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otoà Toukian, the resort of Zeno and his school, was adorned with paintings by Polygnotus and others. One of these paintings represented the battle of Marathon, hence the wise Porch bepainted with the trouser'd Medes.' Inlita perlaps contemptuous, not necessarily “frescoed.'. The bracae (ávažupídes, Súlakol), a mark of barbaric luxury and display. Comp. PROP., 4, 3, Tela fugacis equi et bracati militis arcus and Persica bracu, Ov., Tr., 5, 10, 34 (Freund).-quibus : Neuter. Quibus et=et quibus. Trajection, G., 693.—detonsa : "close-cropped,' for so the Stoics wore their hair, although they let their beard grow long (iv xpos koupiai), Luc., Hermot., 18; Vit. Auct., 20. Comp. Juv., 2, 15: supercilio brevior coma.

55. invigilat: rather tautological after insomnis. Nec capiat somnos invigiletque malis, Ov., Fast., 4, 530' (Conington). Positive and negative sides of an action are more frequently combined in Latin and Greek than in English, and · sleepless vigil' would not be strange even in English.-siliquis: “pulse.' HoR., Ep., 2, 1, 123: vivit [vates] siliquis et pane secundo.-grandi polenta: 'mighty messes of porridge;' coarse, thick stuff (Macleane). Polenta, älpıta,“ pearl barley," a Greek, not a Roman dish (PLIN., H. N., 18, 19, 28), mentioned as a simple article of diet by Attalus, SENECA's preceptor (Ep., 110, 18) '(Conington, after Jahn).

56. Samios=Pythagorean, from Pythagoras of Samos. "And the letter, which is disparted into Samian branches, has pointed out to you the steep path whose track is on the right.?-diduxit: as demanded by the sense against the MSS., which have deduxit.-— littera: The letter Y, or rather its old form Y, was selected by Pythagoras to embody the immemorial image of the two paths (HESIOD, O. et D., 287–292), so familiar in the apologue of Hercules at the cross-roads (XEN., Comm., 2, 1, 20), and alluded to again by our author, 5, 34. Hence this letter was called the Pythagorean; Auson., Id., 12, de litt. monos., 9: Pythagorae bivium ramis patet ambiguis r (comp. also Id., 15, 1: quod vitae sectabor iter?) Hence the rami Samii above. The stem stands for the unconscious life of infancy and childhood, the diverging branches for the alternative offered to the youth, virtue or vice' (Conington).

57. surgentem : The path to the right is the surgens callis of

6

PERSIUS, the opgros oquos of HESIOD. The character itself points upward, and the right-hand path is a clear-cut line (limes), so that there is no mistaking the road, unless you are bent on following Shakspeare's primrose path of dalliance,' instead of the steep and thorny path to heaven.'

58. stertis adhuc: The preacher finds his audience still snoring, despite his eloquence. As stertis can not be divorced from what follows, it is better to take it as an exclamation than as a rhetorical question.--laxumque caput, etc. : 'Your head a-lolling with its coupling loose, yawns a yawn of yesterday with jaws unhinged at every point.' The head is laxum on account of its weight. Comp. kapnßapeīv, ALCIPHR., 3, 32, and MENAND., fr. 67 (4, 88 Mein.).

59. oscitat hesternum: Yawning off yesterday' (Conington); the yawn is yesterday's yawn, because it comes from yesterday's debauch, Alexis, fr. 277 (3, 515 Mein.).—undique: “from all points of the compass' (Conington), 'an intentional exaggeration for utraque parte.:—malis: Jahn’s malis ? (1843) is not good. The description is too minute for the interrogative formn.

60. est aliquid : Ironical; hence the expectation of a negative answer is suppressed. G., 634, R. 1; A., 65, 2, a.-quo=in quod. Schlüter combines with tendis arcum.—in quod: The other reading, in quo, is unsatisfactorily defended by Hermann and Pretor.

61. ‘A wild-goose chase' is the corresponding English expression for the Latin corvos sequi, the Greek rà necóueva diúkelv. Each word is carefully selected. Thus the chase is a random one (passim), the object worthless (corvos), the missile any thing that comes first to hand' (Pretor, after Jalin). Jahn refers further to AESCHYL., Ag., 394 (Dind.): diúkel mais totavòv õpviv. Familiar is EURIP.: πτηνάς διώκεις, ώ τέκνον, τας ελπίδας.

62. ex tempore: ‘for the moment,' at the beck of the moment, by the rule of the moment' (Conington).

63-76. A general preachment begins. Wake up, you snorer. Wake up, all you snorers. You are all sick, or all threatened with sickness. Do not postpone the remedy until it is too late. That remedy is to be found in the principles of true wisdom; in other words, in the doctrines of the Stoic creed. Before the sermon is finished, the preacher notices an unfriendly stir in his audience, and is punching a member of his congregation when he is interrupted.

63. helleborum: The black hellebore this time (1, 51). The black was good for dropsy, PLIN., H. N., 25, 5, 22. It was the great ' purger of melancholy.'—-cutis aegra tumebit: Comp. vv. 95, 98.—venienti occurrite morbo: Every one will remember the well-worn Ovidian Principiis obsta, R. A., 91. The comparison of moral with physical disease was a favorite topic with the Stoics, who overdid it, according to Cic., Tusc. Dis., 4, 10, 23.

64. poscentis : Elsewhere PERSIUS uses after video the less vivid Infinitive, 1, 19. 69; 3, 91. On the difference, see G., 527, R. 1; A., 72, 3, d. So after facio, 1, 44.

65. quid opus: G., 390, R.; A., 52, 3, a. Cratero: More bookishness. Cráterus was a famous physician of the time of CICERO. HoR., Sat., 2, 3, 161.-magnos promittere montis: A proverbial phrase, which survives in several modern languages: Fr. monts et merveilles; Germ. goldene Berge versprechen. Jahn compares TER., Phormio, 1, 2, 18: modo non montis auri pollicens; Heinr., SALL., Cat. 23: maria montisque polliceri coepit.

66. discite o: To remove the hiatus, Barth suggested io, Guyet voe. HoR., Od., 3, 14, 11: male ominatis, is not a parallel for the hiatus, even if the reading be correct, and the parallel in CATULL., 3, 16, is conjectural. - causas cognoscite rerum : Comp. VERG., Georg., 2, 490: Felix qui potuit rerum cognoscere causas, and sapientia est rerum divinarum et humanarum causarumque scientia, Cic., Off., 2, 2, 5. On the connection of the different articles of this catechism, see Knickenberg, 1. c. p. 35 seqq. Discite is the exhortation to the study of philosophy. Causas cognoscite rerum bids us pursue what the Stoics called Physic, for without a knowledge of nature there can be no knowledge of duty. Ethic is based on Physic; τέλος εστί το ομολογουμένως τη φύσει ζήν (STOB., Ecl., 2, 132). See Long's Antoninus, p. 56. The constitution of nature once understood, we shall know what we owe to God, what to ourselves, what to mankind, what things are good, what evil. Quid fas optare refers to our duty to God, quem te deus esse iussit to our duty to ourselves, patriae carisque propinquis to our duty to our neighbors. But nothing is more evident than the absence of any logical development. Comp. with the

nam

=quam vitam.

whole passage, Sen., Ep., 82, 6: sciat quo iturus sit, unde ortus, quod illi bonum, quod malum sit, quid petat, quid evitet, quae sit illa ratio quae appetenda ac fugienda discernat, qua cupiditatum mansuescit insania, timorum saevitia conpescitur.

67. quid sumus : The independent form with the Indicative is more lively; the regular dependent form with the Subjunctive comes in below, v. 71. G., 469, R. 1; A., 67, 2, d.-quid

G., 331, R. 2; A., 52, 3, a, N. - victuri: The use of the Participle in an interrogative clause is unnatural in English (G., 471). The future Participle of purpose is late or poetical (G., 673; A., 72, 4, a). • And what the life that we are born to lead.'—ordo: According to Heinr, and Jahn ordo is used with reference to the position in the chariot-race, so that the comparison begins here, and not at metae. SOPH., El., 710: otávτες δ' ίν' αυτούς οι τεταγμένοι βραβείς | κλήροις έπηλαν και κατέστησαν dippovs. But as ráčıs (ordo) is a Stoic term, it is not unlikely that the use of the word suggested the figure, which came in as an after-thought. The Stoic preacher, as well as the Christian, finds it necessary to repeat himself in slightly different forms, and we must not look for a sharp distinction between ordo quis datus and humana qua parte locatus es in re, between quidnam victuri gignimur and quem te deus esse iussit.

68. quis =qui. So 1, 63. G., 105; A., 21, 1, a.—qua et unde: where (how) it lies and from what point to begin,' where to take it' (Conington). Herm.'s quam is not so good.—metae flexus : 'turn round the goal.' The difficulty of rounding the goal in a chariot-race is notorious. See II., 23, 306 foll.; SOPH., El., 720 foll., and the commentators on Plato, Io, 537. With the expression metae flexus Jahn comp. STAT., Theb., 6, 433: flexaeme· tae. Mollis, 'gradual,"easy.' So Cass., B. G., 5, 9: molle litus, of a gently sloping shore.

69. quis modus argento: The Sixth Satire deals with a similar theme.—quid fas optare: the argument of the Second Satire. -asper nummus : 'coin fresh from the mint,' 'rough from the die,' SUET., Nero, 44. So Jahn. Others consider this distinction too subtle, and make a. n. simply equivalent to “coined silver,' as opposed to silver plate,' argentum. Conington suggests the meaning, “What is the use of money hoarded up and not

circulated (tritus)?' Comp. HoR., Sat., 1, 1, 41 foll., 73: nescis quo valeat nummus ? quem praebeat usum ?

70. carisque propinquis: Hor., Sat., 1, 1, 83.

72. locatus : 'posted,' terayuevos, a military metaphor' (ARRIAN, Diss., 1, 9, 16; M. Anton., 11, 13).-humana re: ‘humanity,' inter homines.

73. disce, nec invideas: sc. discere, according to Jahn. His te quoque iungere, Caesar | invideo, LUCAN., 2, 550, like poveïv : un phóvel pot åtorpivao Jai TOŪTO, PLAT., Gorg., 489 A. PERSIUS singles out one of his audience, who is tempted away from philosophy by his gains as an advocate. Others, less satisfactorily, suppose that the lawyer is outside of the congregation. On nec invideas, see 1, 7.-multa fidelia putet: ‘Many a jar of good things is spoiling;' "The details are contemptuous. There is a coarseness in fees paid in kind' (Conington). Comp. Juv., 7, 119.-pinguibus Umbris: ‘fat’ in every sense, in figure, in fortune, and in wit. In Mart., 7, 53, an Umbrian sends by eight buge Syrian slaves a miscellaneous lot of presents, value 30 nummi-a proceeding due as much to stupidity as to stinginess (parcus Umber, Cat., 39, 11). The appearance of the Umbrians was not prepossessing, if we may judge by Ovid's portrait of an Umbrian dame (A. A., 3, 303–4).

75. et piper et pernae: The piper is not the Indian, but the inferior Italian (Plin., H. N., 12, 7, 4; 16, 32, 59) (Meister). Pernae, a stock present. Comp. siccus petarunculus et vas | pelamydum, Juv., 7, 119. To supply putet with piper is not satisfactory, and we must take refuge in Zeugma. Pretor is for dropping v.75, and sees in Persius's awkwardness traces of a duplex recensio, as in vv. 12–14.-Marsi: For the simplicity of the Marsians, Jahn compares Juv., 3, 169; 14, 180.

76. mena: sprat,' cheap sea-fish of some sort. "You have not yet come to the last sprat of the first barrel' (Conington).— defecerit: As non quod more commonly takes the Subjunctive, the shifting to the Subjunctive from the Indicative, after nec invideas, is not strange. G., 541, R. 1; A., 66, 1, d, R.

77-85. The discourse is cut short by a military man, who, with the dogmatism of his class (vieux soldat, vieille béte), sets down all philosophers as a pack of noodles. The lines of the picture

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