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tongue.' LUCR. (4, 531) uses primordia vocum of the beginnings of articulate sound, as Quint., 1, 9, 1, uses dicendi primordia of instruction in the rudimentary preparation for rhetoric. Bassus, as the whole context shows, affected to belong to the antiquiores homines, and imitated the diction of an earlier time. PERSIUS belongs to a different school of art, and his friendship makes him guarded. Jahn understands a grammatical poem, of which LUCILIUs furnishes a familiar example in his Ninth Book (see L. Müller's Lucilius, p. 221), but, as Pretor remarks, numerismarem strepitum fidis intendisse Latinae indicates lyric poetry.

4. marem strepitum : like appnv glóyyos. Comp. HoR., A. P., 402: mares animos.fidis Latinae : Stress is to be laid on Lati

PERSIUs himself is intensely Latin in his vocabulary.-intendisse : VERG., Aen., 9, 774, speaks of stringing the numbers on the chords; PERSIUS goes further [and fares worse), and talks of stringing sounds on the numbers' (Conington).

5. mox: points to another side of Bassus's poetry, the nonlyrical, probably satires, for one Bassus in satyris, mentioned by FULGENTIUS (ap. Jahn), is most likely our man, despite Jahn's objections.-iocis : Heinrich, ex coni. The passage is a very difficult one. The interpretation turns on the two words, iocos (or iocis), senes (or senex), as the reading egregios for egregius may be discarded.

(1.) Jahn reads in both editions (1843 and 1868) iocos and

nae.

senes.

(2.) Hermann's senex, the reading of Montepess., was enthusi

astically advocated by Hermann himself. (3.) Heinrich's iocis has the merit of making a perfectly clear

sense, and is accepted by Mr. Pretor. (1.) If we read iocos with the MSS., iuvenes must be consid

ered au Adjective, and iuvenes iocos =iuvenilis iocos. This almost compels us to make senes an Adjective also, and the following translation may be given : “Rare genius for carrying on the frolics of youth [in song], and for giving play

with virtuous skill to the jests of the aged.' (2.) Hermann's reading labors under the difficulty of requir

ing us to understand senex of Bassus, who was not an old man at the time; but compare the note on praegrandi sene, 1, 124. Notice also the want of balance in the absolute Tusisse. “Then showing yourself excellent in your old age at wakening young loves and frolicking over the chords with a virtuous touch' (Conington). Iocus is often used of love. Comp. CATULL., 8, 6: ibi illa multa tum iocosa

fiebant. (3.) Heinrich's iocis gives us, “Rarely skilled to rally the

young with jibe and jest and have a fling at old sinners, but all in high-bred style. Pollice honesto is the ingenuo ludo of 5, 16. Comp. also 2, 74: generoso honesto; and the honesta oratio of TER., Andr., 1, 1, 114: quae opponitur plebeiae, as Gesner says, s. v. It is hardly necessary to say that the English language has no synonyme for honestus, which embraces the goodly outside as well as

the pure heart. Mr. Conington translates Hermann's text and comments on Jahn's. Lusisse senes he understands as amavisse senili more, the poet being said to do the deed he writes about, VERG., Ecl., 9, 19. It would be far more simple to make iocos senes = amores senilis, harsh as that would be. Old men's philanderings are fair game for the satirist or comic poet to have his fling at (lusisse). Turpe senilis amor, as the master says, Ov., Am., 1, 9,4. Compare the Casina of PLAUTUS.—pollice: the cithern being played chiefly with the thumb.

6. lusisse : Comp. scit risisse, 1, 132.—mihi: The step-father of PERSIUS probably had a seat there.

7. intepet: The warmth of the coast made it a favorite resort for invalids. It is not unlikely that PERSIUS was a man of delicate constitution.—hibernat: According to some, ‘my sea winters,' that is, ' rests for the winter,' is not vexed by the keels of ships (Schol.). According to others, 'is wintry,' like hiemat (the more common word in this sense). A stormy sea was supposed to lash itself warm. Jahn quotes, among other passages, Cic., N. D., 2, 10, 26 : maria agitata ventis tepescunt.-meum: ‘my sea,''my favorite haunt.' Some have inferred falsely from this passage that Luna was the birthplace of PERSIUS.

8. latus dant: 'present their giant side,' 'interpose a mighty barrier' against the winds. Jahn comp. VERG., Aen., 1, 105: un

I

dis dat latus.— valle = sinu. The Abl. of manner may be translated locally; into a deep bay' (Conington).—se receptat: 'retreats,' « retires' from the storms. So HORACE (Od., 1, 17, 17; Epod., 2, 11) speaks of a reducta vallis. Jahn refers the frequentative to the windings of the bay. “Keeps retreating,' 'retreats further and further,' might very well be said from the traveller's point of view. The description of the harbor, now the Gulf of Spezia, is said to be very accurate.

9. Lunai portum, etc.: ENNIUS, Ann., v. 16 (Vahl.). Luna, from which the harbor took its name, was not on the gulf, but on the eastern side of the Macra (Magra), near the modern Sarzana.-est operae : Commonly explained by the ellipsis of pretium. But the Gen, is very elastic.- cognoscite: is easier in tone, cognoscere is easier for translation. cives: ‘good people all.' Ger. Leutlein. Jahn notices the antiqua gravitas of cives.

10. cor Enni: Comp. re-cor-dor and cor-datus, and our 'get by heart.' So credidit meum cor, Enn., Ann., 374 (Vahl.). See MART., 3, 26, 4; 11, 84, 17. The expression is little more than cordatus Ennius, as in the familiar passage, tergemini vis Geryonaï, LUCR., 5, 28. So corpore Turni, VERG., Aen., 7, 650; Greek, βία, ίς, δέμας, στόμα ('Ανύτης στόμα, ANTHOL. P., 9, 26, 3). On the same principle are based such combinations as mens provida Reguli, HoR., Od., 3, 5, 13, and venit et Crispi iucunda senectus, Juv., 4, 81, and Montani quoque venter adest, 1. c. 107. “Ennius, in his sober moments’ (Gifford).—destertuit: On the Tense, see G., 563; A., 62, 2, a. “Snored off his being,' i. e., the dream that he was Homer. Ennius's dreams are touched up in Prol., 2, where it has been mentioned that Ennius dreamed that he had seen Homer. For the further visions, see the citations in Vahlen's ed. of ENNIUS, Ann., v. 15.

11. Maeonides: poetic 'flash-name, like the ‘Bard of Avon.' -Quintus: ‘plain Quintus’ (Gifford). The Scholiast fancies that quintus is a numeral, and gives the following order of transmigrations: 1. Pythagoras; 2. A peacock; 3. Euphorbus; 4. Ho

TERTULLIAN gives: 1. Euphorbus; 2. Pythagoras; 3. Homer; 4. A peacock. The pun would be a wretched one, but that is no objection; more serious is the wrong use of the Preposition ex for ab. Heinrich combines confidently Maeo

mer.

nides Quintus, 'Homer with a Roman praenomen.' Conington follows doubtingly. — pavone: Memini me fiere pavum, ENN., Ann., v. 15 (Vahl.).–Pythagoreo : "Since Pythagoras' time that I was an Irish rat, SHAKSP.

12-17. Here I am in happy unconcern, caring naught for vulgar herd or threatened flock. I do not pine because my neighbor waxes fat. Let who will get up in the world; I won't let my hair turn gray for that, nor stint myself, nor poke my nose into the wax of every jar of wine I open to see whether somebody has not been tampering with the seal.

12. securus: with Gen., VERG., Aen., 1, 350 ; 10, 326. — quid praeparet auster: Jahn comp. quid cogitet umidus auster, VERG., Georg., 1, 462; and 444: arboribusque satisque Notus pecorique sinister.

13. infelix: with Dat. VERG., Georg., 2, 239: tellusinfelix frugibus, quoted by Conington. — pecori: as it were, doubly dependent.-securus et: The trajection of et (1, 23) gives securus a better position.—angulus : as in 0 si angulus ille | proximus accedat, HOR., Sat., 2, 6, 8.

14. pinguior: Jahn quotes appositely for the thought, fertilior seges est alienis semper in agris, Ov., A. A., 1, 349. So Juv., 14, 142: maiorque videtur . et melior vicina seges.-adeo omnes : The emphasis of adeo may be given by repetition, all, ay, all. The supposition is an extreme one, hence the Subjunctive ditescant. Notice the harsh elision at this point, which is avoided by smoother writers. PERSIUS has it fourteen times in all-eight times in this one Satire—which may be interpreted as an indication of its incompleteness.

15. peioribus: Comp. HOR., Ep., 1, 6, 22: peioribus ortus. The social sense is the more prominent.-nsque=ubi-8-que, “ no matter where or when,' hence 'every where,' and, as here, 'always.'

16. curvus : 'bent double.'—minui: 'lose flesh' (Conington). -senio: before my time. Comp. 1, 26.—uncto: synonymous with “ dainty. Jahn comp. HOR., A. P., 422, and 3, 102; 4, 17.

17. signum tetigisse: Only good wines were sealed. The miser not only seals up his vile stuff, but, in his anxious scrutiny into the state of the seal, butts his nose against it-perhaps with

ܐ ܕ

the additional idea of helping the sense of sight with the sense of smell. Recusem tetigisse=nolim tetigisse. Comp. note on 1, 91.

18-24. Others may not agree with me in these views. Even twins born under the same star may be widely different. One gives himself a treat only on his birthday, and a poor treat it is. Another devours his substance before he comes of age. I am for enjoyment, but not for waste; for enjoyment, but not for a subtle discernment of the pleasures of the table.

18. his : On the Dat., see G., 388, R. 1; A., 51, 2, 9. His is Neuter. These views of mine.'-geminos: Comp. Hor., Ep., 2, 2, 183 seqq.-horoscope: 'natal star,' star of nativity.' Comp. note on 5, 46.-varo genio : of diverging temper.' Varus is often used of distorted, bowed legs, and varo genio is only PERsius's way of saying that the dispositions of twins often go apart.

19. producis: 'bring forth,' 'give birth to,' beget,' PLAUT., Rud., 4, 4, 129; PROP., 5, 1, 89 (Conington). Jahn renders it in lucem edit et educat, which is more in conformity with general usage and with the notion of control in the star of nativity.solis natalibus : This picture has been much admired. Every word tells. This high-day comes but once a year (solis), the cabbage is dry (sine uncto), he does not souse it with oil, as PERSIUS does (ungue, puer, caules, v. 69), but moistens it (tingat) with fish brine (muria), which he has bought-sly fox that he is (vafer) -in a cup (a cupful at a time, to prevent waste), while, with his own hand (ipse)—for he trusts no other—he dusts (inrorans) the platter with the dear, precious pepper, sacred in his eyes (sacrum).

20. muria: was a cheap sauce, 'made of the thynnus, and less delicate than garum, made of the scomber' (Macleane); hence the point of buying it only as he wanted it—a small quantity at a time.--empta: Both Conington and Pretor direct us to combine empta with muria. It can not be combined with any thing else, as calice is rigidly masculine, Neue, Formenl., 1, 691.

21. sacrum: Acerbe dictum quia avarus tamquam sacro parcit (Jahn). Jahn compares üks gelos, but has not overlooked the real point, as Mr. Pretor intimates.-inrorans : Comp. instillat in a similar description of a miser (Avidienus), in HoR., Sat., 2, 2, 62.- dente peragit: gobbles up' (Conington). Peragere, 'go through,'' run through.'

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