tri

the subjugation of these tracts was effected.t umphs were allowed him, and one of the months of the year, August, was called after his name. Yet if the persons THE ARMY.-The organization of the army was somewhat who rejoiced when Augustus Cæsar became emperor of complicated. The entire military force may be divided unRome could have looked into future years and known who der the two heads of those troops which preserved order at were to succeed him on his throne, they would have felt Rome, and those which maintained the terror of the Roman very differently. Many of the Roman emperors were the name in the provinces. The troops of the capital were of greatest monsters of wickedness that were ever heard of; two kinds: (a) the Prætorians and (b) the "City Cohorts" others, who were less wicked, were weak and silly, and (cohorates urbance), a sort of armed police, whose number brought great miseries upon their country; and the few who in the time of Augustus was 6,000. The troops maintained really tried to do right were placed in such difficulty from in the provinces were likewise of two kinds: (c) those of the crimes and mistakes and bad examples of the emperors the regular army, or the legionaries, and (d) the irregulars, who reigned before them that they could do very little to who were called "auxilia," namely, auxiliaries. The legions serve their country.t

constituted the main strength of the system. They were

* Liddell’s History of Rome. + Sewall's History of Rome.

* Sewall's History of Rome.
+ Rawlinson's Ancient History.

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