« PredošláPokračovať »
ness I have not lost my enthusiasm in this course, and have prevailed upon many friends where I have traveled in the west, east and south, to take up this course of study. I hope to finish my reading with the rest of the class in the summer."
One of the class of 1884 says: "Whether I succeed in getting a diploma or not I shall ever be thankful for this course of reading. This getting back to the first of things is what I have longed for all my life."
A member of the class of 1882 writes as follows to Dr. Vincent: "The arrival of THE CHAUTAUQUAN, so full of inspiration and incentives to study, awakens afresh feelings of gratitude for the privileges of the C. L. S. C. I am conscious of improvement in taste and memory, and such hungering and thirsting after knowledge as I fear will never be satisfied. I hope that when this course is completed we will still be permitted to look to you for direction in another course which shall follow closely upon this."
A lady member says: "I write even at this late date to ask that my husband's name and my own may be enrolled for our last year in the C. L. S. C. We have plodded through three years of study, and it has lightened the shadow and brightened the sunshine. We have enjoyed studying and reading together and exchanging ideas and thoughts. I would not for worlds lose what we have gained, and above all, the habit of reading and study which it has brought us."
A member writes from one of the Eastern States as follows: "I feel that Dr. Vincent is a public benefactor; truly he has been to me. I am a cripple, not able to stand the past three years, and with very little use of my hands, save to write and feed myself. My great cry was, in the year 1880, 'What can I do?' I chanced to find this course of reading, and it has been a God-send to me. Though troubled with weak eyes, I still find comfort in its readings by taking a little at a time. I rejoice in the good being done throughout the world in consequence of the C. L. S. C."
In the Questions and Answers of the May number of THE CHAUTAUQUAN, there are some obvious mistakes in names that most readers will doubtless readily correct. In questions nineteen and twenty-one "Henry II" should read "Richard II," and in question number sixty-eight "Henry" should read "Edward." Members of the C. L. S. C. will do well to note the correction with pencil in the margin of THE CHAUTAUQUAN.
A mother, after alluding to the sudden death of her boy, says: "My object in taking up the C. L. S. C. course was to keep pace with that gifted boy, for I had always felt that I could not be left behind, and while he at school was reading Latin and Greek I at home was reading the same works in English, so that I might have an outlook from as near the same standpoint as possible. I hardly had a thought but for him, and around him centered and clustered every hope. With this great incentive gone you can readily see that it has been very hard to read or study, and for a long time I had given up all hope of ever finishing, but friends urged me on, and I find it is just what I need, and I often thank God that you ever thought of the plan of the C. L. S. C."
A lady member writing from Bermuda Island, says: "During the last month I have been confined to a bed of languishing and pain, but my Chautauqua course has been the greatest comfort to me. Something to think of outside
myself, and the communication kept up by means of the memoranda, is a break in the monotony of an invalid'slife, even in this beautiful island. The Questions serve as pins to fix the butterflies of ideas and facts in my mind, something definite to cling to, and objects of search that are not aimless."
Mr. Charles H. Fogg, of East Cambridge, Mass., writes in reference to the fate of Joan of Arc, as follows: "In the readings in English history for the third week in May, it isstated that Joan of Arc was burned in the Market Place at Rouen, on May 30, 1431. In the April, 1882, number of the London Art Journal is a sketch of Rouen by Margaret Hunt, continued from previous numbers, from which I quote the following: "That Joan of Arc lived after 1431 is proved by documentary evidence of the strongest kind, and various places combine to furnish it. In the archives of Metz there is a contemporary account of her arrival in that town on the 20th of May, 1436. She was recognized by her two brothers. The same paper states that she afterward married a Sieur d' Armoise, a knight of good family, to whom she bore two sons, and though it is said that the person who assumed the name of the maid was only a worthless woman named Claude, is it likely that the Sieur d' Armoise would have been deceived into marrying a wellknown adventuress? This discovery was supplemented by finding in the muniment chest of the family of des Armoises of Lorraine, a contract of marriage between Robert des Armoises, knight, with Jeanne d'Arcy, surnamed "The Maid." The account further states that the town presented her with two hundred and ten livres for services rendered dur ing the siege of 1429. And again, 'So sure were they that the Dame des Armoises was the veritable Joan, that they at once put an end to the masses which had been said for the repose of her soul ever since her execution.' Possibly her reappearance had some connection with the death of Regent Bedford, which took place about the same time. According to the Cyclopedia Brittanica, in 1436 a person claiming to be Joan of Arc appeared, but afterward confessed herself an impostor." In reply to this correspondent we would say that we regard the death of Joan of Arc at the stake in Rouen, as a thoroughly established historical fact, but there is no doubt English authorities would like to remove the stain of this disgrace to their history were it possible.
At East Liverpool, Ohio, the members of a local circle meet every Friday afternoon. The present membership is composed wholly of ladies. Much interest is manifested and we hope another year will see a large circle in that place.
Brocton, New York, twelve miles distant from Chautau-qua, has a local circle organized nearly four years since. The names of twenty-five members were enrolled the first year, although the place contains less than three hundred inhabitants. It is expected the graduating class of this year will number fourteen. The secretary writes: "The present year, with its studies in Art, Mental Philosophy, Antiquity of Man, and all the nineteenth century embraces, finds us with each weekly meeting more engaged and determined that the four years passing shall be but a prelude to the courses to follow. By a cordial invitation from Mr. Holbrook, Longfellow's Day was observed at his pleasant home, and the delightful evening will be long remembered. A short history of the poet was followed by chosen poems and · recitations from his works, characteristic speeches were made by the gentlemen of the class, and a humorous sermon, read in fine style by our host, concluded the exercises of
the evening. The president ordered the same reported to you with the following resolution: 'Besolved, That Dr. Vincent is the fortunate man who has found the key to solve the democratic problem, how to do the greatest good to the greatest number.'
The Meriden, Conn., local circle, was organized April 20th, 1881, with a membership of eighteen; the present number is about seventy. Meetings are held the first and third Monday evenings of each month, in the parlors of the Baptist and Congregational churches, alternately. At the annual meeting, held April 3, 1882, the following officers were elected for the ensuing year: William H. Perkins, president; J. H. Morton, vice president; Miss C. B. Underwood, secretary, and E. E. Parkin, treasurer. The president and the pastors of the Baptist and Congregational churches compose the instruction committee. This committee is also assisted by an additional committee of five in preparing -class exercises, entertainments, etc. The secretary writes: "Our method of conducting meetings is by reviews, talks, and short essays, generally from three to five minutes in length, and assigned by leaders of reviews. We have also a question box. We take only the most important subjects for reviews. Rev. A. H. Hall, who has made a study of art for thirteen years, gives a talk on that subject of from twenty to thirty minutes at each meeting. He always has photographs and pictures in connection with his subject. For singing in our meetings we have the Assembly Hymnal. We have celebrated but three memorial days-Opening, Bryant's, and Shakspere's. We have had five public lectures since Dr. Vincent's visit in September, and we intend to have more next year. Our circle is growing, both in interest and in numbers. We send our best wishes to all circles, especially to those lately started, and sincerely hope they may have great success."
The Forestville, N. Y., local circle, numbers about nineteen members. Meetings are held weekly, and much interest manifested in the work. A correspondent gives the following account of the manner in which the circle observed the memorial day of Shakspere, at the residence of the president, Mrs. Lizzie Johnson: "The exercises were opened with a few remarks by Mrs. Johnson, in reference to the history of Shakspere and the age in which he lived. Then the members were called upon for favorite quotations from this author, to which nearly all responded, showing themselves quite familiar with the same. The tragedy of Julius Cæsar was next read by the class, and, as we have some fine readers, this part was made very interesting. The parts of Antony, Brutus, and Cassius were finely rendered. We had a few invited guests present. The 'Wide Awake' Club, a society of younger people, numbering about twenty-five, were also invited, and appeared to enjoy the evening. After partaking of Mrs. Johnson's bountiful refreshments, we tarried for a little social visit."
In Newark, New Jersey, is a local circle composed of twenty-five regular and seven local members. Meetings are held once a month, in one of the Sunday-school rooms. The circle was organized in December, 1880, and for the present year has the following officers: President, Mr. Hartshorne; vice president, Miss S. H. Johnson; secretary, Miss Nancy Ray. The exercises consist of reviews and essays, interspersed with music and recitations. A number of questions are distributed during the month by the vice president to different members of the circle, who give the answers at the meeting. Some of the ladies meet Thursday afternoons, at the homes of members, to read together, and at the meeting of the circle they make use of what they have learned.
A local circle was organized at Panama, New York, in October, 1878, with thirteen members. The officers for the present year are: President, Mr. C. S. Palmer; vice president, Miss Etta C. Pease; secretary and treasurer, Miss Julia M. St. John. These officers, with one other member, Mrs. L. C. Graham, form the executive committee. The secretary writes as follows: "Our circle meets every Wednesday evening, at the houses of the different members. The year's studies have been very interesting to all. The executive committee meet the first of the month and select teachers for the subjects of the month's reading. At the beginning of the year it was planned that the members alternate in teaching the Mosaics of History, in the order in which the names appear on the roll. Sometimes the teacher appointed refused to act, but generally the plan is successful. Mrs. W. L. Sessions has taught Christianity in Art. We have had good copies of each of the pictures described in THE CHAUTAUQUAN to study, and our teacher has prepared short papers on the artist whose picture is the subject of the lesson. These lessons have been exceedingly enjoyable and profitable. All the teachers have done well, but special thanks are due to Dr. A. B. Rice, who, since the formation of the circle, has been ever ready to do for, and add to, the interest and profit of the meetings; and to the president, who, in addition to the duties of his office, has been an able and faithful teacher in the circle. We observed the Milton and Longfellow Memorial Days in an appropriate and interesting manner. The members, with a number of invited friends, met at Mrs. L. C. Graham's, on Monday evening, April 24th, to observe the Shakspere Memorial Day. Mrs. W. L. Sessions read an interesting essay on William Shakspere, which was highly appreciated by all. The play 'Merchant of Venice,' which had been previously selected, was read, the cast of characters having been assigned the different members. The play was well read, and proved very entertaining."
The third annual reunion of the local circles of Cincinnati, Ohio, and vicinity-ten in number-was held on the evening of May 9, in the lecture room of St. Paul's Methodist Episcopal Church, and the occasion will be remembered as among the "red letter days" of the C. L. S. C. of that city. The room had been appropriately fitted up for the occasion, the motto shining out of its gilding and wreath of green as though instinct with life: "Let us keep our Heavenly Father in the midst." A welcome surprise awaited the gathered circles in the presence of Dr. Vincent, whose coming had not been previously announced. Mr. John G. O'Connell called the meeting to order, and the opening prayer was offered by Dr. J. H. Vincent. The following programme was then successfully carried out: Reading, "A Leak in the Dyke," by Miss Ella Starr; vocal solo, "O, had I Jubal's Lyre," by Miss Clara Looker; piano solo, by Miss Ella Kattenhorn; vocal duet, "See the Pale Moon," by Misses C. Looker and S. Craig; reading, "The Prayer of Agasis," by Miss Mary Grafing; reading, "The Echo," by Mr. Charles Cist; vocal quartette, "Spring," by Misses Looker and Craig, and Messrs. Johnson and Royal; essay, "A bit of Experience," by Mrs. J. A. Johnson; recitation, "Sandalphon," by Miss Nellie Allan. Miss M. Standish and Miss Werner, accompanied the songs with the piano. At the conclusion of the exercises of the programme an earnest call brought Dr. Vincent before the audience. After a greeting of hearty applause the gentleman stated that for the first time in twenty-five years he had nothing to do last night, and so came from Mansfield, Ohio, to look into the faces of his friends of the Cincinnati C. L. S. C. He rejoiced to be present and listen to recitation and song, for the enterprise lies near to his heart. He believed in the C. L. S. C., and as had been well expressed to-night, there is
and is often remarked, that this local circle has been a potent educational force, and that the members have greatly extended the scope of their attainments, and their capacity for usefulness within the past two years. Many thanks are due to Dr. Vincent and his co-laborers for fruits of their work like these, that are springing up in every part of our land."
Mrs. E. L. Lybarger, of Spring Mountain, Ohio, a faithful member of the C. L. S. C., died May 13, 1882. She was present at the Assembly with a party from Coshocton County in 1879, joined at that time the class of '83, and was up with her reading and memoranda when taken sick ten weeks previous to her death.
no royal way to learning. To accomplish worthily any work involves toil and sacrifice. It is worth the while to practice to systemize, if only a few moments each day, and when ten minutes are gained it is easy to make it fifteen. Fifteen minutes of concentrated effort will be a strong point attained, and will take one well along in his educational course. Some glorify culture, and some grace, but he glorified both. He disliked extremists, because he believed less could be accomplished of permanent good by that class. He believed in sunshine, and also believed in the farmer's service, but he had no faith in the one without the other. He believed in the divine and the human element, and the best work we have is the divine working through the human. To know, to love, and to will are three things that unite in power. From the energy that concentrates and does its very best, and yet trusts largely for the promised help of God, we expect the best results in individual and aggregate life. The C. L. S. C. seeks to keep the Heavenly Father in the midst, and to coöperate in the works and word of God; it seeks to produce harmony of thought and life—a symmetrical culture. The speaker then produced the plan of study for the next four years, which he stated, was the best of all thus far, and the list of text-books would prove formidable to any except the resolute, brave and undaunted spirits that compose the large fraternity of the interminable circle. After the close of Dr. Vincent's ad-ening, and our taste for thoroughly good reading deepening dress those present gathered in groups, and refreshments were served. Rev. Dr. J. D. Starr and his wife were among the audience as representatives of the C. L. S. C. of Hillsboro, Ohio, which circle was organized by Dr. Starr last year, and has a progressive membership of twenty-five members and a host of patrons. The officers of the general committee for Cincinnati and vicinity are as follows: Miss E. C. O'Connell; president; Miss M. Standish, vice president; Miss M. Dunaway, corresponding secretary; Miss Clara Looker, recording secretary; Miss Nellie Allen, treas
A member of the High Street C. L. S. C., in Lowell, Mass., writes: "The Rev. O. Street, pastor of the Congregational Church, from which this local circle takes its name, visited the Chautauqua Assembly in 1880, and on his return described the religious features of this many-sided movement in a Sabbath evening lecture. This awakened a great and unexpected enthusiasm, and led to the organization of the above named circle. Its meetings began with rotary readings from one and another of the authors in the prescribed course, without any organization beyond the simple enrollment and reporting of the members at the central office. After a few weeks it was found best to organize in a more formal way, and a president, secretary, committees, etc., were appointed, and then the work began in earnest. Topics that demanded special examination were assigned for essays, of which there were several in an evening, and of a high order of merit. A few evenings were devoted to lectures, which were solicited and obtained as a gratuity from friends who were interested in the enterprise. The lectures and illustrations in the field of ancient and modern art were especially rich in instruction. The last plan, which has had a trial of several months and proved highly successful, and is now more popular than ever, is as follows: The entire circle is made a rotary committee, each member to take his or her turn in a fixed order in arranging for the thorough discussion of a topic according to some method of subdivision. Essays, as many as may be needful, are assigned, and rarely are there any excuses or any failures. The topics are always derived from the appointed course of reading, and are dissected with so much care that the advantage of a lecture is secured without the monotony of one thinker or of one voice. It is most evident already,
A member of the Arlington, N. J., local circle, writes: "I wish to tell you that the Chautauqua army has representatives here. We have a circle, consisting of only four members, but we are all in earnest, and find our work growing more pleasant and profitable each day. Our exercises usually consist of the Questions and Answers, questions on the Mosaics, by some member, an essay on some topic suggested by our reading, a short poem recited from memory by each member, and a familiar conversation on any interesting topic we may choose. We find our views of life broad
every day. I consider each number of THE CHAUTAUQUAN a gem. I believe the C. L. S. C. is destined to become a powerful educational factor."
A lady in Holyoke, Mass., a member of the class of '83, writes thus: "Dear CHAUTAUQUAN-I have thought for several months when I greeted your fresh face I would write to you, but procrastination, that 'thief of time,' has prevented. I have often wondered if all the C. L. S. C. gave you so warm a welcome and thorough a reading, from title page to last advertisement, as I do. I take a great interest in the Notes and Letters, as I am like one who wrote in the March number, 'There is here no local circle, no triangle, not even a straight line, only a dot.' But I try to keep my little rush-light burning, and have often felt encouraged by the reading of what others were doing, and helped by knowing the methods they used. I can sympathize with those who do not remember as much as they wish to, and hope they may be agreeably surprised, as I was when I read over the examination papers, to find I had remembered more than I thought. I found in an old copy of a geography, printed forty years ago, the names of the English sovereigns since the Norman conquest, in rhyme. Could you find it a place in your columns? Sometimes a rhyme helps one to remember, or place in order names of persons or places.
THE BRITISH SOVEREIGNS.
Three Henrys we see,
Till Anne, Georges four,
And fourth William, all past,
THE C. L. S. C.
President: Lewis Miller.
Superintendent of Instruction: J. H. Vincent, D. D.
Counselors: Lyman Abbott, D. D.; Bishop H. W. Warren, D. D.;
J. M. Gibson, D. D.; W. C. Wilkinson, D. D.
Office Secretary: Miss Kate F. Kimball.
COURSE OF READING, 1882-'83.
1. Readings in the History and Literature of Greece, England, Russia, Scandinavia, China, Japan, and America.
2. Readings in Science: Geology, Astronomy, Physiology, and Hy
3. Readings in Bible History, and in Biblical and General Religious Literature.
11. WHITE SEAL.
1. Additional Readings in Greek, English, and Biblical History. 2. Additional Readings in English and American Literature.
III. WHITE (CRYSTAL) SEAL For graduates.
Readings in History, Literature, and Science, in the line of the Required Course for the year.
This is a Special Course for Graduates of the Class of 1882 who wish to continue their connection with the Circle.
BOOKS FOR THE C. L. S. C. COURSE, 1882-'83.
"History of Greece." By Prof. T. T. Timayenis. Vol. 1. Parts 3, 4, and 5. Price, $1.15.
"Preparatory Greek Course in English." By Dr. W. C. Wilkinson. Price, $1. Chautauqua Text-Book, No. 5, "Greek History." By Dr. J. H. Vincent. Price, 10 cents.
"Recreations in Astronomy." By Bishop Henry W. Warren, D. D. Price, $1.10.
Chautauqua Text-Book, No. 2, "Studies of the Stars." By Bishop H. W. Warren, D. D. Price 10 cents.
"First Lessons in Geology."* By Prof. A. S. Packard, Jun. Price, 50 cents.
Chautauqua Text-book, No. 4, "English History." By Dr. J. H.
Vincent. Price, 10 cents.
Chautauqua Text-Book, No. 34, "China, Corea, and Japan." By W.
Elliot Griffis. Price, 10 cents.
"Evangeline." By Henry W. Longfellow. Price, paper, 20 cents. Hampton Tracts: "A Haunted House." By Mrs. M. F. Armstrong; and "Cleanliness and Disinfection." By Elisha Harris, M. D. Price 15 cents.
THE CHAUTAUQUAN,† price, $1.50-in which will be published, (monthly):
"Pictures from English History." By C. E. Bishop, Esq.
"Passages from Scandinavian History and Literature." By
*This work is accompanied by ten Geological Plates, 272x36 inches each, containing fifteen diagrams. Edited by Prof. A. S. Packard, Jun. The series of diagrams is arranged in the form of landscapes, and contains a number of original restorations of American, Silurian, and Devonian animals, especially of Carboniferous, Jurassic, and Tertiary Vertebrate animals, by Prof. E. D. Cope, H. F. Osborn, and the editor; with restorations in the text. Price for the ten diagrams and book (postage paid), $6. To members of the C. L. S. C., $5. All orders from members must be signed C. L. S. C. The book is "required," the diagrams are not, although every Local Circle, every Church, and every family would do well to have them.
†THE CHAUTAUQUAN is a monthly magazine containing a portion of the "required" reading. Ten numbers for the year. 72 pages a month. Price. $1.50 a year. For all the books address Phillips & Hunt, New York, or Walden & Stowe, Cincinnati or Chicago. For THE CHAUTAUQUAN address, Theodore L. Flood, Meadville, Pa.
THE CHAUTAUQUAN will also contain, in the department of Required Readings, brief papers, as follows:
"Studies in Ancient Greek Life;" "Selections from English Literature;" "Readings from Russian Literature;" "Readings from the Literature of China and Japan;" "Readings in Bible History:" "Readings in Biblical Literature;" "Readings in Geology;" "Readings in Astronomy;" "Readings in Physiology and Hygiene."
ADDITIONAL READINGS FOR STUDENTS OF THE CLASS OF '83. "Hints for Home Reading." By Dr. Lyman Abbott. Price, cloth, $1; board 75 cents. "The Hall in the Grove." and the C. L. S. C). "Outline Study of Man."
By Mrs. Alden. (A story of Chautauqua
By Dr. Mark Hopkins. Price, $1.50.
II. FOR THE WHITE SEAL.
"Chautauqua Library of English History and Literature." Vol. 1. Price, paper, 60 cents; cloth, 80 cents.
"Outre-Mer." By Henry W. Longfellow. Price, paper, 15 cents; cloth, 40 cents.
"Hamlet." Rolfe's Edition. Price, paper, 50 cents; cloth, 70 cents. "Julius Cæsar." Rolfe's Edition. Price, paper, 50 cts; cloth, 70 cts. III. REQUIRED.—FOR THE WHITE (CRYSTAL) SEAL, FOR GRADUATES of '82. THE CHAUTAUQUAN Required Reading.
"History of Greece." Vol. 1. By T. T. Timayenis.
"William the Conqueror" and "Queen Elizabeth." Abbott's Series. "Outre-Mer." By Henry W. Longfellow.
"Hamlet." Rolfe's Edition.
"Julius Cæsar." Rolfe's Edition.
The following is the distribution of the SUBJECTS and Books through the year:
[Ch. stands for CHAUTAUQUAN.]
"History of Greece." Vol. 1.
"History of Greece." Vol. 1.
"Preparatory Greek Course in English." (Wilkinson.) "English, Russian, Scandinavian, and Religious History and Lit (Ch.) erature." "Studies in Ancient Greek Life." (Ch.) "Readings from Russian Literature." (Ch.)
January, 1883. "Preparatory Greek Course in English." (Wilkinson.) "English, Russian, Scandinavian and Religious History and Literature. (Ch) "Readings in Bible History and Literature." (Ch.)
"Recreations in Astronomy." (Warren.) Chautauqua Text-Book, "Studies of the Stars.' (Warren.)
Chautauqua for 1882.
We presume by the time this number of THE CHAUTAUQUAN is issued, many of our patrons will be busily engaged in making preparations to attend the great Assembly, in high anticipation of receiving much pleasure and profit therefrom. We are happy to be able to assure all such that their expectations will doubtless be more than realized. The authorities have spared no expense or pains in putting the grounds in the best possible condition, and in preparing ample accommodations for the many thousands who will come from all sections of the land to this quiet but celebrated retreat. The Hotel Athenæum will be completed, with facilities and accommodations of the highest order for its guests. In addition to this, pleasant rooms, and good, substantial fare can be obtained at reasonable rates at many of the cottages on the grounds.
The programme arranged by Dr. Vincent for the Assembly of 1882, evinces the same masterly skill which has characterized his plans from the beginning. But few men possess the organizing and executive ability he has displayed from the beginning of these meetings. The persons announced in the programme to participate in the exercises are a guarantee of the high character of the proceedings, and of the success of the season. Bishop Simpson, John B. Gough, Bishop Warren, Dr. Talmage, Bishop Foster, Drs. Patton, Buckley, Burlingham, Schaff, Bowne, and many other celebrated personages, will deliver addresses on topics of great interest to the masses. Besides this, the numerous special courses of instruction will afford students in almost every department of learning ample facilities for pursuing their favorite studies. The Schools of Theology, Language, and Music, and the Teacher's Retreat, are annually grow ing in interest, and will doubtless be more largely patronized this year than ever before. The Sunday-school department, which has been aptly styled "the back-bone of Chautauqua," will contain features of unusual interest, and will fully keep pace with the advance made in all the other departments. The Normal Sunday-school course, as announced for this season, gives promise of special excellence and interest. The Assembly of 1882 will also be memorable as the era of the graduation of the first class of the C. L. S. C., the members of which will be present in large numbers, and will bear proudly to their homes the beautiful diplomas, as certificates of their having successfully completed the prescribed course of study. The commencement oration will be delivered by Bishop Warren, who is an enthusiastic Chautauquan, and also one of the counselors of the C. L. S. C. The Round-Table meetings of the C. L. S. C. will doubtless be unusually full this year, and many who have never before been permitted to enjoy the "feast of reason and the flow of soul" which always especially characterizes this unique feature of the Assembly, will have the opportunity of engaging in these delightful exercises in 1882. The great moral movements of the times will receive their usual recognition on days set apart for their especial consideration. The missionary and temperance causes will be represented by able advocates. A new temperance order, styled "The Chautauqua Temperance Guild," will be instituted to aid in furthering the cause of temperance reform throughout the land. In a brief editorial like this, however, only a very few of the many attractions of the Assembly of 1882 can even be mentioned, much less described. If our readers would know Chautauqua as it is, they must see it for themselves.
The Labor Troubles.
The problem of capital and labor is not a new one. It is coeval with the relation of servant and master, and traces
its origin to the appearance of selfishness in human character. For several centuries there have, now and then, appeared combinations of workmen to obtain increased wages. At the close of the last century a new impulse was given to the formation of such societies by the introduction of machinery, the result of which has been to concentrate the leading industries in great establishments and thereby to increase the difficulty of rising from the working to the employing class. The present century has been one of trades unions. In England, on the continent, and in this country, these organizations have sprung up among the workmen of almost every line of industry. From the local to the national, and even in a few instances the base has been broadened until these unions have become international, so that it is a well-known fact that the labor forces of the world are thoroughly organized, as they deem it, in defense of their interests. A result of these societies is what is known as "strikes," in which the membership of a union refuse to work save on the satisfaction of certain specific demands. To offset these a retaliatory measure, called a "lockout," has been instituted by employers to deprive workmen on a strike of the assistance of others, by throwing the latter out of employment. And thus do we see two classes of society mutually dependent, with a common interest, each indispensable to the other, ever and anon arrayed in this unnatural antagonism. Nor is it perceptible, thus far, that the number and proportions of these labor disturbances have been in any degree lessened. From the famous strike of the bronze workers of Paris in 1867, in quick succession, every state and trade in Europe has felt the paralyzing influences of these labor struggles. In this country, since the widespread strikes and "railroad war" of 1877, not a year has passed but that some part of the country has been agitated by the recurrence of something of the same sort, and today we find ourselves once more in the midst of a contest which already involves the workmen of several states. Iron and steel men, tanners, cigar and brick-makers, miners, dockmen, and others, in all, at this writing, not less than fifty thousand have caught the contagion and think this is the time to have their wrongs righted. If the physical and mental suffering that must come to the homes of the thousands of laborers deprived of their income, and the glow of the hot, revengeful passions engendered on both sides, were helpful to an amicable and just solution of these difficulties, there might be some hope. But alas! This latter and chief evil of a strike is precisely what stands in the way of preventing another. And so our modern and boasted civilization is running to and fro, asking how all this violence, this demolition of property, and often destruction of human life, can be averted in the future.
Without seeking to ascertain and remove the cause, no attempt to reach a happy solution of this difficult question can be successful. This, of course, in the last analysis, will be found to lie in that lack of moral principle and plain justice which is manifested in the greed and oppression of employers, and in the rapacity and excessive demands of laborIt is not necessary to discuss this phase of the subject, further than to say that a larger conscientiousness in the world is essential to the solution of all the problems of its civilization. But men as they are, it is safe to say that a wide-spread ignorance, a failure to comprehend the relations of capital and labor, their mutual dependency and common interest, must take a prominent place among the causes of the labor troubles. Out of this same ignorance springs that mutual misconception of motives, which, with roused passions, makes each class regard the other as its natural foe.
Here, then, is the solution suggested by the cause itself. There is need of such an education of all concerned as will enable them to see the economical bearing of such conflicts, and their hurtful effects upon society. Let both classes be