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general principles (A., 61, 4, c). In practice, however, the Indicative is more common (G., 597, R. 4). The Subjunctive is to be explained by G., 666 (see last example), and A., 66, 2.-ponatur=proponatur (Cic., Tusc. Dis., 1, 4, 7). Comp. Jeīvai, géois. Jahn understands it as ponere lucum, 1, 70, posuisse figuras, 1, 86. Perhaps there is a play on the different senses of ponere. "Serve up' would not be bad in view of vv.

.9, 10.-hianda: "To be spouted by some doleful actor.' Hianda has reference to the tragic mask, in which a wide aperture was cut for the mouth, to facilitate a distinct enunciation. From the appearance presented by the speaker, it soon came to be used of a bombastic style of utterance. Comp. carmen hiare, PROP., 2, 31, 6, and grande Sophocleo carmen bacchamur hiatu, Juv., 6, 636.' Pretor, after Jahn.

4. vulnera Parthi : Is Parthi object or subject? The passage is a reminiscence of Hor., Sat., 2, 1, 15 : aut labentis equo describat vulnera Parthi. If Parthi is the object, an interpretation which is favored by the Horatian passage and by the propriety of the epic theme—for why should a Roman enlarge upon the wounds that the Parthian deals —ducentis ab inguine ferrum must be rendered drawing the dart from his groin.' Still ab is not a suitable preposition, nor can it be defended by such expressions as ducere suspiria ab imo pectore, Ov., Met., 10, 402. Others think of trailing the shaft from his groin,' in which it had been imbedded. Comp. v. 160: a collo trahitur pars longa catenae. If Parthi is the subject, translate, “The Parthian who draws the arrow from [the quiver] near his groin.' The Eastern nations wore the quiver low, the Greeks upon the shoulder. This line refers to epic poetry as the preceding to tragedy.

5-18. CORNUTUS: What need have you of a hundred mouths ? You have no foolish tragedy to cram, no big epics to mouth. Your simple satire demands a simple style, the talk of every day, only better put. Your business is to scourge and pierce, and yet remember that you are a gentleman. Let these themes suffice you, and leave to others the stage-horrors of cannibalic feasts; yourself content with the pot-luck of the Roman cit.

5. Quorsum haec: Comp. Hor., Sat., 2, 7, 21.-aut: G., 460, R.; A., 71, 2.-robusti carminis offas: dumplings of substantial poetry,' 'lumps of solid poetry' (Conington). Offa is a



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dumpling of meal or flesh. Comp. APUL., Met., 1, 3, on the chokiness of a certain polentae caseatae offula grandior. 6. ingeris : cram.' The whole passage is intended to be

• What great gobbets of stuffing song are you cramming yourself with, that you require a hundred throats to strain them down ?' Others understand: ingeris sc. populo. See v. 177.centeno gutture =centum gutturibus. So centena arbore, VERG., Aen., 10, 207 (Conington).

7. grande: See 1, 14.-locuturi: See 1, 100.-nebulas: Jahn is reminded of HoR., A. P., 230: nubes et inania captet. Observe that legunto suggests the culinary figure below. The mists represent the vegetables, Procne and Thyestes furnish the meat.-Helicone: See Prologue. Persius is as intensely Roman in poetic practice as he is Greek in philosophic theory.—legunto: The Imperative, instead of the Subjunctive, gives the tone of an edict or of a cookery-book.

8. Prognes—Thyestae: See Classical Dictionaries for the familiar myths. Observe the balance. Procne served up her son, Thyestes made a dinner off his. Both are common tragic themes. See HoR., A. P., 91.186–187.—olla fervebit: “Who are going to set Thyestes's pot a-boiling' (Conington).

9. Glyconi : Glyco was a stupid actor of the day, who could not understand a joke. The Neronians have made the most of the fact, as reported by the Scholiast, that G. was manumitted by Nero, who paid his half-owner Vergilius 300,000 sesterces for his share. So, for instance, Lehmann (De A. Persii Satira Quinta, p. 17), who has nosed out all manner of subtle Neronian flavors in this innocent satire.- cenanda: Comp. 3, 46.

10. coquitur dum: When the action with dum, 'while,' is coextensive with the action in the leading clause, the limit may be expressed by until, 'while it is smelting'='until it is smelted ’massa : See note on 2, 67.

11. folle: The wind is squeezed with ' or 'in' the bellows rather than ‘from'the bellows. The Scholiast notices the Horatian reminiscence, Sat., 1, 4, 19: at tu conclusas hircinis follibus auras | usque laborantes, duim ferrum molliat ignis | ut mavis, imitare. Comp. also Juv., 7, 111: tunc immensa cavi spirant mendacia folles.-nec clauso murmure, etc. : ‘Nor with pent-up mur


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mur croak to yourself until you are hoarse some solemn nonsense.'

13. scloppo: So Jahn (1868), instead of stloppo (1843). This is supposed to be a word coined to express the sound (comp. bombis, 1, 99). Conington renders plop. Vaniček records it

'.' under SKAR, S. 183, and it may well be the “slap' with which the distended cheeks are reduced, and hence the 'plop' which is heard. The childish trick may be witnessed wherever there are children. PERSIUS multiplies absurd and meaningless noises without any sharp distinction.

14. verba togae: the language of every-day life.' The fabula togata is Roman comedy, as opposed to the fabula praetexta, or Roman tragedy, and to the f. palliata, the subjects of which were Greek. Persius insists on the connection of the national satire with the national comedy, and the scanty remains of the fabula togata deserve close comparison.-sequeris = sectaris. Prol., 11.

-acri iunctura: ‘nice grouping,” “telling combination.' The words are familiar, but the setting is new. Comp. HoR., A. P., 47: notum si callida verbum | reddiderit iunctura novum; and 242: tantum series iunctura que pollet | tantum de medio sumptis accedit honoris. An important passage, as showing the intense self-consciousness of the poet's art.

15. ore teres modico : Jahn comp. ore rotundo, HoR., A. P., 323. The mouth stands for the style, and the position of the mouth symbolized the utterance (ore magis quam labris loquendum est, Quint., 11, 3, 81). Teres as in Cic., De Orat., 3, 52, 199 : est soratio] et plena quaedam sed tamen teres et tenuis, non sine nervis et viribus. A moderate rounding of the cheek’ (Conington); but although in view of v. 13 it would be desirable to retain the figure, it is hardly possible. With smooth and compassed tone. As teres ore=ore modico, Hermann (L. P., II., 46) comp. Ov., Fast., 6, 425: lucoque obscurus opaco.- pallentis mores: The spirit of the age' is also the body of the age. Hence the figure. “Pale' with disease and vice (comp. 4, 47), “ guilty.”—radere : Comp. 1, 107.

16. ingenuo ludo: "with high-bred raillery,' 'with raillery that a gentleman may speak and hear.' PERSIUS has in mind ευτραπελία, the πεπαιδευμένη ύβρις of ARISTOTLE, Rliet., 2, 12, as

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Conington suggests.-defigere: Variously explained. So 'post up,' placard' (Casaubon); “pin to the ground' (Conington); 'pierce,' like an arrow (Jahn); “sting,' like a hornet, as in Ov., Fast., 3, 753: milia crabronum coeunt et vertice nudo, / spicula defigunt oraque summa notant. Comp. the use of figere, 3, 80.

17. hinc: From every-day life. König compares HoR., A. P., 318: vivas hinc ducere voces.—quae dicis: So Jahn (1868), after the best MSS. In 1843 we find dicas, which is more natural, but not necessary.—Mycenis: Dative, far more forcible than the locative Ablative. Jahn comp. Prol., 5: illis relinquo, a reading which he afterward abandoned. See G., 344, R. 3.

18. cum capite et pedibus: served up to Thyestes after he had finished his dinner. Comp. AESCHYL., Ag., 1594; SEN., Thyest., 764.-plebeia prandia : Your theme is “human nature's daily food,'not the heroic suppers of'raw-head and bloody-bones' that teach us nothing. Mensa is contrasted with prandia (comp. SENECA's sine mensa prandium, cited 1, 67) as 'banquet' with 'meal,Tafel' with Tisch.'

19-29. PERSIUS: You understand my aims. I do not care to swell my page with frothy nonsense. And now that we aro alone, I desire you to examine my heart, that you may see how you are enshrined in it—a theme for which I might well desire a hundred voices.

19, equidem: Here in accordance with common usage. See 1, 110.—bullatis nugis : air-blown trifles' (Gifford). Bullatis : so Jahn (1868) with Hermann. The reading of the oldest MSS., pullatis, 'sad colored,' explained now as 'tragic stuff' (because mourners were pullati); now as stuff for the groundlings (because the common people were pullati), is scarcely tenable. Ampullatis, Jahn's conjecture, though defended by Lachmann (LUCRET., 6, 1067), is metrically bad; but the sense is excellent, and the reference would be to a passage which Persius must have had in his mind. HOR., A. P., 97: proicit ampullas et sesquipedalia verba. Even Thyestes is mentioned in the context, 1. c. 91. Bullatis, "bubbly.' Hermann (L. P., I., 32) comp. alata avis, and makes bullatis refer to tumorem et inanem verborum strepitum.

20. dare pondus fumo: Casaubon comp. HoR., Ep., 1, 19, 42:

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nugis addere pondus. HORACE uses the expression in the sense of attaching importance.' PERSIUS means that these trifles are fitted to lend importance, to give seeming substance to mere vapors. Fumus is a synonym for “humbug. On dare idonea = idonea quae det, see G., 424, R. 4; A., 57, 8, f.

22. excutienda: See 1, 49. But the figure changes below, or there is a figure within a figure, the heart being compared to a wall, the wall to a dress. On the construction, see G., 431; A.,

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23. pars animae: Comp. te meae partem animae, HoR., Od., 2, 17, 5; animae dimidium meae, Od., 1, 3, 8.--Cornute: See Introduction, ix.

24. ostendisse: once for all. See G., 275, 1; A., 58, 11, d. pulsa : Kpoñe. See 3, 21. — dinoscere cautus : HoR., Sat., 1, 6, 51: cautum adsumere dignos. Comp. Prol., 11.

25. solidum crepet: like sonat vitium, 3, 21. G., 331, R. 2; A., 52, 3, a.-pictae tectoria linguae: The comparison is taken from a stuccoed party-wall painted to look solid. Comp. AFRAN. ap. Non., 152, 28, v. 14 (Ribbeck): fallaci aspectu paries pictus putidus (=puter). The notion in pictae belongs rather to tectoria than to linguae'painted tongue-stucco. The figure will not bear close examination any more than the stucco.

26. his, ut=ad haec ut. Comp. hoc ut, v. 19. Others read hic. -centenas =centum. G., 310, R.; A., 18, 2, d.—deposcere: Notice the determination that lies in de poscere.

27. quantum fixi: This is not conceived as a dependent interrogative, as is shown by v. 29, where the antecedent of the parallel clause is expressed. G., 469, R. 3.—sinuoso: Comp. Plin., H. N., 2, 37: cor prima domicilia intra se animo et sanguini praebet sinuoso specu.

Sinuoso pectore=in recessu mentis, 2, 73. 28. voce: carelessly repeated after voces.-pura: 'honest.'

29. non enarrabile: i. e., save by the hundred voices. There is no contradiction, and even if there were—this is supposed to be poetry.-fibra: 1, 47.

30-51. When first I put away the things of boyhood and encountered the temptations of youth, and stood bewildered at the cross-roads of life, I threw myself into your sheltering arms, and put myself under your guiding hand. Happy the memory of


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