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those days and nights, as they brought common work and common rest. Surely a common star controls our destinies and makes us one.

30. pavido: variously interpreted of the fear—1. Which an entrance on life breeds; 2. Which requires the protection of the praetexta ; 3. Which the rule of tutors and governors inspires. The third view is favored by blandi comites, as Conington remarks. Comp. MART., 11, 39, 2: et pueri custos assiduusque comes with v. 6: te dispensator, te domus ipsa pavet.-custos purpura : “the guardian purple.' Purpura=praetexta, the dress of boyhood, which was of itself a protection. This was exchanged for the toga when the nonage was over.

Per hoc inane purpurae decus

precor, HoR., Epod., 5, 7.—mihi: If cessit is taken absolutely, mihi may depend on the predicative notion in custo8=quae mihi custos fuerat. Casaubon explains, mihi cessit, ut iam annis maiori vel etiam ut hosti. It seems best to combine the two: When the purple resigned its dreaded guardianship over me.'

31. bulla: the well-known boss,' which contained amulets and the like. Comp. 2, 70.-succinctis: ‘Like cinctutis (HOR., A. P., 50), incinctos (Ov., Fast., 2, 632), in allusion to the cinctus Gabinus, in which primitive dress they (the Lares) were always represented. It was worn over the left shoulder, leaving the right arm free' (Pretor). Conington renders succinctis, 'quaint.'

32. blandi: (fuerunt).—comites : Jahn considers these comites the same as those mentioned in 3,7. See note. The epigram of Mart., cited above, v. 30, makes for this view: the harsh tutors have become blandi comites. But most commentators prefer to take comites in its general sense.—tota Subura : On the construction, see G., 386; A., 55, 3, f. The Subura, as the focus of business life, was the haunt of persons who are sufficiently characterized as Suburanae magistrae, MaRt., 11, 78, 11.

33. permisit sparsisse : On the Inf., see G., 532, R. 1; A., 70, 3, a. On the tense, note on 1, 41. With the phraseology, Jahn comp. VAL. FLACC., 5, 247: tua nunc terris, tua lumina toto 8parge mari. Spargere is a happy word for a rapid, roving glance.—iam: ñòn. The English idiom often refuses to give the exact force of iam. The youngster has got a “sure enough'candidus umbo. The contrast in time is the former praetexta.—can

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didus umbo : Umbo was the knot into which the folds of the toga were gathered after passing the left shoulder' (Pretor). Of course the umbo was candidus, as the toga was.

34. iter ambiguum : See 3, 56.—vitae nescius error: is bewilderment from ignorance of life.

35. deducit: So Jahn (1843), a reading which he has strangely forsaken (1868) for diducit. Schlüter puts it neatly thus: homines in compita ubi viae diducuntur, deduci dicuntur. Compita does not mean the roads, but the place where the roads meetthe crossing (Schol.). De adds the notion of decision to ducit. Comp. in discrimen deducere, Cic., Fam., 10, 24, 4. The youth is brought to a point where he must choose.—trepidas : See 1, 74.

36. supposui: Almost 'I made you adopt me.' Supponere is used of supposititious children. As PERSIUS's own father died while the poet was young, there is a tone of orphanage about the expression that appeals to our sympathy. 'I threw myself as a son into your arms.'—suscipis : is the correlative of supposui. .

37. Socratico sinu: The loving care of Socrates is meant, as well as his wisdom, as Jahn has observed.- fallere sollers: On the construction, see G., 424, R. 4; A., 57, 8,f, 3; Prol., 11. 'Skilful to deceive,' in the sense of the gradual Socratic approach. The rule is not rudely applied, but cheats the warped nature into rectitude. Jahn's note amounts to this, that a ruler that understands deception, understands detection, and hence is a true ruler.

38. regula: 'ruler.' See note on 4, 12.

39. premitur ratione : Comp. VERG., Aen., 6, 80: fera corda domans fingitque premendo.—vinci laborat=dum vincitur laborat, cum labore vincitur. 'Laborat shows that the pupil's mind cooperated with his teacher' (Conington).

40. artificem: Passive, arte factum, artistic,' finished.' The figure is of course taken from moulding in wax or clay.—ducit vultum : Comp. exigite ut teneros mores ceu pollice ducat| ut si quis cera vultum facit, Juv., 7, 237; only there the workman moulds, here the material. Transl.‘take on,' assume,' as in Ov., Met., 1, 402: saxa ducere formam (Jahn).-pollice: The thumb is largely used in moulding. See Juv., 1. c., and Ov., Met., 10, 285; Stat., Achill., 1, 332, quoted by Jahn.

41. etenim: kai yáp. See 3, 48. — memini consumere: See Prol., 2.-soles=dies. The antithesis runs throughout. Soles -opusseria are opposed to noctesrequiemmensa.

42. primas noctes: “the early hours of the night.'—epulis : for feasting.' Others, 'from feasting,' i. e., for study, 3, 54; 5, 62.—decerpere: The expression is a cross between carpe diem (HoR., Od., 1, 11, 8) and partem solido demere de die (HoR., Od., 1, 1, 20). Decerpere is to pluck with resolute, eager hand.

43. unum opus et requiem=unum opus et (unam) requiem (Jahn). Casaubon comp. VERG., Georg., 4, 184.

44. laxamus seria: Jahn comp. VERG., Aen., 9, 223: laxabant


45. non equidem hoc dubites: On equidem, see note on 1, 110. With non dubites comp. non accedas, 1, 5.—foedere certo: Jahn comp. MANIL., 2, 475: iunxit amicitias horum sub foedere certo. Foedus certum, “fixed law,' 'fixed principle.'

46. consentire dies: On the Inf., instead of the normal quin with Subj., see G., 551, R. 4; M., 375 C., Obs. 2. For the thought, comp. HoR., Od., 2, 17, 21: utrumque nostrum incredibili modo consentit astrum.--ab uno sidere duci : Astrology was very popular in PERSIus's time, having been brought into vogue by Tiberius. It was the aristocratic mode of divination, and is compared by Friedländer (Sittengesch., 1, 347) with the spiritualism and table-turning of the present day. Philosophy was not. proof against it; indeed, the later Stoics always had a leaning to it, and Panaetius was the only one that rejected it (Knickenberg, 1. c. p. 79). All people of culture’ talked about 'horoscope, nativity,' and 'malign aspect,' just as the same class in our time speak of‘the spectroscope,' “ heat a mode of motion,' and 'the survival of the fittest.' HORACE and PERSIUS, who imitates HORACE, have caught up some of the current terms, and travel along the Zodiac in blissful ignorance of their own stars.

47. aequali Libra: So HoR., Od., 2, 17, 17: seu Libra seu me Scorpios adspicit. Comp. the whole passage.

48. Parca tenax veri: Comp. Parca non mendax, HoR., Od., 2, 16, 39. 'Fate is represented with scales in her hands, also as marking the horoscope on the celestial globe' (Jahn). The Parca of mythology is identified with the Fatum of the Stoics.—sed: Observe the irregularity of vel-seu instead of seu--sou.—nata

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fidelibus : ordained for faithful friends. The hour of birth is said to be born itself, as in AESCHYL., Ag., 107, &úpputog aióv; SOPH., O. R., 1082, ouyyeveic uñveç' (Conington).

49. Geminos: Casaubon quotes MANIL., 2, 628: magnus erit Geminis amor et concordia duplex.

50. Saturnumque gravem, etc.: · We together cross malignant Saturn by propitious Jove.' 'Saturnine' and 'jovial' are remnants of astrological belief. Nostro is not only 'our,' but on our side, propitious.

51. nescio quod: almost=aliquod. See v. 12.-est quod temperat: On the Mood, see G., 634, R. 1; M., 365, Obs. 2. With the expression, comp. HoR., Ep., 2, 2, 187: scit genius, natale comes qui temperat astrum, where the parts are reversed.-me tibi temperat: The Dative is used after the analogy of miscere. ' Blends my being with thine.'

52-61. Our aims, our lives are one. But 'many men, many minds.' Each has his passion—the merchant, the man of ease, the lover of sport, the gamester, the rake—but they have to reckon with disease at last, and groan over the failure of their lives.

52. Mille hominum species: The Schol. quotes Hor., Sat., 2, 1, 27: quot capitum vivunt, totidem studiorum | milia. Proverbial is TER., Phorm., 2, 3, 14: quot homines, tot sententiae : suos cuique mos.—usus rerum : 'practice of life, practice.' See 1, 1, note. -discolor : of various hue.'

53. velle suum cuique est: Comp. VERG., Ecl., 2, 65: trahit sua quemque voluptas. On velle suum, see 1, 9.-nec uno vivitur voto : Comp. 2, 7: aperto vivere voto. The negative form of a proposition following the positive strengthens it. Nec uno, far different.' With the examples that follow, Jahn comp. HOR., Ep., 1, 18, 21 seqq.

54. mercibus mutat piper: On the Abl., see G., 404, R.; A., 54, 8. The normal construction is merces mutát pipere ; the other does not occur in archaic Latin nor in model prose. HORACE is the first to use it, e. g., Od., 3, 1, 47; Epod., 9, 27. Live introduces it into prose, but employs it only once (5, 30, 3). So Dräger, Histor. Syntax, § 235.-sub sole recenti: The Schol. comp. HoR., Sat., 1, 4, 29 : hic mutat merces surgente a sole ad eum quo | vespertina tepet regio.

55. rugosum piper: 'wrinkled pepper,' shrivelled pepper,' the shrivelling being the effect of the hot Eastern sun. None of your Italian pepper, but the genuine Eastern article. See note on 3, 75.-pallentis cumini: like pallidam Pirenen, Prol., 4, attribute for effect, an imitation and, strange to say, without attempt at enhancement, of the exsangue cuminum of HoR., Ep., 1, 19, 18. Cuminum pallorem bibentibus gignit, Plin., H. N., 20, 14, 57. Cumin was considered an indispensable condiment. The large use of it is shown by the compounds in Greek (kupuvodóxnnun, KTĖ)—see Seiler ad ALCIPHRON., 3, 58—and it ranks with pepper in PETRON., 49; with salt in Alexis, fr. 169 (3, 465 Mein.). Add PLUTARCH, Quaest. Conv., 5, 10.

56. inriguo somno: Inriguo is active. Sleep waters him, as it were, and increases his fat. Comp. VERG., Aen., 3, 511 : fessos 80por inrigat artus. · Dewy sleep’ is almost too sweet for the passage. König, a prosaic soul, thinks of the 'sweaty sleep'of a man who is gorged with meat and drink.

57. campo: The gymnastic exercises of the campus, and especially of the campus Martius in Rome, are familiar. See HoR., Od., 1, 8, 4; Ep., 1, 7, 59; A.P., 162, referred to by Jahn.-decoquit= coquendo vires absumit. The word is employed of a man who has used up, run through, his means. So Cic., Phil., 2, 18, 44: tenesno memoria praetextatum te decoxisse? Here it is the man who is used up, who is made to go to pot.

58. putris: Gr. rakepóç. “In wanton dalliance melts away' (Gifford).- lapidosa cheragra: Comp. Hor., Ep., 1, 1, 31 : nodosa cheragra. The chalk-stones of gout are compared with hailstones.

59. fregerit : Perf. Subj. in a generic sense. G., 569, R. 2 (end). Comp. postquam illi iusta cheragra contudit articulos, HoR., Sat., 2, 7, 15 seqq.-veteris ramalia fagi: The comparison is between the fingers and the knotty boughs. Comp. Hesiod's TÉVTOŠos, O. et D., 744.-fagi: Fagus, anyós, and “beech' (BHAG) are etymologically, but not botanically, the same. See Curtius, Grundzüge, No. 160.

60. A forcible passage, on which Conington says: "The conception here is of life passed in a Boeotian atmosphere of thick fogs and pestilential vapors, which the sun never penetrates

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