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(crustae or emblemata). Hence crateras argenti incusaque dona is probably a hendiadys' (Conington). Chrysendeta, or parcel-gilt plate (Pretor).—pingui: “thick,' not a generic epithet.

53. dona: Predicate.-pectore laevo: Jahn strangely follows Casaubon in understanding pectore laevo as mente laeva. Comp. VERG., Ecl., 1, 16: si mens non laeva fuisset. The side of the heart is meant. König comp. laeva parte mamillae | nil salit Arcadico iuveni, Juv., 7, 159.

54. excutiat: In his ed. of 1868 Jahn has abandoned the harsh excutias of 1843, which leaves laetari praetrepidum cor to take care of itself, with laetari as an histor. Inf. of habit. Comp. VERG., Georg., 1, 200; 4, 134; Aen., 4, 422; 7, 15.-guttas : ‘Your heart in an eager flutter of excited joy would drive the life-drops from your left breast.' So Pretor, who adds that PERSIUS alludes to the faintness produced by any violent excitement. Comp. VERG., Georg., 3, 105: cum spes arrectae iuvenum exsultantiaque haurit | corda pavor pulsans. With guttas comp. “As dear to me as are the ruddy drops that visit this sad heart,' SHAKSP. Jahn understands 'tears,' Heinrich'sweat’(comp.Juv., 1,167: tacita sudant praecordia culpa). In the latter case we should expect ut, as Schlüter observes.—laetari praetrepidum: 'over-hasty to rejoice' (Conington). For the construction, comp: Prol., 11, and HoR., Od., 2, 4, 24: cuius octavum trepidavit aetas | claudere lustrum. On the meaning of trepidum, see 1, 20.

55. illud, quod: ‘that strange fashion that,' instead of the impersonal construction with the Inf. with a different shade of meaning (G., 525; A., 70, 5).-subiit: On the quantity of the tinal syllable, see G., 705, Exc. 4; A., 84, 9, 5.—auro ovato: Comp. triumphato auro, Ov., Ep. ex Ponto, 2, 1, 41 (Jahn). An allusion to the “unjust acquisition of the gold offered to Heaven' seems to be too modern, despite Juv., 8, 106.

56. nam: ‘for instance.' G., 500, R. 1.–fratres aenos: “brazen brotherhood' (Gifford). There are various interpretations: 1. The gods generally (Jahn). 2. The fifty sons of Aegyptus, whose statues stood in the portico of the Palatine Apollo over against those of the fifty Danaides, PROP., 2, 31, 1 seqq.; Ov., Trist., 3, 1, 59 seqq. (Scholiast). 3. The Dioscuri. The first explanation is the best. All the gods might appear in vision, but some were more famous for such appearances than others. The very existence of the statues of the sons of Aegyptus is problematical, and their connection with dreams inexplicable (Jahn). As for the Dioscuri, they were notoriously beardless youths, apart from the fact that qui mittunt points to more than two (Casaubon).

57. pituita: trisyllabic, as in HoR., Sat., 2, 2, 76; Ep., 1, 1, 108. Pituita, 'phlegm,' gross humor. “That pituita was supposed to mark a heavy, cloudy intellect, is clear from the meaning of the opposite expression, emunctae naris’ (Pretor). See also the commentators on Hor., ll. cc.

58. aurea barba: Cic., N. D., 3, 34, 83: Aesculapii Epidaurii barbam auream demi iussit [Dionysius), neque enim convenire barbatum esse filium cum in omnibus fanis pater imberbis esset.

59. vasa Numae: called capedines and simpuvia.-Saturnia aera: Old coinage, according to Schol., Casaubon, and Jahn. The earliest coinage is said to have been stamped on one side with the head of Janus, the coiner, on the other with a ship, in honor of Saturn's arrival in Italy. It is best to translate loosely by 'brass' or 'bronze,' as the explanation is far from certain.inpulit: kicked out.'

60. Vestalis urnas: always' of earthenware.— Tuscum fictile: 'Etruscan pottery.' 'Etruscan' both by reason of its origin and its use in Etruscan ritual.

61. 0 curvae: A passionate apostrophe, which reminds M. Martha of Bossuet.—in terris: So Jahn and Hermann. We should expect in terras, but the Abl. is more forcible as denoting the fixity rather than the tendency of the position.--caelestium inanes: On the Gen., see G., 373, R. 6; A., 50, 3, c. Jahn quotes HoR., Od., 3, 11, 23: inane lymphae | dolium fundo pereuntis imo.

62. quid iuvat hoc: So Jahn. Hos, Hermann's reading, is not necessary, though natural. Hoc often anticipates the contents of a dependent clause, as here with the Inf., 5, 45; ut with Subj., 5, 19.-templis inmittere mores: is more than the opposite to v. 7: tollere de templis.' Inmittere, ' turn loose upon,' like so many hostes, sicarii, etc. Mores, 'courses of life.'

63. bona dis: Brachylogy. “What is good in the eyes of the gods.'-- ducere: infer.' -- scelerata pulpa : sinful, pampered

flesh' (Conington). Pulpa is the Stoic oáp, capkidiov, in a stronger form. M. Martha (1. c. p. 133, note) says that the Christian oápě (caro) is borrowed from the language of philosophy. Others only note the coincidence. Pulpa may be rendered “ blubber.'

64. haec: sc. pulpa.—sibi: 'to suit its taste.'—corrupto: The oil is spoiled by the spice, VERG., Georg., 2, 465: Alba nec Assyrio fucitur lana veneno | nec casia liquidi corrumpitur usus olivi.

65. Calabrum: The beauty of the Calabrian fleece consisted in its perfect whiteness,' which is destroyed by the dye.—coxit: here in a bad sense, as we often use cook," "doctor.?—vitiato: The murex is spoiled as well as the vellus; both have violence done to their natures. Comp. Juv., 3, 20 : ingenuum violarent marmora tofum. On the hard treatment of the murex, or kályn, see St. John, Manners and Customs of Ancient Greece, 3, 225 foll.

66. bacam : “pearl,' literally “berry. The transfer is explained by Auson., Mos., 70: albentes concharum germina bacas. Diluit insignem bacam, HOR., Sat., 2, 3, 241.-rasisse: Perf., like the Greek Aor. Inf. See 1, 42.

67. massae: 'ore.'—crudo de pulvere: ‘from their primitive slag ’ (Conington).

68. vitio utitur: 'gets some good out of its sin.'—nempe: G., 500, R. 2.

70. pupae: The ancients dedicated to the gods what they had done with. So when the girl was ripe for marriage, she hung up her dolls. The sailor hangs up his clothes, Hor., Od., -1, 5, 16; the lover his harp, Od., 3, 26, 3. The Sixth Book of the Greek Anthology is full of examples. An ingenious friend suggests that the practice of publishing a list of commentators in editions of the classics is a survival of this usage.

71. quin damus : See G., 268; A., 57, 7, d.-lance: sacrificial plate, ,paten.' Ov., Ep. ex P., 4, 8, 39 : nec quae


parva per libat acerra | tura minus grandi quam data lance valet (Jahn).

72. Messallae propago: Lucius Aurelius Cotta Messalinus (Schol.), an unworthy son of M. Valerius Messalla Corvinus. See Tac., Ann., 6, 7. He was a notorious debauchee in the reign of Tiberius.— lippa: alludes to the effect of his excesses. Comp. 5,77.


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73. conpositum : ‘in just balance,' well blended' (Conington). -ius fasque: “duty to God and man' (Conington).-recessus | mentis : ppevūv uvxós, THEOCR., 29, 3 (Jahn).

74. incoctum : “thoroughly imbued.' -generoso honesto : with the honor of a gentleman.' See note on mordaci vero, 1, 107.

75. cedo: Notice the quantity. G., 190, 4; A., 38, 2, f. do, 'give here,' let. For the construction: cedo ut bibam, PLAUT., Most., 2, 1, 26;. cedo ut inspiciam, Curc., 5, 2, 54.-admovere: a sacrificial word.-farre litabo: Comp. HoR., Od., 3, 23, 19: mollivit aversos Penatis | farre pio et saliente mica. Litare is the Greek kal/Lepeīv, "offer acceptably. The sentiment may be illustrated without end. Comp. θυσία μεγίστη τω θεώ το γ' ευσεβείν, MEN., Mon., 246, and EUR., fr. 329 and 940 (Nauck).

THIRD SATIRE. ARGUMENT.—The Satire opens dramatically. A young Roman of the upper classes is discovered asleep, snoring off the effects of yesterday's debauch. To him one of his familiars, half companion, half tutor, who rouses him by telling him that the sun is already high in the heavens, and it is time to be up. The young fellow bawls for his servants, brays for them, and makes a show of going to work. But nothing suits him. He curses the ink because it is too thick, then he curses it because it is too thin, and finally swears at pen and ink both. “You big baby,' exclaims the monitor. "Do you expect me to study with such a pen ?' asks the young man with a whine. “Don't come to me with your puling nonsense, you dab of untempered mortar, you unformed lump of clay. You are lazing away the time, when every minute is of moment, when the potter's wheel should fly faster and faster, and deft hands should mould the vessel of your life (1-24). But I see you think that you have already attained perfection. You are satisfied with your position in life, move in a good circle. Tell that to the profane vulgar. I know you, every inch of you. Shame on you, that you, with your ning, should live like a brutish creature, who does not know what a rich jewel he is flinging away, who sinks without a struggle in the slough of vice, whose soul dies and makes no sign. But you, who know better, will have a dire fate. No worse doom could Jove himself bring down on cruel tyrants than the vain yearning for lost virtue, which they can never hope to regain. Nay, worse than the brazen bull of Phalaris and

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the pendent sword of Damocles is the consciousness of sin, the pallor that blanches not the cheek only, but the very heart (25-43). You are past the age of childhood, and have not the excuse of tender years. If you were a child, I could understand your behavior. I remember my own childhood, how hateful and unprofitable task-work alternated with frivolous play, how I dodged the learning of the piece I had to speak, how I had no thought for any thing save dice and marbles and tops (4451). But you have reached a higher level. You know the great norms of life, the doctrines of the Porch; you understand the distinctions of Right and Wrong. Pshaw! As I live, you are snoring still. Wake up, I say, and tell me-hare you any aim in life? Or are you nothing better than a boy following sparrows with a pinch of salt?' (52–62).

Here the poet drops the dramatic form, deserts the individuality of the student, and makes his exhortation general, reserving, of course, the right to pick out at will any member of his congregation for rebuke. He mounts the pulpit and begins to preach. His text is:

Be wise to-day; 'tis madness to defer.' Go back to the first principles of all true philosophy, the constitution of the universe, the position of man in that universe, the great laws of Ethic as derived from the great laws of Physic. In brief, study your Stoic catechism. Do not allow yourself to be diverted from higher study by success in the lower ranges of life. You lawyer there, for instance, do not let hams and sprats, the gifts of thankful clients, seduce you from the ambrosia of true philosophy (63–76).

But hark! some one is talking out in church. It is the voice of the unsavory centurion.

'I have got all the sense I want. I would not be for all the world one of your painful philosophers, with head tucked down, eyes riveted on the ground, mumbling and muttering a lot of metaphysic trash-chimaera bombinans in vacuoand the rest of the scholastic stuff. What! get pale for that? What! miss my breakfast for that!'

Great applause in the galleries, and a rippling reduplication of laughter from the muscular humanity of the period (77–87).

A sudden turn, or rather a sudden return to the figure of v. 63. The connection, if there be a connection, seems to be this:

Such men as the centurion are hopelessly lost, have already 'imbodied and imbruted.' Like Natta, they are unconscious of their moral ruin. But there are those who, half-conscious of their condition, consult a physician of the soul, a spiritual director. The state of this class is set forth in a dramatic parable. A man feels sick, goes to see a doctor, follows his advice for a while, gets better, and then, despite all remonstrance, violates the plainest rules of diet and falls dead (88-106).

But before our preacher can make the application, he is interrupted by an impatient hearer, perhaps none other than the yawning youth,


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