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115. Lupe, Muci: L. Cornelius Lentulus Lupus Cons. A. U. C. 598, and P. Mucius Scaevola. Cons. A. U. C. 621, Juv., 1, 154.genuinum: ‘Breaking the back-tooth’shows the eagerness with which the satirist gnawed the bones of his victims. Comp. PETRON., 58: venies sub dentem, “ you will be “chawed” up.'

116. A deservedly admired characteristic of HORACE.—vafer: a hard word to catch. Vafer crowns the formidable list of synonyms in the well-known passage of Cic., Off., 3, 13, 57: versuti, obscuri, astuti, fallacis, malitiosi, callidi, veteratoris, vafri,'a shuffler, a hoodwinker, a trickster, a cheat, a designing rascal, a cunning fox, a blackleg, a sly dog. The indirectness of vafer may sometimes be rendered by 'politic, adroit. “Rogue'is a tolerable equivalent.--amico: is much happier than amici would be; it makes the friend a party to the game. Horatius qui ridendo verum dicit (Sat., 1, 1, 24) tam leniter vitia tangit, ut ipse, quem tangit, amicus rideat et poetam, qui dum ludere videtur intima' aggreditur, lubens admittat et excipiat (Jahn, after Teuffel).-admissus: 'gets himself let in, gains his entrance' (Conington, after Gifford).

117. praecordia : 'heartstrings.'

118. excusso: PERSIUS would not be PERSIUS, if he did not give us a problem even in his best passages. Excusso naso stronger than emunctae naris, HoR., Sat., 1, 4, 8 (Jahn). According to Heinr., excusso =sursum iactato, like excussa brachia, Ov., Met., 5, 596, which seems to suit suspendere. Conington renders,

with a sly talent for tossing up his nose and catching the public on it,' doubtless with reference to tossing in a blanket,' a pastime not unknown to the ancients: Ibis ab excusso missus in astra sago, Mart., 1, 3, 8. Comp. SUET., Otho, 2; CERVANTES, Don Quijote, 1, 17; and on the sagatio, see Friedländer, Sittengesch., 1, 25. As the blanket is drawn tight in order to effect the elevation of the person tossed, we may combine with this figure the old version of an unwrinkled nose,' a nose that is ‘kept straight' (exporrectus) by the owner to disguise his merriment (ac si nihil tule ageret). But this is over-interpretation, the besetting sin of the editors of PERSIUS.—-callidus suspendere: On the construction, see Prol., 11.-naso: Naso suspendis adunco, Hor., Sat., 1, 6,5. Comp. 2, 8, 64.

119. men; On ne in rhetorical questions, see v. 22.-nec clam

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-nec cum scrobe: 'neither to myself nor with a hole in the ground for my listener.' The negative in nefas is subdivided by necnec, G., 444, R. Others supply fas, G., 446, R.-nusquam : The answer of the critic, Jahn (1843). In the ed. of 1868 he writes with Hermann, nusquam? as a part of Persius's question. The arrangement in the text seems to be more in accordance with PERSIUS's fashion of anticipating an answer (avgutopopá). ‘Nowhere? you say.'-scrobe: Allusion to the story of Midas and his barber, for which no reader will need to be referred to Ov., Met., 11, 180 seqq.

121. quis non habet ? According to the Vita Persii, the poet had written Mida rex hubet, intended for King Populus. Cornutus, afraid that Nero would take the fling to himself, changed the words to quis non habet? The story is not very consistent with the theory that PERSIUS went so far as to ridicule Nero's poetry.

122. ridere meum: See v. 9.-nulla: G., 304, R. 2.-vendo: 'I am going to sell;' familiar present for future; hence=vendito.

123. Iliade: Probably the Iliad of Labeo. Homer's Iliad would be too extravagant.-audaci quicumque, etc.: The poet distinctly points to the mordant Old Attic Comedy as his model ; yet there is little trace of direct imitation of the worthies whom he citès, and the interval of conception is abysmal.—adflate: PERSIUS, like some other Roman poets, goes beyond reasonable bounds in the use of the Vocative as a predicate. G., 324, R. 1; A., 35, 6. The Greeks were cautious, and in VERGIL the Vocative can be detached and felt as such, but not here, nor in 3, 28.

- Cratino: the oldest of the famous comic triumvirate: Eupolis atque Cratinus Aristophanesque poetae, Hor., Sat., 1, 4, 1. CRATINUS was the Archilochus of the Attic stage, hence audax. See the famous characteristic in ARISTOPHANES, Eq., 527.

124. iratum Eupolidem: The epithet is borne out by the fragments.-praegrandi cum sene: ARISTOPHANES.

The adjective refers to his greatness : “the old giant. Sene is not to be pressed. Men who come before the public early are often called old before their time. Hannibal calls himself an old man when he was only in his forty-fourth year, Liv., 30, 30. Others understand sene as a compliment to an ancient’author. Instead of ARISTOPHANES, Heinrich and others suppose that LUCILIUS is

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meant. Comp. HoR., Sat., 2, 1, 34 : vita senis, although LUCILIUS was only about forty-five at the time of his death—but see L. Müller, Lucilius, p. 288.-palles: “study yourself pale over.' The combination with the Accusative is bold, but not bolder than other cognate Accusatives. "Gain a Eupolidean pallor’='a pallor due to Eupolis.' For different phases of pallere with Accus., see 3, 43. 85; 5, 184.

125. decoctius: The figure is from wine that is ‘boiled down,' “well refined. Not opposed to the spumosus of v. 96' (Conington), as is shown by coctum, v. 97.-audis : have an ear for' (Conington).

126. inde ab iis, 'by these’ (G., 613, R. 1; A., 48, 5), ‘by the study of these, dependent on vaporata.-vaporata : "steamed,' hence .cleansed,\"refined’ (Jahn). Comp. purgatas

res, 5, 63; aurem mordaci lotus aceto, 5, 86.-lector mihi ferveat: Mihi really depends on ferveat, though it may be conveniently translated by.my' with lector. “Let my reader be one who comes to me with his ears aglow from the pure effluence of such poetry.”

127, non hic: Hic is different in tone from is, more distinctly demonstrative, and hence more distinctly contemptuous.-in crepidas: The simple Accusative with ludere is the regular construction. Crepidae, a part of the Greek national dress. "Comp. SUET., Tib., 13: redegit se [ Tiberius], deposito patrio habitu, ad pallium et crepidas. Hence fabulae crepidatae of tragedies with Greek plots.—Graiorum: the rarer and more stilted form for Graecorum, perhaps by way of rebuking the impertinence of this stolid would-be wag.

128. sordidus : low creature," dirty dog.' Himself vulgar, he can not understand refinement of manners or attire.- qui possit: Casaubon reads poscit to match gestit. But Indicative and Subjunctive may well be combined, the former of a fact, the latter of a characteristic: "a man who— and a man to—.' So in the famous line : sunt qui non habeant, est qui non curat habere, HoR., Ep., 2, 2, 182.-lusce: “Old One-eye' (Conington). The lowness of the wit is evident. In v. 56 the poet appears to break his own rule, but baldness and corpulence are in his eyes badges of vice, not simple misfortunes.

129. aliquem: G., 301.- Italo: provincial.'—supinus = su

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perbus. The head is thrown back with the chin in the air, a familiar stage attitude. Others render lolling at his ease.'

130. fregerit : G., 541; A., 63, 2.-heminas iniquas: short half-pint measures.' This was the duty of the aedile.—Arreti : Arretium in Etruria. So JUVENAL takes Ulubrae as the type of a small provincial town: vasa minora | frangere pannosus vacuis aedilis Ulubris, 10, 102.

131. abaco : The abacus was a slab of marble or other material which was covered with sand (pulvis), for the purpose of drawing mathematical figures or making calculations (Jahn). Or pulvere may be dissociated from abaco, and then abacus would be a counting-board, pulvis, the sand on the ground (eruditus pulvis, Cic., N. D., 2, 18, 48), familiar from the story of the murder of Archimedes.-—-metas: cones.'

132. scit: as if this were a feat. Comp. v. 53.-risisse : yɛláσαι, 'to have his laugh at,’ one of the Perfect Infinitives mentioned in note on v. 41.—vafer : ironical.-gaudere paratus : Paratus, as a Participle from parare, takes the Infinitive with ease. The grammars generally treat it as an exceptional Adjective. Here paratus is olos; 'Just your man to have a fit of glee.' Comp. PETRON., 43: paratus fuit quadrantem de stercore mordicus tollere.

133. Cynico barbam: “a Cynic's beard for him.' G., 343, R. 2. Vellunt tibi barbam|lascivi pueri, Hor., Sat., 1, 3,133 (of a Stoic). The beard was the badge of a philosopher.—nonaria : so called because women of that class were not allowed to ply their trade before the ninth hour'—callet,'trull.'—vellat: because dependent; otherwise gaudet si vellit. G., 666; A., 66, 2. The Cynic philosopher and the nonaria (o kai ý kúwv) belong to each other by elective affinity, ALCIPARON, 55, 9. See an amusing parallel between philosopher and courtesan in the same sophist, 1, 34; and on the worst specimens of the ‘Capuchins of antiquity,' as the Cynics have been called, comp. Friedländer, Sittengesch., 3, 572.

134. edictum: “play-bill,' after SEN., Ep., 117, 30. Others, “the business of the courts,' the praetor's court being a favorite lounging-place.-prandia: See v. 67.—Calliroen: possibly one of the elegidia procerum (v. 51), after the order of Phyllis and Hypsipyle (v. 34). Comp. Ov., Met., 9, 407, Rem. Am., 455–6.


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Others suppose that PERSIUS meant a nonaria. See note on 6, 73, and comp. PLUTARCH, Quaest. Conv., 3, 6, 4. With this gracious permission, Casaubon compares the edict of HoR., Ep., 1, 19, 8: Forum putealque Libonis | mandabo siccis, adimam cantare severis.

SECOND SATIRE. The theme of this Satire is the Wickedness and Folly of Popular Prayers. The true philosopher is the only man that knows how to pray aright, and the Stoic is your only true philosopher. Compare, on the subject of prayer, the Second Alcibiades ascribed to PLATO.

ARGUMENT. – Macrinus, you may well salute your returning birthday. Your wishes on that day of wishes are pure, whereas most of our magnates pray for what they dare not utter aloud. Any one can hear their requests for sound mind and good report, but the petitions for the death of an uncle, a ward, a wife, the prayer for sudden gain, are mere whispers (1-15). Strange that, in order to prepare for such impieties as these, men should go through all manner of lustral services, and trust to the ear of Jove what they would not breathe to any mortal (15-23). Strange that men should fancy because Jove is not swift to strike the sinner dead that he may be insulted with safety, or easily bought off by a lot of greasy chitterlings (24-30).

Pass from wicked to foolish prayers. Grandam and aunt would have skinny Master Hopeful a wealthy nabob, would have him make a great match. Girls are to scramble for him, and roses spring up beneath his feet. Silly petitions ! Refuse them, Jupiter (31-40). Nor less silly are those prayers whose fulfilment the suppliant himself defeats-prayers for a hale old age, despite rich made-dishes (41-43); prayers for wealth, while the worshipper expends his whole substance in sacrifice (44–51).

The trouble lies in this, that men judge the gods by themselves. Because gold brings a joyous flutter to their hearts, they think to sway the gods by gold, and change to gold the vessels of the sanctuary. The gods are measured by our 'accursed blubber,' that flesh which corrupts all that it handles. Yet the flesh tastes what it touches, and enjoys the ruin which it has wrought. But what can a pure god do with our gold ? To him it is a spent toy, an idle offering. Let us give the gods honest and upright hearts, and a handful of meal will suffice to gain their blessing (52–75).


Although the colors of the piece pale before the rhetorical glare of

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