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the citizens of free states. The character of knighthood There, surrounded by a number of the people from the village, widened the separation between the classes of society, and stands a palmer from the Holy Land. We are in the presconfirmed that aristocratical spirit of high birth, by which ence of one who has visited the holy shrines, who bears the the large mass of mankind were kept in unjust degradation.* cockle-shell on his hat, and the palm branch in his hand.

His shoulder is marked with a red cross, and he is urging THE CRUSADES.-We are now prepared to examine the

those about him to assume it likewise. With impassioned "heroic event of Europe"-the Crusades-which constituted

oratory he tells the story of his pilgrimage, how, passing a thoroughly national event in each country, as well as a uni over hundreds of miles on foot, and suffering every hardversal event throughout the continent. It is a very inter- ship, he at last saw the walls of the Holy City, and hoped esting question how the Crusades originated, and why they

to enter its gates and get the blessed sight of the places thus stirred up every people for so long a period. In the that had for months been the end of his earthly ambifirst place, we must remember that from the earliest Chris- tion; when lo! the gates swung on their huge hinges in his tian times the faithful had been in the habit of visiting face, and he was barred out, because forsooth, he lacked the the places in the Holy Land made sacred by the life of our

piece of gold that the greedy infidel Turk demanded of all Savior, as an act of penance, a satisfaction for sin, and a

comers. Suffering and weary, he had dragged himself homemeans of promoting personal devotion. The Empress Hel- ward, determined to tell to all his wrongs, when he had niet ena, mother of Constantine the Great, had done this, and

one Peter, the Hermit, a sufferer, too, who was wanderher pilgrimage was marked by churches which he caused | ing over Europe exciting all nations to rally and turn the to be erected. The numbers of pilgrims during the Middle

Saracen from the rightful heritage of Christendom. Taking Ages were so great as to make considerable commerce, and the red cross from Peter, our palmer had carried abroad the the merchants of Genoa and Venice, as well as the Arabs in fervor of his enthusiastic indignation, and now, crying Jerusalem, derived great gain from them. The Holy City “Dieu le veult!'"God wills it!” he is urging the men before was taken by the Turks in 1073, and the Christians were

us to follow in the crusade that has been undertaken for the taxed, plundered, persecuted, or slaughtered. Stories of restoration of Jerusalem to Christian folk. Can we wonder these troubles were brought back by returning pilgrims, that, stirred by his words, the men recollect the story of some of whom had been unable so much as to enter the city Calvary as their preachers have delivered it to them, and inwhose streets they so longed to tread, but no exaggerations dignant at the “infidels,” gladly take the cross upon their were sufficient to deter the deluded people of Europe from shoulders and join the ranks that are surging over Europe continuing their pilgrimages. +

to the eastward ?*

A CASTLE ANDA PALMER.--It was a heroic infatuation, and, MILITARY SPIRIT OF THE AGE.--Europe was at this time that we may the more perfectly appreciate the sentiments sunk into profound ignorance and superstition; the ecclesiof the people, let us enter one of their stately and picturesque astics had acquired the greatest ascendant over the human abodes, and live for a few moments with them. The castle mind; the people, who, being little restrained by honor, and frowns from some lofty rock upon the village beneath. A less by law, abandoned themselves to the worst crimes and broad river flows placidly by, and, like a silver band, sends disorders, knew of no other expiation than the observances back to our eyes the rays of the rising, or the setting sun, imposed on them by their spiritual pastors; and it was easy and

to represent the holy war as an equivalent for all penances, "The air

and an atonement for every violation of justice and humanNimbly and sweetly recommends itself

ity. But, amidst the abject superstition which now preUnto our gentle senses."

vailed, the military spirit also had universally diffused itRiding up the ascent, our horses are led by an attendant self; and though not supported by art or discipline, was through the spacious arched doorway, and we alight in the become the general passion of the nations governed by the open quadrangle. We pass through the great banqueting feudal law. All the great lords possessed the right of peace hall, ornamented with antlers, casques, and bucklers of va and war; they were engaged in perpetual hostilities with rious previous ages, and crowded with memories of gay and each other; the open country was become a scene of outgenerous revels, into an apartment of state. The walls are rage and disorder; the cities, still mean and poor, were decorated with ancient arras, wrought by ancestral dames, neither guarded by walls nor protected by privileges, and which for generations had been carefully preserved. The were exposed to every insult; individuals were obliged to floor is of polished oak. The ceiling is of the same wood, depend for safety on their own force, or their private allipaneled and decorated with gold and gorgeous colors, and ances and valor was the only excellence which was held in emblazoned with the arms of many a daring ancestor, and esteem or gave one man the preëminence above another. the great bay window at the side is filled above with gayly When all the particular superstitions, therefore, were here colored glass, while through the lower parts we gain a full united in one great object, the ardor for military enterprise view of the tilt yard, where many a tournament has been took the same direction; and Europe, impelled by its two held under the eyes of the ladies who stand about us now. ruling passions, was loosened, as it were, from its foundaWe are in the midst of the household. The knight and his tions, and seemed to precipitate itself in one united body lady greet us with good cheer, and make us as familiar as

upon the East. + the customs allow, with the sons and daughters, and with the chaplain who stands near them in the greatest humility, THE SARACENS.-After Mahomet had, by means of his almost apologizing for his existence. Behind us, as we pretended revelations, united the dispersed Arabians under look from the window, is the great fire-place, promising good one head, they issued forth from their deserts in great multicheer when winter's blasts shall roar without. Over the tudes; and being animated with zeal for their new religion, chimney is this motto, carved in oak: “There is only this; and supported by the vigor of their new government, they to fear God and keep His commandments,” expressing the made deep impression on the Eastern empire, which was simple faith of the family. Suddenly a squire enters, and far in the decline, with regard both to military discipline and after a word with the knight, leads the way to the court. to civil policy. Jerusalem, by its situation, became one of

* Hallam's Middle Ages.
+ Othman's General History.

*Gilman's General History.
+ Home's History of England,

505

their most early conquests; and the Christians had the Crusade. The emperor, Henry the Fourth, was not disposed mortification to see the holy sepulchre, and the other places, to obey the summons of the pope; Philip the First, of consecrated by the presence of their religious founder, fallen France, was occupied by his pleasures; William Rufus, into the possession of infidels. But the Arabians or Sara of England, by a recent conquest; the kings of Spain were cens were so employed in military enterprises by which engaged in a domestic war against the Moors; and the Norththey spread their empire, in a few years, from the banks of ern monarchs of Scotland, Denmark, Sweden, and Poland, the Ganges to the Straits of Gibralter, that they had no were yet strangers to the passions and interests of the South. leisure for theological controversy; and though the Alcoran, The religious ardor was felt more strongly by the princes of the original monument of their faith, seems to contain some the second order, who held an important place in the feudal violent precepts, they were much less infected with the system.* spirit of bigotry and persecution than the indolent and spec

DUKE OF NORMANDY.-Robert, Duke of Normandy, inulative Greeks, who were continually refining on the several articles of their religious system. They gave little dis- pelled by the bravery and mistaken generosity of his spirit,

had early enlisted himself in the crusade, but being always turbance to those. zealous pilgrims who daily flocked to Jerusalem; and they allowed every man, after paying a

unprovided with money, he found that it would be impracmoderate tribute, to visit the holy sepulchre, to perform his

ticable for him to appear in a manner suitable to his rank religious duties, and to return in peace. But the Turcomans,

and station, at the head of his numerous vassals and subor Turks, a tribe of Tartars, who had embraced Moham. jects, who, transported with the general rage, were deter

mined to follow him into Asia. medanism, having wrested Syria from the Saracens, and

He resolved, therefore, to having, in the year 1065, made themselves masters of Jeru- mortgage, or rather to sell, his dominions, which he had not

talents to govern; and he offered them to his brother Wilsalem, rendered the pilgrimage much more difficult and dangerous to the Christians. The barbarity of their man

liam, for the very unequal sum of ten thousand marks. He ners, and the confusions attending their unsettled govern

was put in possession of Normandy and Maine, and Robert, ment, exposed the pilgrims to many insults, robberies, and providing himself with a magnificent train, set out for the extortions, and these zealots, returning from their meritori- Holy Land in pursuit of glory, and in full confidence of se

curing his eternal salvation.t ous fatigues and sufferings, filled all Christendom with indignation against the infidels, who profaned the holy city

THE JOURNEY.-Between the frontiers of Austria and by their presence, and derided the sacred mysteries in the

the seat of the Byzantine monarchy, the crusaders were very place of their completion. Peter, commonly called the Hermit, a native of Amiens, in Picardy, had made the pil- compelled to traverse an interval of six hundred miles,

the wild and desolate countries of Hungary and Bulgaria. grimage to Jerusalem. He entertained the bold, and in

Both nations had imbibed the rudiments of Christianity: all appearance, impracticable, project of leading into Asia,

the Hungarians were ruled by their native princes; the Bulfrom the farthest extremities of the West, armies sufficient

garians by a lieutenant of the Greek emperor; but, on the to subdue those potent and warlike nations which now held

slightest provocation, their ferocious nature was rekindled, the holy city in subjection. He proposed his views to

and ample provocation was afforded by the disorders of the Martin II, who filled the papal chair. He summoned a

first pilgrims. A scanty supply of provisions was rudely council at Placentia, which consisted of four thousand ec

demanded, forcibly seized, and greedily consumed; and on clesiastics, and thirty thousand seculars; and which was so

the first quarrel, the crusaders gave a loose to indignation numerous that no hall could contain the multitude, and it

and revenge. But their ignorance of the country, of war, and was necessary to hold the assembly in a plain. The ha

discipline, exposed them to every snare. The Greek prefect rangues of the Pope, and of Peter himself, representing the

of Bulgaria commanded a regular force; at the trumpet of dismal situation of their brethren in the East, here found

the Hungarian king, the eighth or the tenth of his martial the minds of men so well prepared, that the whole multi- subjects bent their bows and mounted on horseback; their tude, suddenly and violently declared for war, and solemnly policy was insidious, and their retaliation on these pious devoted themselves to perform this service, so meritorious, as they believed it, to God and religion. But, though Italy naked fugitives, and the Hermit Peter was of the number,

robbers was unrelenting and bloody. About a third of the seemed thus to have zealously embraced the enterprise, escaped to the Thracian mountains; and the emperor, whe Martin knew that, in order to insure success, it was neces

respected the pilgrimage and succor of the Latins, consary to enlist the greater and more warlike nations in the

ducted them by secure and easy journeys to Constantinople, same engagement; and having previously exhorted Peter

and advised them to await the arrival of their brethren. to visit the chief cities and sovereigns of Christendom, he

For a while they remembered their faults and losses; but no summoned another council at Clermont, in Auvergne.

sooner were they revived by the hospitable entertainment When the Pope and the Hermit renewed their pathetic ex

than their venom was again inflamed; they stung their benhortations, the whole assembly, as if impelled by an immediate inspiration, not moved by their preceding impressions, efactor, and neither gardens, nor palaces, nor churches,

were safe from their depredations. For his own safety, exclaimed with one voice, It is the will of God!" "It is

Alexius allured them to pass over to the Asiatic side of the the will of God!Men of all ranks flew to arms with the

Bosphorus; but their blind impetuosity soon urged them to utmost ardor; and an exterior symbol, a circumstance of chief

desert the station which he had assigned, and to rush headmoment, was here chosen by the devoted combatants. The long against the Turks, who occupied the road of Jerusalem. sign of the cross, which had been hitherto so much revered

The Hermit, conscious of his shame, had withdrawn from among Christians, and which, the more it was an object of

the ramp to Constantinople; and his lieutenant, Walter the reproach among the pagan world, was the more passionately Pennyless, who was worthy of a better command, attempted, cherished by them, became the badge of union, and was

without success, to introduce some order and prudence affixed to the right shoulder by all who enlisted themselves

among the herd of savages. They separated in quest of in this sacred warfare.*

prey, and themselves fell an easy prey to the arts of the

sultan. By a rumor that their foremost companions were SOVERFIGNS IN THE FIRST CRUSADE.-None of the great rioting in the spoils of his capitol, Soliman tempted the sovereigns of Europe embarked their persons in the First

*Gibbon's Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. * Tune's Listory of England.

| Hume's History of England.

main body to descend into the plains of Nice; they were sacre now commenced; in their first fury the victors put all overwhelmed by the Turkish arrows, and a pyramid of to the sword, and but few of the inhabitants escaped. When, bones informed their companions of the place of their defeat. however, reason at length resumed its sway, the warriors, Of the first crusaders, 300,000 had already perished before a wiping the blood from their swords, returned them to their single city was rescued from the infidels, before their graver scabbards, and then proceeded, bareheaded and barefooted, and more noble brethren had completed the preparations of to prostrate themselves before the holy places; and the same their enterprise.*

city, which just before had resounded in every part with the

wild shrieks of the slaughtered, was now filled with prayers GODFREY DE BOUILLON.–So unpropitious a commence and hymns to the honor and glory of God. The election of ment might easily have crushed all inclinations for further a sovereign for the new kingdom of Jerusalem became now attempts, had not these first adventurers, in great part, con an object of consideration, and Godfrey of Bouillon appeared sisted of the lowest class of the people, and had not their

to all as the most worthy to rule; but he refused to wear a leaders been deficient in prudence, experience, and noble crown of jewels on the spot where the Savior of the world zeal and energy. Accordingly, at the appointed time, in the had bled beneath one of thorns, and would only take the middle of summer, a grand army, well appointed and disci- title of “Defender of the Holy Sepulchre.” As he died, plined, and burning with enthusiastic courage, was assem however, in the following year, his brother Baldwin asbled, and on the 15th of August, 1096, set out for its desti sumed at once the title of king.* nation. No king was present as leader of the assembled forces; but, among the princes and nobles, Godfrey, Duke SECOND CRUSADE.—The kingdom of Jerusalem had seof Lower Lorraine, called from his ancestral seat, Godfrey vere encounters to sustain with the infidels. When reinof Bouillon, stood proudly forward, conspicuous in every forcements no longer arrived from the West, the situation heroic virtue; having often fought in the armies of Henry of the Christians became exceedingly precarious, especially IV. He was appointed the leader of a body of 90,000 men, after the powerful sultan of Mosul had taken Edessa, and and directed his course through Hungary and the dominions and threatened their borders from the east. At this juncof the Greek emperor, while other princes proceeded through tion, St. Bernard, Abbot of Clairvaux, in Burgundy, aroused Italy to Constantinople. He conducted his army with the afresh the slumbering zeal of religion, and was the originmost admirable order, through countries where so many of ator of the Second Crusade. The authority of this pious the crusaders had already perished, and having joined the man was so great, that Louis VII of France yielded obeother princes, entered the Turkish territories in the spring dience to his exhortations, and even Conrad III was unable of 1097. The united forces of the crusaders consisted of to resist the fiery eloquence with which he addressed him 300,000 men, and with the women, children, and servants, in the cathedral of Spire. Conrad assumed the cross, and made up a body of half a million. Unfortunately, however, marched with a stately army through Constantinople into they already found in the tribe of the Sedjoncidians, who Asia Minor. But here he was decoyed by the artifice of the first opposed their progress, an enemy equally cunning and Greek generals into a waterless desert, where the crusaders active, while they met with still greater and more serious ob were suddenly attacked by innumerable squadrons of Turkstacles in the deserts, where the Turks had destroyed every ish cavalry, who gave them so signal an overthrow, that thing which might have procured them some sustenance, scarcely a tenth part escaped with Conrad into Constantiand through which they had to pass from Asia Minor to nople. The French army that marched along the coast Palestine. Hunger and disease carried off every day num fared no better. The greater number of the pilgrims perbers of men and horses; even the bravest began to waver, ished either by the sword of the enemy, or by hunger and and had it not been for the active genius and heroic firm- fatigue. The shattered forces of the two kings at length ness displayed by the brave Godfrey, this expedition would reached Jerusalem, but were unable to perform any action perhaps have experienced the same unfortunate result as of importance, so that the position of the Christian kingthose that preceded it. At length, in May, 1099, the wearied dom became from day to day more difficult, especially as, feet of the remaining portion of the army which had escaped shortly after their retreat, the magnanimous and valiant so many dangers, trod the cherished soil of that hallowed Curd, Saladin, made himself master of Egypt, and united land, and on the sixth of July they beheld from the top of a in a short time all the lands between Cairo and Aleppo, mountain near Emmaus the object of their ardent hopes under his sceptre. The kingdom of Jerusalem was soon in and desires--Jerusalem! One universal shout of joy filled distress. Saladin granted a truce; but when this was viothe air, vibrating in undying echoes from hill to hill, while lated by a Christian knight, who had audaciously intertears of rapture burst from every eye. Their noble leader rupted the passage of Saladin's mother, robbed her of her could scarcely prevent them from rushing forward at once, treasures, and slaughtered her attendants, the sultan took in their wild enthusiasm, to storm the walls of the holy city. the field with his army. The battle of Tiberias was decided But Godfrey soon perceived that the conquest of the place against the Christians. King Guy, of Lusignan, and many was not easy, and could not be effected in a moment, es of his nobles, were taken prisoners; Joppa, Sidon, Acre, and pecially as the garrison was much stronger in numbers than many other towns fell into the hands of the conquerors, and the crusaders, of whom, out of 300,000, only 40,000 men were at length Jerusalem was also taken. The crosses were torn now left.

At length, every preparation being made, and down, and the furniture of the churches destroyed, but the warlike inachines with storming-ladders provided, in spite inhabitants were treated with forbearance. Saladin, far of every existing difficulty-for the country around was de superior in virtue to his Christian adversaries, did not stain ficient in wood-the first general assault was made, on the his triumph with cruelty.t 14th day of July; but, as the beseiged defended themselves with the greatest bravery, this first attempt failed. On the THIRD CRUSADE.—The Third Crusade is more interesting following day, however, the Christians renewed the attack, than the second, from the en who were prominent in it. and Godfrey was one of the first that mounted the enemy's They were, first, the celebrated Saladin, who defeated the ramparts. His sword opened a path for the rest; the walls Christians at Tiberias, July 4th, 1187, stormed Jerusalem on were soon gained on all sides, the gates forced open, and the the 2d of October, and took almost every fortified place in whole army rushed into the city. A dreadful scene of mas

* Kohlrausch's History of Germany, #Gibbon's Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire.

+ Dr. George Weber.

Palestine. The news of these disasters caused the death of and then divided the Byzantine kingdom. The newly estabPope Urban III of grief, and so thoroughly affected his suc lished Latin empire, with its chief city, Constantinople, fell cessor, Gregory VIII, that he immediately preached a new to the share of the heroic Baldwin. But the new empire crusade. The first to take the cross was the aged Frederic had no solid foundation, nor any long continuance. It preBarbarossa, emperor of Germany, who conducted a mag- served itself with difficulty for half a century, by aid from nificent army by the route through Hungary and Greece in the West, against its numerous enemies; the greater part of 1189. His death resulted from an imprudent bath in a river, it then returned to Michael Palæologus, a descendant of the before he reached the Holy Land, and his army accom ancient imperial family. This crusade, however, was withplished little afterwards. Philip II, 1165–1223, of France, | out results as far as Jerusalem was concerned; and as the took the cross, and the redoubtable Richard I, 1157–1199, Latin kingdom also drew away the strength from the Holy called Cour de Lion, did the same. They met at Vezelay, Land, the latter soon fell into distress.* in France, in the summer of 1190, and marched together to Lyons, where they separated to meet again before Acre, in the summer of 1191. After a siege the Turks surrendered

CHILDREN'S CRUSADE.-The most singular effect of the Acre, and the event was followed by cruel massacres, of crusading spirit was witnessed in 1211, when a multitude, which the records of the crusades furnish us so many. After

amounting, as some say, to 90,000, chiefly composed of chilthe reduction of Acre, the French king, being outshone by dren, and commanded by a child, set out for the purpose of Richard on the field, returned to his dominions, probably recovering the Holy Land. They came for the most part thinking that during the absence of his English rival he

from Germany, and reached Genoa without harm. But could obtain some advantage over him at home. Proceed- finding there an obstacle which their imperfect knowledge ing toward Jerusalem, Richard's army was attacked by

of geography had not anticipated, they soon dispersed in Saladin near Jaffa, but without success, and, though the

various directions. Thirty thousand arrived at Marseilles, crusaders continued their march, its results were unim

where part were murdered, part probably starved, and the

rest sold to the Saraceng.t portant, and in 1104 Richard returned to England, having accomplished little more during the four years of his absence than to effect a truce with Saladin in 1192, by which THE FIFTH CRUSADE.—The emperor, Frederick II, unthe Christians were to be allowed access to the holy places dertook the Fifth Crusade, at a time when the sultan of at Jerusalem.*

Egypt was engaged in a war with the governor of Damascus,

respecting the possession of Syria and Palestine. But the FULK OF NEUILLY.-About ten or twelve years after the pope was indignant with the emperor, and forbade all loss of Jerusalem, the nobles of France were (A. D. 1198)

Christian warriors to support his undertaking; and when again summoned to the holy war by the voice of a third

Frederick nevertheless succeeded, by dextrously availing prophet, less extravagant, perhaps, than Peter the Hermit,

himself of circumstances, in bringing the sultan to a treaty, but far below St. Bernard in the merit of an orator and a by which Jerusalem, Bethlehem, and Nazareth, together statesman. An illiterate priest of the neighborhood of

with their territories and the whole of the sea-coast between Paris, Fulk of Neuilly, forsook his parochial duty, to as

Jappa and Sidon, were ceded to the Christians, the pope sume the more flattering character of a popular and itiner

fulminated an excommunication against the city and the ant missionary. The fame of his sancity and miracles was Holy Sepulchre, so that Frederick II was obliged to place spread over the land; he declaimed with severity and ve the crown of Jerusalem on his own head, without either a hemence against the vices of the age; and his sermons,

mass or the consecration of the church. Hated and bewhich he preached in the streets of Paris, converted even trayed by the Christian knights and priests in Jerusalem, the doctors and scholars of the university. No sooner did Frederick, with shattered health, retired from the Holy Innocent the Third ascend the chair of St. Peter than he

Land. Fourteen years afterwards, the Carismians, a savage proclaimed in Italy, Germany, and France the obligation of eastern race, poured themselves into Palestine, carrying & new crusade.t

death and destruction in their train. They took Jerusalem,

destroyed the Holy Sepulchre, and tore the bones of the THE FOURTH CRUSADE.—The knights of France and kings from their graves. The flowers of Christian chivalry Italy assembled together at Venice, in the beginning of the fell at Gaza beneath their blows. Acre and a few other thirteenth century, under Baldwin of Flanders, for the pur

towns on the coast were all that remained to the Christians.* pose of getting themselves conveyed to the Holy Land. Whilst here the Byzantine prince, Alexius, whose father, CRUSADES OF SAINT LOUIS.-The last two crusades were Isaac Angelus, had been deprived of the throne, rendered undertaken by St. Louis, of France. In the first he was blind, and shut up in prison by his own brother, presented attended by 2,800 knights and 50,000 ordinary troops. He himself before them, and implored their assistance against landed at Damietta, in Egypt, for that country was now the usurper. Alexius prevailed upon the crusaders by the deemed the key of the Holy Land, and easily made himself promise of vast rewards. They sailed for Constantinople, master of the city. But, advancing up the country, he under the command of the blind doge, Dandolo of Venice, found natural impediments as well as enemies in his way; who was then in his ninetieth year, took the city, and placed the Turks assailed him with Greek fire, an instrument of Alexius and his father on the throne. But when they inso warfare almost as surprising and terrible as gunpowder; lently demanded the fulfilment of the promises made to he lost his brother, the Count of Artois, with many knights, them, the populace excited an insurrection, during which at Massoura, near Cairo; and began too late a retreat toAlexius was killed, and his father died of fright, whilst the ward Damietta. Such calamities now fell upon this devoted leader of the tumult was raised to the government. Upon army as have scarce ever been surpassed; hunger and want this the Franks stormed Constantinople, plundered the of every kind, aggravated by an unsparing pestilence. At churches, palaces, and dwelling houses, destroyed the noblest length the king was made prisoner, and very few of the works of art and antiquity, and filled the whole city with army escaped the Turkish cimeter, in battle or in captivity. terror and outrage. They flung the emperor from a pillar, Four hundred thousand livres were paid as a ransom for

*Gilman's General History.
+Gibbon's Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire.

B

*Dr. George Weber,
+Hallam's Middle Ages.

Louis. He returned to France and passed near twenty ment, and the peasantry sank into the condition of serfs. years in the exercise of those virtues which are his best About the time of the First Crusade, the Mohammedan title to canonization. But the fatal illusions of superstition prophet, Hassan, formed the fanatical sect of the Assassins, were still alwuys at his heart; nor did it fail to be painfully who dwelt in ancient Parthia, and the mountainous heights observed by his subjects, that he still kept the cross upon of Syria, and were remarkable for the entire renunciation of his garments. His last expedition was originally designed their own wills. They obeyed the commands of their chief, for Jerusalem. But he had received some intimation that the "Old Man of the Mountain," with the blindest devotion, the king of Tunis was desirous of embracing Christianity. executed with subtlety and courage every murderous deed That these intentions might be carried into effect, he sailed that was intrusted to them; made a jest of the torture when out of his way to the coast of Africa, and laid siege to that seized, and were the terror of both Turks and Christians. city. A fever here put an end to his life, facrificed to that 3. The crusades gave rise to a free peasantry, inasmuch as, ruling passion which never would have forsaken him. But by means of them, many serfs attained their liberty, and he had survived the spirit of the crusades; the disastrous ex raised and extended the power and importance of the burgher pedition to Egypt had cured his subjects, though not himself, class and of the towns; whilst a nearer acquaintance with of their folly; his son, after making terms with Tunis, re foreign lands and foreign productions gave an impulse to turned to France; the Christians were suffered to lose what trade, developed commerce, and produced prosperity. 4. they still retained in the Holy Land; and though many They increased the power and authority of the clergy, multiprinces in subsequent ages talked loudly of renewing the plied the riches of the church, (the clergy and the monasteries war, the promise, if it were ever sincere, was never accom got possession of vast estates during the crusades, either by plished.*

legacies and donations, or by purchase), and exalted the

zeal for religion into a gloomy fanaticism. The latter qualCONSEQUENCES OF THE CRUSADES.—The consequences of ity was frightfully displayed in the persecution of the Walthe crusades were of vast importance to the progress of the denses and Albigenses, a religious sect who were desirous of

iropean races. 1. Cultivation of niind was forwarded by restoring the apostolic simplicity of the church and clergy. them, inasmuch as an acquaintance with foreign lands and Provence and Languedoc, in the south of France, wbere, nations enlarged the hitherto contracted sphere of human under a beautiful and serene sky, a prosperous race of burghknowledge, gave men an insight into the sciences and arts ers had developed their free institutions, where the cheerful of other people, and enlightened their minds with regard Provençal poetry of the troubadours had indulged its petuto the world and human relations. 2. They ennobled the lant and satirical humor at the expense of priests and bishknightly class, by furnishing a more elevated aim to their ops, was the residence of these Albigenses (so-called from the efforts, and gave occasion for the establishment of fresh city, Alby). Against these men and their protector, Raiorders, who presented a model of chivalry, and were sup mond VI, of Toulouse, Innocent III ordered the cross to be posed to combine all the knightly virtues. Of these orders, preached by the Cistercian monks. Hereupon, bands of those which most distinguished themselves, were the savage warriors, with some fanatical monks bearing the Knights of St. John (Hospitallers), the Templars, and the cross before them, marched into the blooming land, deTeutonic knights. They combined the spirit of the knight stroyed the rich cities, towns and villages, slaughtered the and the monk; for in addition to the three conventual innocent with the guilty, lighted up the flames of death, vows of chastity, poverty, and obedience, they joined a and filled the whole country with murder, plunder and des. fourth-war to the infidels and protection to pilgrims. The olation. Rainiond for a long time resisted his enemies; order of St. John was divided into three classes: serving but when Louis VIII, excited by an ignoble cupidity for exbrothers, who were devoted to the care of sick pilgrims; tending his possessions, undertook the war against the priests, who ministered to the affairs of religion; and heretics, the count submitted, and concluded a peace by knights, who fought with the infidels, and escorted pilgrims. which he surrendered the greater part of his territories to After the loss of the Holy Land, they obtained the island of

France.

But a desolating war of twenty years had deRhodes, and when they were compelled, after a most des stroyed the beautiful culture of the south of France, turned perate resistance, to relinquish this to the Ottomans, the the land into a wilderness, and silenced forever the cheerful island of Malta was presented to them by the emperor song of the troubadour. A few years afterward the gallant Charles V. The Templars acquired vast wealth by dona peasant republic of the Stedingers was visited in a similar tions and legacies. After the loss of their possessions in manner by a war of extermination, at the instance of the Palestine, the greater number of their members returned to bishops of Bremen and Ratzburg.* France, where they gave themselves up to infidelity and a life of voluptuousness, which finally occasioned the dissolu THE MOHAMMEDANS AND GREEKS.-After this narrative tion of their order. The order of Teutonic Knights is less of the expeditions to Palestine and Constantinople, I can not renowned for its deeds in Palestine than for its services in

dismiss the subject without revolving the general conse the civilization of the countries on the shores of the Baltic. quences on the countries that were the scene; and the nations Summoned to defend the germs of Christianity against the that were the actors of these memorable crusades. As soon heathen Prussians on the banks of the Vistula, the order, as the arms of ihe Franks were withdrawn, the impression, after many bloody encounters, succeeded in converting the though not the memory, was erased in the Mohammedan people between the Vistula and the Nieman to Christianity, realms of Egypt and Syria. The faithful disciples of the and introducing the German manners, language, and culti prophet were never tempted by a profane desire to study the vation. The cities of Culm, Thorn, Elbnig, Konigsberg, laws or language of the idolaters; nor did the simplicity of and others, arose under the influence of the active traders of their primitive manners receive the slightest alteration from Bremen and Lubeck, bishoprics and churches were founded ;-| their intercourse in peace and war with the unknown stranthe woods were cleared and converted into arable land; Ger gers of the West. The Greeks, who thought themselves man industry and German civilization produced a complete proud, but who were only vain, showed a disposition some transformation; but the ancient freedom of the people was what less inflexible. In the efforts for the recovery of their destroyed. The Knights of the Order, (who since 1309 had empire, they emulated the valor, discipline, and tactics of had their residence in Marienburg,) conducted the govern their antagonists. The modern literature of the West, they

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