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the Night," "Evangeline," "A Psalm of Life,” and “The his work when his wages are not satisfactory. In the cases Courtship of Miles Standish,” will be read and admired as we have mentioned some strike to prevent a reduction of long as the English language is spoken. His “Hiawatba" wages, while others demand increased remuneration. Statesis strikingly peculiar, both in measure and matter. Besides manship and philanthropy stand appalled before the probhis many original poems, he published a translation of lem, “How to harmonize capital and labor." The man is Dante's "Divina Commedia,” which attracted much atten yet to come who will solve the problem. tion on account of its many excellencies.
His funeral was without parade or ostentation, but was The steamer “City of Montreal" arrived at New York attended by many eminent literary persons. The brief last month, from England, with six hundred young women services were conducted by his brother, the Rev. Samuel as steerage passengers, and not a man among them. They Longfellow. Memorial services were also held in the Chapel came over to go into domestic service. A party who saw of Harvard College where an appropriate eulogy was pro them says: "The very fact that they were coming for the purnounced by Prof. C. C. Everett. The poet is dead, but his pose of making themselves useful, lent them a charm that poems will live forever.
aristocratic maidens lack."
The “Alphabet of Moral Science," prepared by Prof. W.
C. Wilkinson, D. D., especially for the C. L. S. C., will be The CHAUTAUQUA ASSEMBLY DAILY HERALD, for Au. published in the June and July numbers of THE CHAUgust, 1882, and THE CHAUTAUQUAN for the coming year, will TAUQUAN. be $2.25, provided the subscription is sent in before July 20th. After that date the price for both periodicals for one The framework of the mammoth “Hotel Atheneum,” is year to one address will be $2.50.
up, at Chautauqua. Ever since the Assembly was founded
there has been much complaint about the poor hotel accomIn ur next number we shall give our readers a descrip-modations, but we have reached the end of these nces. tion of James R. Osgood & Co.'s heliotype process of makin This new and elegant structure will be ready for guests in pictures. It is an excellent method, bringing representa- July. It will cost $100,000, and five hundred guests may find tions of the best paintings within the reach of all classes of comfortable homes within its walls. people.
Public opinion has condemned the sentence pronounced Mr. Longfellow was born in a wooden house in Portland,
upon Sergeant Mason by the courtmartial at Washington. which is still standing, and which is known to all the children of the city as the first abode of their favorite poet. The sergeant shot at the assassin in his cell. His aim was
It appears to many people to be at variance with justice. One day after his death a teacher in one of the public poor, hence his bullet was harmless. The statence for his schools, after yiving divers moral lessons on Longfellow's offence was a dishonorable discharge from the army, with beautiful life, asked her pupils if any of them knew where
the loss of all pay and allowances now due or to become due, the poet was born. A little hand went up in a hurry, and
and to be confined in the penitentiary at hard labor for eight a small voice piped forth, "In Patsey Connor's bedroom”
years. At this writing the people of the country have conMaster Connor being now one of the occupants of the old
tributed $10,000 for the support of the sergeant's wife and Longfellow house.
child. The Secretary of War has been forced by public Mr. Longfellow, like most American writers, began his opinion to modify the decision of the court, and it seems career by contributions to the literary periodicals of the day. probable that the people's love for the memory of the la
mented Garfield, and their regard for justice in the case of In 1870 the total number of colored people in the southern
his assassin, will soon secure the freedom of Sergeant Mason. states was estimated at about four and a half millions; now it exceeds six millions, and there are about three-quarters
Forty thousand acres of land in Arkansas have been seof a million in the northern states.
cured for an Italian colony. The immigrants are to come
from the Tyrol, principally, and will be agriculturists. Mr. James Russell Lowell is quoted by the Boston Courier | About a thousand Italians have already settled in that reas saying in a conversation about Irish poetry: "I have gion. gone over all I could lay my hands on, and you would be surprised if I should tell you whom I consider to be the Mr. Richard Jahr, of Cleveland, Ohio, has succeeded in greatest of the Irish poets." Pausing a moment, he said : taking a photograph by moonlight. The picture is of the “The greatest of Irish poets, and one of the greatest, and vault in Lake View Cemetery which contains President sometimes I think the greatest of all poets, is Edmund
Garfield's remains. On a clear night in March he exposed a Burke."
sensitive gelatine-bromide plate for seven hours, between
8 p. m. and 3 a. m., and secured an excellent print. The A correspondent writing from Texas says: “An intelli- light of the full moon, according to Herschel's estimate, is gent informant here assures me that for 1881 the immigra-only one three-hundred-thousandth part of that of the sun. tion into the State was, on an average, one thousand per Notwithstanding the difference in the strength of the sun's day."
and moon's rays, Mr. Jahr's experiment was a success. It
was made possible by the invention of an exceedingly senThe spring strikes which are breaking out in different sitive gelatine-bromide plate. parts of the land are cause for lamentation. The business prosperity of the country would seem to argue that there is The Rev. Dr. Waugh, a missionary to India, is in this no need for this kind of disturbances. And yet we have country. He reports the C. L. S. C. as prospering in India, them. The ship carpenters in Maine, the plasterers in Cin and that the circulation of THE CHAUTAUQUAN is increascinnati, clothing cutters in Rochester, and railroad men ing there. He will be among the visitors at the Chautauin New York stop and refuse to work, and five thousand men qua meetings next August-for he says: “I must be able and women desert their spindles in the Pacific Mills, in to report to the people when I return to India what I hav! Lawrence, Mass. Every laboring man has a right to abandon seen and heard at that wonderful place."
A recent cable dispatch from London says a request signed President Arthur's veto of the Chinese bill has wrought by three hundred persons, including the Earl of Shaftesbury, up the newspaper men of his party on the Pacific coast to Earl Cairns, the Earl of Aberdeen, Mr. Samuel Morley, M. speak very emphatically against his action. The equality P., Canons Farrar and Fleming, Rev. Charles Spurgeon, and of all men and their right to "life, liberty and the pursuit of two hundred and seventy-three clergymen, has been for- happiness” in this country is a doctrine that, to say the warded to Messrs. Moody and Sankey, who are now at least, requires a very high order of statesmanship to apply Glasgow, asking them to spend a year in London in evan to all classes,-Indians, Chinese, colored men, etc., and gelical work. This call indicates two things: First, spirit at the same time preserve the unity of the spirit in the bonds uality in religion is not at a discount among these eminent of peace. church workers in London; second, Messrs. Moody and Sankey have gained rather than lost influence as revivalists
The Chautauqua Foreign Missionary Institute invites all in England.
friends of Missions, Foreign and Home, in every denomina
tion and from every land, to its fourth annual gathering at The Brighton (England) Dolphin, viewing society at the Chautauqua, from July 29 to August 3. As in other years, seashore, has the following:
the C. F. M. I., through Dr. Vincent, secures a rich program,
and this we shall soon send out. Suggestions and inquiries A red or green plush young girl, A Russian hare-muff young girl;
will be welcomed by the Executive Committee: CongregaA little fur capery
tional, W. A. Duncan, Esq., chairman, Syracuse, N. Y.;
Baptist, A. H. Burlingham, D. D., N. Y.; Presbyterian,
J. A. Clutz, Baltimore, Md.; Methodist Episcopal, M. M. A writer in the Pall Mall Gazette on American sports and Parkhurst, D. D., Elgin, Ills.; Methodist Church of Canada, pastimes says: “The suburbs of every city from Boston to Rev. J. Philp, Belgrave, Ont.; Presbyterian, D. CunningBaltimore are gay with lawn tennis players, though it is, ham, D. D., Wheeling, W. Va.; Reformed, Rev. J. P. Ruperhaps, not so entirely the end and aim of every garden benkam, Philadelphia, Pa.; United Brethren in Christ, D. party as in England. Football and athletic clubs are more
Berger, D. D., Dayton, O. Latest reports of all missionary than doubling themselves every year, and the American
work, also papers publishing the Chautauqua notices, are papa is already commencing the unavailing protest that desired, that they may be seen in the missionary reading for years has been the constant cry of his British fellow
room at Chautauqua; these may be sent to the St. Mark's sufferer, while the American novel is already introducing parsonage, Buffalo, N. Y., to C. P. Hard, secretary. the 'splendid athlete' and the ‘University stroke oar' as the hero of its tale."
Speaking of books in foreign languages, Ralph Waldo
Emerson recently said: “I should as soon think of swimAmong the eminent preachers and lecturers to be at ming across the Charles River when I wish to go to Boston Chautauqua in August next are Bishop Simpson, Bishop as of reading all my books in originals when I have them H. W. Warren, John B. Gough, Esq., The Rev. Dr. Thomas rendered for me in my mother tongue." of Brooklyn, etc. We shall furnish our readers with the complete programme in the June number of THE CHAU It is reported that Prince Bismarck has given great satisTAUQUAN.
faction in Holland by his acceptance of the invitation to
attend the International Conference which will discuss Since 1878 there have been granted in the county of Phil.
measures for preventing the traffic in girls. The United adelphia 1,364 divorces, and more than five hundred of this States Government should be represented in this Confernumber have been granted during the last year. The com
ence, and set in motion influences that would defeat the mittee of one hundred that are effecting great political re
Mormon missionaries who are operating in Europe to bring forms in the Quaker City, could find a new and important recruits over to Utah. field of labor in the Legislature and Courts to prevent di.
C. L. S. C. students in art will appreciate this item from vorce for any but scriptural reasons. That would reach the
the Rochester Express: “A lady in town painted a plaque foundation of many of our political troubles, for the family in the most exquisite manner and expressed it to a friend. is the stronghold of the pation. When disintegration in the family becomes common, then the whole national fabric lady stated that “ It is altogether too nice to use every day,
Soon after a note of acknowledgment came, in which the is in danger of tottering to its fall.
so I only use it for a bread plate when we have company." "The Hall in the Grove" is the title of a book written by CHAUTAUQUA DAYS, 1882. Pansy. It is designed to be a novel.like story of the planting and growth of the C. L. 8. C. D. Lothrop & Co., of Bos Opening Day, C. T. R. and C. S. L., Saturday, July 8. ton, Mass., are the publishers. A critic asks a question
Memorial Day, C. L. S. C., Sabbath, July 9. which the author states, and answers in her book as follows: Closing Exercises, C. T. R., Friday, July 28.
“There are people who call the enterprise superficial. I Mid-Season Celebration, Saturday, July 29. never knew anything that was less so. It begins at the Fourth Anniversary, C. F. M. I., Monday, July 31. roots of things; prepares the soil, drops the seed, tends and Ninth Annual Assembly Opening, Tuesday, August 1. waters it, and says to it: 'Now grow; become an oak if
Closing Exercises, C. F. M. I., Thursday, August 3. you can, or an elm, or a fruit tree, anything that God in Memorial Day Anniversary, C. L. S. C., Saturday, Aug. 5. tended you for; you are started.' Superficial indeed! Is
National Day, Saturday, August 5. an oak tree superficial, I wonder, because it started from an Denominational Congresses, Wednesday, August 9. acorn? Chautauqua never pretended to give men and Alumni Day-Reunion, illuminated fleet, etc., Thursday, women finished educations. It only starts them, or gives a August 10. vigorous push to those who are started; brains will do the C. L. S.C. Day, FIRST COMMENCEMENT, Saturday, Aug. 12. rest. I like it, too, because it does start people; I mean, it C. S. Theology Day, Tuesday, August 15. doesn't begin too high for men and women who had to work College Society Day, Thursday, August 17. during the period of their boyhood and girlhood."
The Farewell, Monday, August 21.
[We solicit questions of interest to the readers of The CHAUTAUQuan to be answered in this department. Our space does not always allow us to answer as rapidly as questions reach us. Any relevant question will receive an answer in its turn.)
Q. There seems to be so much excitement and interest about the North Pole that I am getting jealous for the South Pole. Why is it so slighted ? Has it ever been reached, and is it as cold as at the North Pole?
A. See editorial, page 372, March number of THE CHAUTAUQUAN.
Q. Where can I get a biographical dictionary? Please give name of the author also.
A. Lippincott & Co. publish an admirable work by Dr. J. Thomas.
Q. Please inform me as to the correct name of Socrates' wife. Xantippe or Xanthippe? In reading the Illustrated History of Ancient Literature I find it to be Xantippe, and in reading a poem Xanthippe.
A. Both ways have the sanction of the best authorities, although a preference is generally expressed for the use of h.
Q. What is the meaning of "Niebelungen Lied ?"
A. An epic poem of between nine and ten thousand lines, the work of a sublime but unknown genius, and written in the German of the time of the Hohenstauffens. It is a most important literary memorial, and is reverently studied by the German scholar to this day. Such a scholar, preeminently, was Carlyle. Of the Niebelungen he says, “Vain were it to inquire where that Niebelungen land especially is; its very name is Nebel-land-mist-land. The Niebelungen that muster in thousands and tens of thousands, though they march to the Rhine or Danube, and we see their strong limbs and shining armor, we could almost fancy to be children of the air.”
Q. I ask you, for myself and for others, who are making "Art'' albums, if there is not some way in which we can get the articles on “Christianity in Art” in a shape to paste in with the picture it describes, and at less price than it would come at to buy the three copies we otherwise would need? Our class copy we would not wish to cut. The ar. ticle is printed on both sides of the page, and we would have to have two copies in order to have the article entire. We get Soule's pictures, but for the sake of the children and others, want the description near the picture.
A. Two copies for each picture is the only way in which it can be done.
Q. By whom and when was oil painting first employed ?
A. It is commonly said to have been invented by the brothers Hubert and Jan Van Eyck, Flemish painters of the fourteenth century. There is evidence, however, of its existence two or three centuries earlier. Their invention was an improved method of preparing the pigments.
Q. Please answer through THE CHAUTAUQUAN why pos. tage stamps sent on subscription can not be used in paying the postage of the magazine?
A. Postage on magazines is estimated by weight, not by the copy or number of copies. Postage stamps will not be received in bulk in payment of postal charges. The government sells, but does not buy them.
Q. Was Chief Justice John Marshall ever a minister of the gospel ?
Q. What is an autotype ?
chromate as a chemical agent. An accurate and lasting transcript of pictures may thus be made.
Q. Will you oblige several menihers of the C. L. S. C. by giving in "Editor's Table" the correct pronunciation of the following: Ceramic, Renaissanre, Yorige, Mikado, Corrego gio, Guido-Reni, Van Eyck, Dürer, Leonardo da Vinci, Hol. bein, Giotto, Medici. Beatrice Ceuci, Chopin, Beethoven, Liszt, Lübke and Bach.
A. Ce-răm'-ic, Růh-nā-sangs, Yung, Me-ka'-do, Kor-red'-jó, Gwe'-do-Ră-ne, Van-ike, Dürer, Lā-o-nardo da Viu' che, Hole-bine, Jotto, Ma-de-che, Ba 2-tre-chū Cheu_che, Shopång, Bă-to'-ven, List, Lüp-keh, Bakh.
Q. Who or what was "Enone," the subject of one of Harriet Hosmer's statues mentioned in the October CHAUTAUQUAN?
A. A mythological character, a nymph of Mount Ida, said to have been married to Paris, who deserted her for Helen, the beautiful wife of Menelaus.
Q. Can you tell me of any firm in this or any foreign country that publishes maps in single sheets-from which single maps can be purchased ?
Referred to our readers for an answer.
A. “Epoch” is properly used when referring to a point or period of time reniarkable for events of great subsequent influence. A “period” is simply an interval of time either specified or indefinite. The term is often used of a portion of time determined by some recurring phenomenon.
Q. Is the Sea of Galilee salt or fresh ? A. Its water is said to be sweet, cool and transparent. Q. Why is the obelisk in New York called "Cleopatra's Needle"?
A. It is difficult to know why they were thus named. It was seven years after Cleopatra's death that the obelisks bearing her name, of which that at New York is one, were taken from their pedestal at Heliopolis, where they had stood for sixteen hundred years, and floated down the Nile to Alexandria.
Q. Are there any of the writings of Socrates printed in the English language?
A. No; nor in any language. Socrates committed nothing to writing; he taught his disciples orally. Almost all we know of his views and personal character is derived from the works of his two principal disciples, Plato and Xenophon. Translations of these can be obtained.
From CHARLES SCRIBNER's Sons, New York:
"Bonnicastle," by Dr. J. G. Holland; “Bay Path," by Dr. J. G. Holland; “The Gospel by Matthew,” explained by Philip Schaff, D. D., LL. D.
From J. B. LIPPINCOTT & Co., Philadelphia, Pa.:
“Memories of Old Friends," by Caroline Fox; “Eternal Purpose,” by William R. Hart.
From HARPER & BROTHERS, New York:
“Harpers' Cyclopædia of United States History.” two volumes, by Benson J. Lossing: “French History for English Children," by Sarah Brook; "Educational Theories,” by Oscar Browning; “Old Greek Education," by J. P. Mahaffy ; “Charles Lapıb,” by Alfred Ainger; "A Manual of Historical Literature," by ''harles K. Adams, LL. D.; "Great Movements and Those who Achi-ved Them," by Henry J. Nicholl; “The Making of England." by John Richard Green, LL. D.; “Metaphysics, a Study in First Principles," by Prof. Burden T. Brown.
From PHILLIPS & HUNT, New York:
At Home in Fiji," by C. F. Gordon Cumming; “Three Hundred Outlines of Sermons on the New Testament ;" " The May Blossom, or, the Princess and Her People," by H. H. Emerson; "Shaksper, ian Tales in Verse," by Mrs. Valentine.
D. MacClintock; in Rhetoric, Hon. J. W. Dickinson; in
Clay Modeling, Erward A. Spring. Sculptor; in Art History The natural development of the Chautauqua movement, and Drawing, Prof. Frank Beard; in Phonography, Prof. and the unparalleled success of the sunimer schools for stu W. D. Bridge. dents of language and for secular teachers preceding the Dr. James Strong will deliver several lectures on Biblical Assembly at Chautauqua, justify the managers in opening and archeological subjects. its early and general exercises to the public.
Prof. G. J. Luckey, of Pittsburgh, Pa., will lecture on The coming "season” will therefore open on Saturday, “How to Teach Arithmetic." July 8, and continue during the Assembly, until August 21. Miss Jennie Green, of Akron, O., will give lessons in THE OPENING DAY,
Voice Culture. During the Assembly, Prof. J. W. Churchill, Saturday, July 8, will be a grand occasion. The new chorus of Andover, Mass., will give a course in Elocution. pipe organ in the Amphitheater will be dedicated on that The delights of social receptions, concerts, camp fires, exday in connection with two splendid concerts—vocal and cursions on the lake, a spelling niatch, a dehating society, Instrumental-under the direction of Prof. W. F. Sherwin, picnics, soirees, conversazioni, etc., etc., will be provided. who will be assisted by Prof. E. E. Ayres, of Kentucky, An admission fee of twenty-five cents a day will be and Miss Belle McClintock, of Meadville, Pa., Miss Ethel charged all persons coming on the groun:ls between July 8 Crippen, of Macon, Ga., Signor Giuseppe Vitale, the cele and 28. Season tickets at reduced rates will be supplied. brated violinist, the Misses Linnie and Minnie Beecher, of
THE ASSEMBLY. Brooklyn, (aged respectively 9 and 11 years), the two mar The Assembly proper will this year present unprecedented velous child-violinists.
attractions: The Royal Hand-Bell Ringers and Gleemien, Dr. J. H. Vincent will deliver the opening address before of London, England, Mr. Duncan S. Miller, conductor; the the C. T. R. and the C. S. L.
child violinists; Signor Vitale; superior concerts under the On the same day Prof. Wm. T. Harris, D. D., of Concord, direction of Prof. C. C. Case and Prof. W. F. Sherwin; lecMass., will deliver a lecture on “Education in Greece and tures by John B. Gough, Esq., Bishop Matthew Simpson, Rome, in the Early Christian Times and in the Middle Dr. J. B. Thomas, of Brooklyn, N. Y., Dr. Sheldon JackAges."
son, Dr. F. L. Patton, of Princeton, N. J., Frank Beard, Brief salutations from the several professors of the C. S. Bishop R. 8. Foster, Dr. Lyman Abbott, Bishop H. W. WarT. and C. S. L. will be given.
ren, Chaplain C. C. McCabe, General C. B. Fisk, Dr. J. M. The annual reception of the two schools will take place Buckley, and many others. on Saturday evening, July 8, in the new parlors of the The first Commencement Day of the C. L. 8. C., Saturday, Atheneum Hotel.
August 12, will be the golden day in the history of ChauThe Archeological and Oriental and Art Museum will be qua. opened on Saturday, July 8, by A. O. Van Lennep, Esq. Between July 8 and 28 several courses of
LECTURES, LITERARY AND SCIENTIFIC, will be delivered before the C. T. R. and the C. S. L., and opened to the public. Citizens of the neighboring towns
The second volume opened with the October number 1881. It is
enlarged from forty-eight to seventy-two pages. Ten numbers in the and cities, and guests of the several hotels on the lake will volunie, brginnin z with October and ending with July, More than have a rare opportunity to attend several courses of lectures half the course of study for the C L. S. C. the present year is being
published in TheCHAUTAUQUAN, and nowhere else, embracing: “Mo of great value.
saics of History." "Christianity in Art," "Christ in (hronology," Wallace Bruce, Esq., one of the most eloquent lecturers popular articles on Geology, Political Economy. Mathematics
Health at Home, Mental Science, Moral Science, together with artion the American platform, will deliver a series as follows:
cles on Practical Life. “Womanhood in Shakspere," "Robert Burns," " “Landmarks C. L. 8. C. Notes and Letters, reports of Round-Table Conferences, of Scott," "Washington Irving," "William Cullen Bry
Questions and An-wers on every book in the course of study, and
reports from Local Circles will appear in every number. ant."
Also lectures and sermons on popular themes from many of the Prof. Wm. H. Niles, of Cambridge, Mass., and of the In
foreniost lecturers and preachers of the times.
George Borrow's excellent novel, entitled "Lavengro,"is now being stitute of Techuology, Boston, Mass., will lecture on: "The published as a sprial. It is a treanı or drama, the story of a Scholar, Origin of Mountam Scenery," "The Snow fields of the Alps,' à Giypuy, and a Priest. It is scholarly and fascinating.
The "buditor's Ou look," "Editor's Note-Book," and "Editor's Ta "The Glaciers of the Alps," "Some Celebrated Lakes,” ble," will discuss the live questions of the times. "Holland and its People.”
Subscription Price, per year, $1.50 Five Subscriptions at one time, Each, $1.35 Prof. J. T. Edwards, D. D., of Randolph, N. Y., will give
A complete set of the CHAUTAUQUA ASSEMBLY HERALD fur 1881, a series of five lecture-lessons on “Physics,” with one hun containing more than sixty lectures delivered at Chautauqua. Price, dred experiments, and five in “Chemistry,” with one hun $1.00, dred experiments.
THE CHAUTAUQUAN for 1881-1882, and a complete volume of the
CHAUTAUQUA ASSEMRLY HERALD for 1881, containing nineteen namOn Monday, July 10, Prof. Wm. T. Harris will lecture on
bers, will be sent, postage paid by us, for $2 25. "Education in Europe and America in Modery Times."
Back numbers of the current volume of The CHAUTACQUAN can be Papers will be read during the C. T. R. by Prof. W. D. supplied. MacClintock, on "English Poetry;" by Dan'l H. Post, Esq., on "The Literature Our Young People Read;" and by C. CHAUTAUQUA ASSEMBLY HERALD AND THE CHAUTAUQUAN E. Bishop, Esq., on "The Three L's in Education." Prof. N. Coe Stewart, of the Cleveland, O., public schools,
For 1882-83. will give a series of lessons in music; Prof. E. E. Ayres, of
The CHAUTAUQUA ASSEMBLY DAILY HERALD, for AuKentucky, a series of ten public lectures on "The History gust, 1882, and THE CHAUTAI'QUAN for the coming year, will and Science of Music," from the days of the ancient Egyptians to the “Wagner School" of our times. These lectures
be $2.25. provided the subscription is sent in before July 25th. will be illustrated by violin, piano, organ, and class recitals. After that date the price for both nerio lica's for one year to one The force of instructors in the C. T. R. and C. S. L. will
address will be $2.50. be unusually strong. In German, Prof. J. H. Worman; in French, Prof. A. Lalande; in Latin and Greek, Prof. H.
Send postoffice order or draft on New York or Pittsburgh. Address, Lummis; in Hebrew, Dr. Jas. Strong; in English, Prof. W.
THEODORE L. FLOOD, Meadville, Pa.
A MONTHLY MAGAZINE DEVOTED TO THE PROMOTION OF TRUE CULTURE. ORGAN OF
THE CHAUTAUQUA LITERARY AND SCIENTIFIC CIRCLE.
Chautauqua Literary and Scientific Circle. bility; and its original connection with feudal tenure, if not
effaced, became in a great measure forgotten in the splendor President, Lewis Miller, Akron, Ohio.
and dignity of the new form which it wore. The crusades, Superintendent of Instruction, J. H. Vincent, D. D., Plainfield, N.J. however, changed in more than one respect the character of General Secretary, Albert M. Martin, Pittsburgh, Pa.
chivalry. Before that epoch it appears to have had no parOffice Secretary, Miss Kate F. Kimball, Plainfield, N. J.
ticular reference to religion. But the purposes for which Counselors, Lyman Abbott, D. D.; J. M. Gibson, D. D. ; Bishop H.
men bore arms in a crusade so sanctified their use, that W. Warren, D. D.; W. C. Wilkinson, D. D.
chivalry acquired the character as much of a religious as
a military institution. For many centuries, the recovery of REQUIRED READING.
the Holy Land was constantly at the heart of a brave and
superstitious nobility; and every knight was supposed to MOSAICS OF HISTORY.
pledge himself as occasion should arise, to that cause. MeanIX.
while, the defence of God's law against infidels was his
primary and standing duty. A knight, whenever present CHIVALRY AND THE CRUSADES.
at mass, held the point of his sword before him to signify
his readiness to support it. The candidate passed nights in The rich East blooms fragrant before us; All fairy-land beckons us forth;
prayer among priests in a church; he received the sacraWe must follow the crane in her flight o'er the main,
ments; he entered into a bath, and was clad with a white From the posts and the moors of the North.
robe, in allusion to the presumed purification of his life; his
sword was solemnly blessed; everything, in short, was conQur sires in the youth of the nations
trived to identify his new condition with the defence of reSwept westward through plunder and blood,
ligion, or at least with that of the church. There were, But a holier quest calls us back to the East:
however, excellences of a very high class which it equally We fight for the kingdom of God.
encouraged. In the books professedly written to lay down Then shrink not and sigh not, fair ladies;
the duties of knighthood, they appear to spread over the The red cross which flames on each arm and each shield, whole compass of human obligations. Valor, loyalty, courThrough philter and spell and the black charms of hell
tesy, munificence, formed collectively the character of an Shall shelter our true love in camp and in field.
accomplished knight, so far as was displayed in the ordinary -Charles Kingsley.
tenor of his life, reflecting these virtues as an unsullied CHIVALRY.-The best school of moral discipline which mirror. Yet something more was required for the perfect the Middle Ages afforded was the institution of chivalry. idea of chivalry, and enjoined by its principles; an active And whatever high magnanimous energy the love of liberty sense of justice, an ardent indignation against wrong, a deor religious zeal has ever imparted, was equaled by the ex termination of courage to its best end, the prevention or requisite sense of honor which this institution preserved. In dress of injury. The characteristic virtues of chivalry bear the first state of chivalry it was closely connected with the so much resemblance to those which Eastern writers of the military service of fiefs. A certain value of land was termed same period extol, that I am a little disposed to suspect in England a knight's fee, or, in Normandy, feudum lovica, Europe of having derived some improvement from imifief de haubert, from the coat of mail which it entitled and
tation of Asia. Though the crus began in abhorrence of required the tenant to wear; a military tenure was said to infidels, this sentiment wore off in some degree before their · be by service in chivalry. A younger brother, leaving the cessation; and the regular intercourse of commerce, somepaternal estate, in which he took a slender share, might look times of alliance, between the Christians of Palestine and to wealth and dignity in the service of a powerful count. the Saracens, must have removed part of the prejudice, Knighthood, which he could not claim as his legal right, while experience of their enemy's courage and generosity in became the object of his chief ambition. It raised him in war would with these gallant knights serve to lighten the rethe scale of society, equaling him in dress, in arms, and in mainder. Excepting that romantic gallantry toward women, title, to the rich landholders. As it was due to his merit, it which their customs would not admit, the Mohammedid much more than equal him to those who had no pre dan chieftains were abundantly qualified to fulfill the duties tensions but from wealth; and the territorial knights be of European chivalry. The license of times so imperfectly came by degrees ashamed of assuming the title until they civilized could not be supposed to yield to institutions could challenge it by real desert. This class of noble and which, like those of religion, fell prodigously short in their gallant cavaliers, serving commonly for pay, but on the most practical result of the reformation which they were designed
to crusades; a great epoch in the history of European society. that chivalry must have nourished; and the love of war,
During the period of the crusades, we find the institution sufficiently pernicious in any shape, was more founded on of chivalry acquire its full vigor as an order of personal no personal feelings of honor, and less on public spirit, than in