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quiet, and 'hat the number of arrests upon that day have Chaplain McCabe, a Methodist, an eloquent speaker, and been much fewer than formerly. This law also shows that a charming singer, and who is to be at Chautauqua in Auga healthy reaction is setting in against the lax observance ust, was presenting the claims of the church extension cause of the Sabbath which has become most painfully noticeable in Malone, N. Y., recently, when he received the following of late years, especially in the western part of our country from ex-Vice President Wheeler: where the foreign element largely predominates.

MALONE, N. Y., April 17. It is high time not only that the liquor traffic should be Dear Chaplain: Please get out of this region while I have stopped on Sunday, but also that the unnecessary sale of something left. To reconcile you in some measure to going, many other articles upon that day should cease. That drug I inclose my check to your order for $1,000. Put the money stores should remain open on Sunday so that medicines into your frontier work in multiplying the fountains of needful for the sick may be procured, nobody will deny; but Christian citizenship, and may God's blessing go with you, their sale of cigars, tobacco, and soda water upon that day as mine does. When you get the country well “underis just as reprehensible as the sale of liquor or of any other brushed," we will send out some Presbyterians and put on article on the Sabbath. If the sacredne-s of the Christian the finishing touches. Most cordially yours, Sabbath is not to become a thing of the past, the pulpit and

WILLIAM A. WHEELER. the religious press must come to the rescue and create a more healthy public sentiment in regard to these things. The The troubles in Ireland have reached a climax. The Sabbath is one of the chief bulwarks of the Christian reli double assassination of Lord Frederick Cavendish, Chief gion, and any infringement on its sacredness is a blow at Secretary for Ireland, and Mr. Burke, Under Secretary for the cause of religion. Let Christians everywhere unite to Ireland, in Phønix Park, Dublin, on Saturday evening, May prevent the secularization of their holy day.

6th, startled England and Ireland and sent a thrill of horror

throughout the civilized world. The crime can not be atEDITOR'S NOTE-BOOK.

tributed to the Irish people, for they condenin assassin

ation as a method either for revenging wrongs or winning We are prepared to supply back numbers political victories. England has made mistakes in her treatof the present volume of The CHAUTAUQUAN. will not correct the abuses. Sword meets sword, knife meets

ment of Ireland, but the assassination of her chief officers Read the prospectus of the “Chautauqua knife-that is the law of exasperated human passion when Periodicals,” in this number, for the year is abroad among the desperate classes in Europe and America.

nation measures strength with nation. The spirit of nihilisin 1882-3. We make a special combination within about a year the Czar of Russia was slain, Garfield offer, which will be good till July 20th, next. was murdered, and the assassination of Queen Victoria at

tempted, and now two prominent officers of the British GovMembers of the class of 1882, together with all members of ernment are cut down with daggers in the public park in the C. L. S. C., will find the Required Readings for 1881

Dublin. These are all attacks upon properly constituted and 1882 completed in this number of THE CHAUTAUQUAN.

government, and they point to a wrong education and a We have crowded our columns to accommodate all those

wicked spirit in certain classes of society, which must be members who desire to finish the course and graduate this

met with other means than simply the imprisonment or ex

ecution of the criminals. A multitude of hardened charyear.

acters are secreted back of these crimes and criminals, who The Cochet and Landreau claims have been making a sen are disseminating pernicious doctrines. How to reach and sation in the political arena lately. What they are, is ex reform them is the problem of existing civilizations. plained by Senator H. W. Blair, before the Congressional investigating committee, as follows:

Mr. F. J. Furnival says that George Eliot felt the symbolRice: I want to know upon what you, as a lawyer, base ism of gems, while Shakspere felt that of flowers. “Her a favorable judgment upon the validity of the Cochet claim. works,” says he, “were an indictment of men in favor of

Answer: The guano of Peru was worthless to her until, women. Men, with her, were drift logs. All Shakspere's through the effort and discoveries of Cochet, the guano be heroes had a feeling of God.” came known as a fertilizer, and an object of commerce, and source of immense wealth to Peru. Landreau discovered

Thirty-one tourists are on their way around the world in this guano where it was not before known to exist. Cochet

a steam yacht. They started from England in October, and discovered by analysis the value of guano. As to the fact

reached San Francisco about a week ago, baving visited the that some compensation should be made for these discov.

Mediterranean ports and the Pacific islands. The entire eries, I think any fair mind would assent. As to the amount, trip will last ten months. The passengers are of both sexes, I do not assume to say.

and each pays $2,500, for which they enjoy excellent fare, Mr. John F. Slater, of Norwich, Conn., while in the prime the use of a steam launch wbile in harbors, a band of music of life, has given a million dollars for the Christian edu- aboard, good medical attendance, and a large library. cation of the colored people of the Southern States. It is a humane, patriotic, and Christian act.

The New York Herald, in an editorial on musical instru

ments in a certain church which proscribes them, has this The Rev. Joseph Cook has been sojourning in India study to say: "The cornet can blow the devotional spirit out of a ing men and institutions, heathen philosophy and religion. | large congregation in about five seconds, and some church The leaders of the New Dispensation have explained their organs are about as bad.” This may seem almost irreverviews to him. At his lecture in the Town Hall, in Cal- ent, but it may suggest to some churches the wisdom of cutta, the audience could not be accommodated in the build never using a cornet in a church service unless you have an ing. Hundreds of people were obliged to stand during the accomplished player, and that the organ is more devotional hour and a half of his lecture. He assured India that Chris- when quiet, than it is when a poor player is niutilating a tianity had come to stay and that the mental seclusion of good tune. Both instruments, in the hands of good musithe country had been broken up forever. Mr. Cook is sure cians, may add materially to the attractiveness, interest, of a good hearing when he returns to this country.

and beauty of the service.

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“Arbor Day," and "Tree Planting Day. This is a new phia, has given notice of its willingness to purchase cocoons custom adopted by Governor Jerome, of Michigan, and from all parts of the country. Many persons in the South Governor Foster, of Ohio. The object is to set apart one and West have raised cocoons, but have been unable hithday in every year when the people shall plant forest trees erto to find a market for their product. by the roadsides, in groves about their homes, in towns and cities, and they recommend the formation of forestry Russia's race-hatred against the Jews is sending a mass societies in towns and villages. This is a practical idea for of this nomadic people to our shores. The race-hatred of local circles of the C. L. S. C.

the United States against the Chinese will prevent their The attempt to make the Rev. Dr. Newman Smyth Pro- emigrating to our country. This is a good illustration of the

law of action and reaction. The same spirit is at work in fessor of the Abbott Chair of Theology in the Andover The

Russia and America. But the reaction is likely to hurt our ological School, has excited a great deal of discussion of the

own country in the future quite as much as it will Russia. ology-style of preaching in the pulpit, and style of teaching Twenty years will tell the story. in the recitation room. The Advance, of Chicago, puts it thus: “To imply that because he does not preach to popular Wilt Whitman characterizes Emerson, in the Critic, as audiences in a precise, formal, scientific, or Dr. Dryasdust “a just min, poised on himself, all-loving, all-enclosing, fashion, therefore he can not teach theology, is absurd. and sane and clear as the sun." Other professors of theology, alive or dead, could poorly stand the test of profundity and precision, if applied to their It is the design of the Methodist Episcopal Church to own ordinary pulpit efforts, both before and after election to and control the religious papers which circulate among chairs of theology. Alas for Dr. Smyth! His error was to Methodist people. In a certain way the plan is a success. print his discourses."

But there is a significant sign of the times in the springing

up of independent Methodist papers all through this church, Emerson, the Concord philosopher, used often to walk out

edited by Methodist ministers. In New England two inde to Sleepy Hollow Cemetery and there cheerfully and

pendent papers, Zion's Herald and The New England Methquaintly talk of the spot where he was to be laid. It was

odist, contend for the ground, The Methodist in New York, especially pleasant to him to think of the beautiful great and in Philadelphia The Christian Standard and Home pine which was to wave its branches above him. His grave Journal and the Philadelphia Methodist, The Conference lies beside those of Hawthorne and Thoreau.

News, at Harrisburg, etc., etc. They are competing with The Boston Journal gives the details of a very important the church periodicals and in some instances they are dimusical and literary enterprise. Dr. Eben Tourjee and the viding the patronage. Of course there is no law to prevent directors of the New England Conservatory of Music have this independent action. The regular papers hold a vantage purchased the St. James Hotel, opposite Franklin Square, at ground of age and prestige that the others must win; bethe South End, and will expend $700,000 in the purchase of sides have the most money, which, if they are wise, the building and the changes necessiry to make it the head- they will use to make the very best religious weekly papers quarters of the New England Conservatory of Music. It is issued in the country; and thus hold the ground they have proposed to furnish instruction not only in all branches of gained. music, but in literature and other branches of knowledge. Preparations for this great work have for a long time been

The great C. L. S. C. day will be the 12th of August next. making, and its consummation is confidently announced for

The class of '82 will graduate. Dr. Vincent says: “It will September. It is proposed to retit the present hotel build

be the golden day in the history of Chautauqua." There ing, and to erect on an adjoining tract of land a building to

will be a procession, banners and flags will float in the contain a hall of 1,500 sittings, together with other inside breeze; music, with its rare and weird strains, will enchant and outside alterations and improvements. In one depart

the multitudes. Eloquence will be a feature of the proment of the establishment will be a five-manual organ; on

gramme. Dr. Vincent, we apprehend, will bave reached a the second floor and above will be rooms for the accommo

mountain-top in his journey of life, and Bishop Warren, one dation and board of 550 students, ladies exclusively, who

of the counselors of the C. L. S. C., and President L. Miller, come to the Conservatory from other parts of the country.

will be with him. They will both speak, and others will The other departments will be for resident pupils, as well as

follow. The Chautauqua salute will come in appropriately. for those boarding in the building, and one of the principal

The largest class that ever graduated from any institution instructors in the Royal Academy of Music, at London, and

in one year on this continent, will receive diplomas. The another from Stuttgart, have already been engayed, and ne

C. L. 8. C. will be obliged to keep open doors after that, for gotiations are pending with other leaders in various branches everybody will want to join. The editor of The CHAUTAUof education. The Chautauqua Literary and Scientific Circle

QUAN will be in the ranks, and graduate with the class of '82. will be one feature of literary instruction, Dr. Vincent hav.

Carlyle once said of Froude, that he was the best read man ing been engaged to lecture and direct that branch. There

he ever met. are now 951 students from the thirty-eight states receiving instruction at the present quarters of the Conservatory. Lieutenant De Long and his comrades are dead. This is These rooms will be retained, and instruction to such resic | the sad news that Engineer Melville telegraphs to the Secdent students as wish will be there given.

retary of the Navy at Washington. The dreadful Siberian An old lady, who had no relish for modern church music,

winter overcame the gallant commander and crew of the was expressing her dislike of the singing of an anthem in a

Jeannette, and they fell victims to the spirit of adventure certain church, when a neighbor said: “Why, that is a very

and love of a good cause. What we shall ultimately gain old anthem. David sang it to Saul.” To this the old larly by this exposure of men to suffering and death in our atreplied: “Weel, weel, I noo for the first time understan’ | tempts to reach the North Pole, is a question which it would why Saul threw his javelin at David, when the lad sang for

be well for Mr. Bennett and explorers to ponder. It is evihim."

dent to some wise men at least, that the old methods of

travel to that unexplored region are failures. In proof of The Women's Silk Culture Association of the United | this, several attempts have been made and none have States, the headquarters of which are located in Philadel- | viewed the land. What next?

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On C. L. 8. C. Commencement Day, August 12, a letter places on the earth, but toward what is known as the “magwill be read from the poet John G. Whittier.

netic pole.” This point is where the magnetic needle would

cease to indicate direction, but its north end would be atTennyson is fond of the seashore; but not much so. The tracted downward. All points north of this place the north lights are too bright and the mood is too even. He likes end of the needle would be attracted in a southerly direcdrowsy, brown autumn hillsides, somnolent sheep, and deep, tion. dark inland lakes, not easily accessible or too near. Sheep Q. Would you kindly give your opinion as to whose ediare his especial pets, and he likes to lie in a high-backed tion of Shakspere is the most desirable to purchase, and chair, smoking a pipe while he looks at them.

whose edition is used by leading actors?

A. Actors, like others, have their individual preferences. The Brooklyn Clerical Union, which is composed of a In regard to the best edition we give the following answer number of Brooklyn preachers, was entertained on Saturday, to the same question in the “Home Interests" column of the 6th of May, by the Rev. W. F. Crafts, of the Church of the New York Tribune: Christian Endeavor, in his house at 184 Hewes street, Brook. “In answer to the question, which many have asked, we lyn. There was a Scriptural menu at each plate, which read reprint the substa i.ce of a correspondence with the late Dr. as follows: "What we shall eat and what we shall drink." Ripley and Mr. William Winter, given in this column three "Spread a cloth and put thereon the dishes and the bowls years ago, when this question was submitted to them. Mr. and the bread.” Numbers iv., Lev. viii., 31. Soup, Esau's Winter says: “My favorite edition is Charles Knight's"Pot of Message.” “Boiled Fish,” Luke xxiv., 42. Roasts, the Pictorial-but Barry Cornwall's, Hudson's, White's, "Fatted Calf,” Luke xv., 23. Roast lanıb and bitter berbs, the old Boston edition of Phillips & Sampson, the CamEx. xii., 8. Vegetables, “The cucumbers," Numbers xi., 5. bridge edition, published by Cassel, Petter & Galpin, are all "Bitter herbs," Ex. xii., 8. “Olives," Mi. vi., 15. “Husks," | good. The most trustworthy is the Variorum, now passing Luke xv., 16. Desert, mish mish. “Apples of gold." Con- through the press in Philadelphia. It might be best to refections, damascene. Drinks, water, Judges iv., 19. Sherbet, fer the question to Dr. Ripley. He is a scholar and a ripe coffee. There was a waitress dressed as a woman of Athens, and good one, and would give the best of counsel.' Dr. and another dressed as a Roman woman. There was also a Ripley writes: 'I agree with Mr. Winter that the most man servant dressed in a Joseph's coat of many colors. desirable English edition of Shakspere for everyday wear is Mish mish is composed of rice and apricots. Damascene is that of Knight, (revised edition, 1867). Of American edia confection of figs, raisins, walnuts, and almonds, chopped tions, which are more accessible and practical than the up and pressed. The sherbet was made of orange juice and English, Verplanck's (3 vol., 8vo, New York, 1847) is excellattar of roses.

ent, but, as more original and more recent, I should give

the preference to Hudson's (11 vols., 12mo, Boston, 1850A portrait of Dred Scott, the negro whose name is coupled 1857), and to Grant White's (12 vols., 8vo, Boston, 1857-1862). with the famous Supreme Court decision which sent him There are several other good editions, but for the average back to slavery, has been presented to the Missouri Histor American these, I think, bear the palm.'' ical Society, by the widow of Theodore Barnum, who purebased Scott's manumission, and it now hangs upon the wall

Q. Could one study mathematics without an instructor?

If so, how would you advise to begin and what books would next to the portrait of Thomas H. Benton.

you recommend ?

A. Certainly. One can pursue almost any study without We issue 50,000 copies of the CHAUTAUQUA an instructor. Teachers are helpful but not wholly necesASSEMBLY Herald as advance numbers, con

sary. To rely on one's self, and get knowledge by self-exer

tion alone, is not without many decided advantages to the taining the Chautauqua programme, etc., student. Begin at the place you are prepared for, using any for the coming season. We will send, in of the excellent text-books now to be obtained, and plod on.

Be sure you clearly and fully master every principle as you July, a copy of the June AssEMBLY Herald to

go, and bear in mind that there is no royal way to knowlevery subscriber to The CHAUTAUQUAN. edge.

Q. As water boils at 2120 F., under ordinary atmospheric EDITOR'S TABLE.

pressure, and at a much lower temperature (e. g., that of

The hand) in vacuo, would the sensation be the same if the (We solicit questions of interest to the readers of THE CHAUTAU

finger could be introduced, as if thrust into the former? If Quan to be answered in this department. Our space does not always

so, please give the philosophy of it. allow us to answer as rapidly as questions reach us. Any relevant

A. Water boils at 212° F., under a pressure of fifteen question will receive an answer in its turn.]

pounds per square inch. If the pressure be increased, the

temperature of the boiling point will be increased, and a deQ. Who was the Great Elector ?

crease of pressure will cause the water to boil at a much A. Frederick William, Elector of Brandenburg, and foun lower temperature. Now it is heat that causes the sensation der of the Prussian monarchy; born in 1620, died in 1688. of pain when the hand is introduced into boiling water, and Q. What is the character and aim of the Kensington Mus

if the heat be reduced to the minimum the cause of the eum at London ?

sensation is no longer present, hence the water boiling at A. Its object is the promotion of art and science by means 00 will affect the nerves in the same way as water at 0° unof the systematic training of competent teachers. It founds der fifteen pounds pressure. schools of art, holds public examinations, distributes prizes, Q. What caused, and when and where occurred the “Peasestablishes art libraries, and purchases and exhibits objects ants' War?of art. Among its professors and directors are the most dis A. The name is applied to a formidable insurrection of tinguished savants of England. The government gives it peasants in central and southern Germany which accomannually 300,000 pounds sterling.

panied the reformations of Luther and Zwingli. The peasQ. Will you please explain in THE CHAUTAUQUAN what

ants longed for civil as well as religious liberty. It was put is meant by the “North Magnetic Pole,” in the March down with great difficulty by the German princes. Luther, number of 'İHE CHAUTAUQUAN, page 355 ?

deprecating the idea of political revolution, sided with the A. The magnetic needle does not point due north at all latter.

Q. Will you please give in the next CHAUTAUQUAN the

LAKESIDE, OHIO. names of the so-called "Seven Wonders of the World?" A. The Egyptian Pyramids, the Mausoleum erected by

The Sunday-school Encampment, at Lakeside, near SanArtemisia, the Temple of Diana at Ephesus, the Walls and dusky, Ohio, will this year be conducted by the SuperinHinging Gardens of Babylon, the Colossus at Rhodes, the tendent of Instruction at Chautauqua, Dr. J. H. Vincent, statue of Jupiter Olyinpus, and the Pharos or Watch assisted by his brother, Rev. B. T. Vincent, who will have Tower of Alexandria.

charge of the Normal Department, and the principal charge Q. By what nation was paper money first used ?

of the Encampment. Rev. N. B. C. Love will have charge A. Sir John Malcolm, the historian, says that the use of of the Intermediate Department; Mrs. W. F. Crafts, of paper money was tried, but without success, by the Chi- | Brooklyn, N. Y., of the Primary Teachers' Department; nese under the first Mongol dynasty, (1279-1368 A. D.) Mrs. B. T. Vincent of the Children's Class, and Prof. C.C. Q. Can you tell me the origin of the expression, “A Ro

Case, of Chicago, of the music. land for au Oliver?".

The Encampment opens on Wednesday evening, July 19, A. Roland, a hero-knight of the court of Charlemagne, and closes on Monday, July 31. Among the attractions anand Oliver, his devoted friend, were, with the king's war nounced are the following names: Wallace Bruce, Esq., riors, decoyed in'o the pass of Ronceveaux, and then at Prof. W. C. Richards, Hon. George R. Wendling, Rev. W. tacked by three Saracen armies. Whilst performing prodi. F. Crafts, Bishop Henry W. Warren, Prof. W. F. Sherwin, gies of valor, Roland was accidentally and fatally wounded Rev. A. H. Gillet, Signor Guiseppe Vitale, Rev. W. H. by Oliver, who had already received his death-wound, and Pearce, of Akron, and Rev. C. H. Stocking, D. D., of Detroit. was blinded by his own blood. Hence the expression.

Invitations have also been extended to Bishop Simpson, Q. Of what religious denomination is H. W. Beecher? Of

Dr. T. De Witt Talmage, Elder L. L. Carpenter, of Indiana, what, also, is Spurgeon ?

Dr. Barnitz, and others. A. Beecher is a Congregationalist, Spurgeon a Baptist.

Q. Will you name the three most able ministers of the CHAUTAUQUA NEWS FOR 1882. gospel in the world? A. Impossible. We would offend a thousand, at least,

The gate fees at Chautauqua the coming season will be: with their hosts of friends and adınirers, if we attempted it.

JULY.

From July 8 to 29, the admission will be: For one day, Q. What is the meaning of saying "To the manor born ?"

25 cents; for one week, $1.00; for the nionth, $2.00. I have seen it quoted lately “to the manner boru,” which is correct?

AUGUST. A. The phrase is properly understood by interpreting the

From July 30 to close of Assembly, the admission fee

will be: For one day, 40 cents; for one week, $2.00; for one words of it literally. The latter form occurs in Hamlet,

month, or during the Assembly, $3.00. act I, scene 4.

For the two months, July and August, $4.00. Q. What four noted historical paintings are in the rotunda

THE GREAT DAYS AT CHAUTAUQUA, 1882. of the capitol at Washington, and by whoin were they Saturday, July 8, Opening Day. painted?

Sunday, July 9, C. L. 8. Č. Memorial Day. A. Reference is doubtless made to those by John Trum Saturday, July 15, Socrates Memorial Day. bull: “The surrender of Cornwallis," "Resignation of Gen

Saturday, July 22, Froebel Menorial Day.

Friday, July 28, Closing Day C. T. R. eral Washington at Annapolis,” “Declaration of Independ

Saturday, July 29, Midseason Celebration; Opening C.F. ence," and the “Surrender of Burgoyne."

M. 1.

Monday, July 31, Anniversary C. F. M. I.
GEOLOGICAL DIAGRAMS.

Tuesday, August 1, GRAND OPENING DAY OF THE AN

NUAL ASSEMBLY. Our geological diagrams, prepared under the direction of

Thursday, August 3, Missionary Day.

Saturday, August 5, Memorial Day C. L. S. C., 1878-1882. Prof. A. S. Packard, Jr., of Brown University, and pub

Tuesday, August 8, Temperance Day. lished by the Providence Lithograph Company, are at last Wednesday, August 9, Denominational Day, and Lookfinished. There are ten of them. They are 26x35 inches in

Up Legion Anniversary Day. size, artistically executed, scientifically accurate, marvel

Thursday, August 10, Chautauqua Alumni Reunion; II

luminated Fleet: Class Vigil, 1883. ously cheap.

Saturday, August 12, C. L. S. C. Memorial (St. Paul's) The diagrams are accompanied by a volume of 127 pages, Day; FIRST COMMENCEMENT OF THE C. L. S. C.; Annual by Prof. A. S. Packard, Jr., entitled: “First Lessons in Ge Camp Fire. ology.” This volume may be ordered separately or in con

Tuesday, August 15, First Anniversary of the Chautauqua

School ot' Theology. nection with the diagrams. It is charmingly written, so Wednesday, Aug. 16, Annual Competitive Examinations. simple that a child can understand it, and will be placed as Thursday, August 17, College Day-Phi Kappa Psi and the first “required" book in the course of reading in the C.

Phi Delta Gamma; Closing Exercises of the Chautauqua L. S. C. for 1882-3. The diagrams are not “required," but

School of Languages; Anniversary C. Y. F. R. U.

Friday, August 18, Presbyterian Day. will greatly facilitate the study of Geology. They may be Saturday, August 19, Children's Day; Bonfire, etc. ordered by Local Circles, "Triangles," families, individual Monday, August 21, Closing Day. students, churches, and Sunday-schools.

FIRST COMMENCEMENT DAY C. L. S. C. The cost of the diagrams, including one volume of the The golden day in all the history of Chautauqua will be the *First Lessons in Geology," is $6.00. When ordered by a

“First Commencement of the C. L. S. C.," Saturday, Au

gust 12, 1882. member of the C. L. S. C. !that fact being stated in the or

The whole day will be given up to C. L. S. C. celebrations. der), the diagrams and book will be sent at $5.00. The price Servires will be held in the Hall of Philosophy, in St. of the “First Lessons in Geology," by itself, will be 50 cts. Paul's Grove, and also in the Amphitheater. All orders for the diagrams and book must be sent to

Dr. J. H. Vincent, Superintendent of Instruction of the

C. L. 8. C., will preside. Phillips & Hunt, 805 Broadway, N. Y., or Walden & Stowe,

The Commencement Oration will be delivered by Bishop Cincinnati or Chicago.

Henry W. Warren. D. D., one of the counselors of the C. L. Give special attention to the fact tbat if the order is made S. C. Subject: “Brain and Heart." by a member of the C. L. S. C., the diagrams will be sent

The Chautauqua Songs will be rendered by the C. L. 8. C.

Glee Club. for $5.00; otherwise the price will be $6.00.

The new and elegant banner, presented by a lady in Ohio, New York, April 21, 1882,

J. H. VINCENT. will be unfurled.

"The Story of Our Banner!' will be told by the Rev. A. To appreciate the full bearing of the heliotype process in D. Vail, D. D., of New York City.

working out its results, it is necessary to understand a little (A portion of the material used in the constructing of this of photography, and how the ordinary photograph is made. banner was borne by Dr. Vail, und unfurled in the principal Almost everybody has sat for a photograph, and knows that educational and sacred centers, ancient and modern, in Eu. there are two steps in the process: First, obtaining the rope, Asia, and Africa: Alexandria, Heliopolis, the Great image on a glas- plate by means of a camera placed in front Pyramid, the Red Sea, Sinai, Jerusalem, Damascus, Bey- of the subject; and, second, producing its counterpart on a rout, Smyrna, Constantinople. Athens, Rome, Florence, sheet of paper. The glass plate is called a "negative;" its Venice, Milan, Geneva, Heidelberg, Bonn. Paris, London, counterpart on paper is technically termed a positive," Oxford, Siratford on- ivon, Rugby, and Edinburgh.] and is what in ordinary phrase we call a "photograph." In

Brief addresses will be delivered during the day by Lewis both these steps the photographic operator is dependent on Miller, Esq., President of Chautauqua, Lyman Abbott, D. light,-both of the re-ults are chemical. The negative" is D., one of the counselors of the C. L. 8. C., John B. Gough, produred by light acting upon the sensitive material with Esq., Dr. L. H. Bugbee, firut member of the C. L. S. C., which the glass plate in the camera is coated. As soon as Bishop Foster, Dr. James Strong, and others.

chemistry has firmly fixed the light-produced image on the The list of graduating members will be announced. glass plate, the plate is placed in contact with a sheet of The new and elegant Diploma of the C. L. S. C. will be sensitive paper, and the action of light is again invoked to presented to all graduating members who are present, and impress the image upon paper, and produce the “positive,". mailed on that day to those who are not permitted to visit or, as we say, "the photograph.” Now, let us bear in mind Chautauqua this season.

an important fact; namely, that each and every one of these The “Society of the Hall in the Grove” (composed of “positives," or "photographs," requires a fresh use of the all graduates of the C. L. S. C.), will be formally organized. negative and a fresh exposure to light to produce it, thus

A special meeting will be held of the Order of the White making the method of produrtion slow, cumibrous, and unSeal,"—those graduates who have the four years' White certain. It is at this point that the heliotype process beBeal on their Diplomas.

gins to think of separating itself from cheniical uncertainPlans for promotion in the "Order of the White Seal,” lies, and of betaking itself to the surer ground of mechanand also the League of the Round-Table," etc., will be ex ical methods. How is it to proceed then? It already has plained.

its negative,” which is taken precisely as we have deThe “Athenian Watch Fires" will be lighted for the first scribed the photographic negative to be taken: what it now time in St. Paul's Grove, in the evening.

needs is produce its positives by rapid and sure means. A Public Reception in the Hall of Philosophy, to be fol To do this, it must first procure a positive" plate or malowed by the usual C. L. S. C. Camp Fires, will close the trix capable of mechanically producing other positives," day.

and thus dispensing with the continued use of the "nega

tive," and the continued use of light in every impression. MUSIC AT CHAUTAUQUA, 1882.

We have already seen that the negative" is made in the There will be a grand Organ Concert on Saturday, July 8, ordinary manner. Now we come to the preparation of the the opening day of the Teachers' Retreat and the School of “positive" plate. Ordinary cooking gelatine forms the basis Languages. Mr. GEORGE H. RYDER will himself be preg. of this plate, the other ingredients being bichromate of potent and make the great pipe organ greet the multitude. ash and chrome alum. It is a peculiarity of gelatine, in its During the day be will perform several organ solos.

normal condition, that it will absorb cold water, and swell Prof. C. C. CASE, of Chicago.

or expand under its influence, but that it will dissolve in Prof. W. F. SHERWIN, of Cincinnati.

hot water. In the preparation of a plate, therefore, the three Miss Belle MCCLINTOCK, of Meadville, Pa., whose ser ingredients just named, being combined in suitable proporvices at Chautauqua every season since its opening have tions, is dissolved in hot water, and the solution is poured mare her a favorite with all Chautauquans.

upon a level plate of glass or metal, and left there to dry. Miss ETHEL CRIPPEN, of Louisville, Ky., cordially re When dry, it is about as thick as an ordinary sheet of parchcommended by Signor Max Maretzek.

ment, and is stripped from the drying-plate, and placed in The Royal Hand bell Ringers and Gleemen, of London, contact with the previously-prepared negative," and the England, DUNCAN S. MILLER, E-9., Conductor. Cornetists, two together are exposed to the light. The presence of the violinists, whoice vocalists, and a chorus choir, with a new, bichromate of potash renders the gelatine sheet sensitive to powerful chorus-organ, built by George H. Ryder & Co., of the action of light; and wherever light reaches it, the plate, Boston, are among the promised attractions.

which was at first gelatinous or absorbent of water, becomes For a complete list of preachers, lecturers, etc., see the leathery or waterproof. In other words, wherever light CHAUTAUQUÀ ASSEMBLY' HERALD (advance number) for reaches the plate, it produces in it a change similar to that June, 1882. Address THEODORE L. FLOOD, Meadville, Pa. which tanning produces upon hides in converting them into The ASSEMBLY HERALD will be issued as a daily during leather. Now, it must be understood that the "negative" is the Assembly, and will contain full reports of all services, made up of transparent parts and opaque parts; the translectures, sermons, ete. It costs only $1.00 for the season, parent parts admitting the passage of light through them, and is mailed to subscribers every morning.

and the opaque parts excluding it. When the gelatine plate and the "negative" are placed in contact, they are exposed

to the light with the “negative" uppermost, so that the light WHAT IS A HELIOTYPE ?*

acts through the translucent portions, and waterproofs ihe gelatine underneath them; while the opaque portions of the "negative" shield the gelatine underneath them from the

light, and consequently those parts of the plate remain unThe heliotype process is the application of the well-known

altered in character. The result is a thin, flexible sheet of principles of photography to the art of printing and the practice of the printin r-press. Photography is purely a

gelatine, of which a portion is waterproofed, and the other chemical (or actinic) process, as the name "writing by the image whi.h we wish to reproduce. Now we all know

portion is absorbent of water, the waterproofed portion being light'') implies. Printing, on the other hand, is purely me

the repulsion which exists between water and any form of chanical. The heliotype process is both chemical and me.

grease. Printer's ink is merely grease united with a coloringchanical, combining the chemical principles of photogra

matter. phy with the mechanical methods of printing: In short, applied to it, will absorb the water in its unchanged parts;

It follows, that our gelatine sheet, having water the heli type process may be described as photography in

and, if ink is then rolled over it, the ink will adhere only to the printing-press.

the waterproofed or altered parts. This flexible sheet of The product of the heliotype process is called a heliotype. mechanically pro luced, and it is at the same time a print capable of being attached to the bed of an ordinary printing It is both a photograph and a print. It is a photograph platine, then, prepared as we have seen, and having had

the imáge impressed upon it, becomes the helioty pe plate, having a chemical origin. The oridinary photograph is

press, and printed in the ordinary manner. Of course, such produced in evanescent materials, and will fade: the helio.

a sheet must have a solid base given to it which will hold type is printed with permanent ink, and can never fare. The heliotype, therefore, muy be defined as a photo-me- complished by uniting it, under water, with a metallic plate,

it firmly on the bed of the press while printing. This is acchanical print, possessing the exact features of a photo exhausting the air between the two surfaces, and at taching graph, together with the permanent qualities of ordinary them hy atmospheric pressure. The plate, with the printprinting

ing surface of gelatine attached, is then placed on an ordi

nary platen printing press, and inked up with ordinary ink. *A description of the process as seen at the publishing house of A mask of paper is used to secure white margins for the J. R. Osgood & Co., Boston, Mass.

prints, and the impression is then made, and ready for issue.

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