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22. magnanimus: Ironical, like HoR., Ep., 1, 15, 27: rebus maternis atque paternis fortiter absumptis. 'High-hearted hero.' -puer: while a mere lad. 'Gifford notices the rapidity of the metre, and contrasts it with the slowness of v. 20. It would have been more to the purpose if he had noticed the mockery of the position, which suspends the sense. 'He-his propertywith nothing but his teeth—his vast estate-heroic being-runs through---while nothing but a boy.'

23. rhombos: It suffices to refer to Juv., Sat., 4.--ponere: 1, 53. For the construction, see Prol., 11.

24. tenuis-salivas: delicate juices,' 'subtle flavors.' Saliva =sapor, as in PLIN., H. N., 22, 1, 22: sua cuique vino saliva, by a natural transfer from the consumer to the consumed; or, as Conington puts it, from effect to cause. See 5, 112.-sollers nosse : Prol., 11.—turdarum : 'thrushes,' \,fieldfares,' a well-known delicacy, HoR., Sat., 2, 5, 10; Ep., 1, 15, 41. The Scholiast tells us that the feminine is used for the ordinary masculine, because the Brillat-Savarins of the period undertook to tell the sex by the taste. The difference between turdorum and turdarum reminds one of calipash' and calipee.'

25-33. The true course is to live fully up to your income and trust to the next crop. “But suppose an extraordinary demand is made on you. Suppose a friend is shipwrecked.' What easier than to sell a piece of land and relieve his wants ?

25. tenus : here 'fully up to.' Jahn makes tenus an Adverb, compares VERG., Aen., 1, 737 : summo tenus attigit ore, and explains messe propria vive as =consume fructus agrorum tuorum usque ad finem, quoad suppetunt.-propria: ‘Is it not lawful for me to do what I will with mine oron ?!

26. emole: to the last grain.—occa: Comp. Hor., Ep., 2, 2, 161.: cum segetes occat tibi mox frumenta daturas.—in herba: ‘in the blade. Ov., Her., 17, 263: adhuc tua messis in herba est. Have something of the farmer's hopeful spirit. Comp. the Gr. proverb: αεί γεωργός εις νέωτα πλούσιος.

27. ast: 2, 39. An impersonal objector speaks.-officium= kalñkov, which embraces our charity. The Stoics insisted on χρηστότης, without prejudice to απάθεια. They wanted benevolentia without misericordia. See Knickenberg, 1. c. p. 90. The poet gets the better of the philosopher in PERSIUS.—trabe rupta : Comp. 1, 89.—Bruttia saxa: In the toe of the Italian boot.

28. prendit: Casaubon comp. prensantemque uncis manibus capita aspera montis, VERG., Aen., 6, 360 (of Palinurus).-surdaque vota: Surdus is . dull of hearing' and 'dull of sound,”“deaf,' and, as here, “unheard.' Comp. κωφός.

The radical is SVAR, “heavy;' neither his ear heavy that it can not hear.'

29. Ionio: sc. sinu, if we may judge by Juv., 6, 92: lateque sonantem pertulit Ionium. Gr. ʼlóvios kóltos. Comp. THUC., 1, 24 with 6, 30. It is used here in a wide sense, as is shown by Bruttia saxa, v. 27. Comp. SERV. ad Aen., 3, 211: sciendum Ionium sinum esse immensum ab Ionia usque ad Siciliam. On the translation and construction of Ionio, see note on Prol., 1.-ipse: the master of the vessel. G., 297, R. 1.

30. de puppe dii: Paintings of the gods. Comp. VERG., Aen., 10, 171: aurato fulgebat Apolline puppis. The gods may have been Castor and Pollux, no unlikely 'sign,' Acts, 28, 11. Ingentes implies the size of the ship and the magnitude of the loss (Jahn). See note on trabe vasta, 5, 141.—obvia mergis: Jahn comp. HOR., Epod., 10, 21: opima quod si praeda curvo litore | porrecta mergos iuveris. Any large sea-bird will answer, such as 'cormorant.'

31. lacerae: Conington comp. Ov., Her., 2, 45: at laceras etiam puppes furiosa refeci.-et: kai,“if need be.'—caespite vivo: Comp. HoR., Od., 1, 19, 13; 3, 8, 4; 'live sod,' 'green turf.' Here landed property is meant, in contrast to the income, represented by the messis.

32. pictus : See note on 1, 89. With his picture' (Conington).-Oberret: ‘go up and down the country.'—tabula caerulea: "a sea-green board,' as might be expected from the subject.

33-41. “But,' resumes the interlocutor, “your heir will object to your curtailing your property, and not show you the proper respect when you are dead. You can't expect to diminish your property without scath. And, in fact, you philosophers are very much spoken against on account of the bad example you set, the bad influence you have exerted on the common people.'—Well, what of it? Would you care any thing about what was done to you or said of you after you are dead ?

The connection is much disputed.

33. cenam funeris: the epulum funebre, the “funeral baked meats' of Hamlet, not the silicernium proper, not the exigua feralis cena patella of Juv., 5, 85, the scanty meal left at the funeral pile for the dis manibus.

34. curtaveris : G., 542; A., 70, 5, 6.—urnae: Do not efface the personal conception (G., 344, R. 3; A., 51, n.) by translating put into. The urn receives; hence dabit='commit,' .consign.

35. inodora: Ov., Trist., 3, 3, 69: atque ea (= ossa) cum foliis et amomi pulvere misce; TIB., 3, 2, 23 (Jahn).-seu spirent: 5, 3. -cinnama-casiae: On the Plural, see G., 195, R. 6; A., 14, 1, a. -surdum : "faint,' a transfer from hearing to smell. On the construction, see 5, 25.

36. ceraso: This passage is our only authority for the fraudulent admixture. Tr.,' whether the cinnamon have lost the fragrance of its breath, or cassia be taken in adulteration with cherry-bark.'—nescire paratus : here fully resolved,” rather than as in 1, 132.

37. tune bona incolumis minuas : In his ed. of 1868 Jalın has followed Sinner's suggestion, and transposed parts of vv. 37 and 41, so as to read Haec cinere ulterior metuas here, and Tune bona incolumis minuas below, as Hermann had done before him, only Hermann puts the words in the mouth, not of the objector, but of PERSIUS. I am unable to see how either arrangement helps us out of the difficulties of the passage. In his ed. of 1843, Jahn makes tune bona incolumis minuas ? the language of the heir, who asks angrily, 'Do you expect to diminish your property without suffering for it?' It is rather the language of the objector, who had just told PERSIus that he would miss a good funeral by curtailing his estate, and who goes on to cite Bestius, as another opponent of this new-fangled philosophy. PERSIUS dismisses this tirade by the single question : “What would all this be to you or me after we are dead ?? This gets rid of Bestius as a new speak

He is quoted by the objector. Mr. Pretor translates: ‘Do you mean to say, Persius, that you would thus break up your property, while hearty and strong, instead of waiting to bequeath it by will on your death-bed ??—incolumis : xaipwv, impune.-et: Others besides the heir are dissatisfied.-Bestius: the corrector Bestius of HoR., Ep., 1, 15, 37, who is quoted here by the opponent of PERSICS, as inveighing against doctrines that have taught the lower classes to waste their substance on condiments and spoil their wholesome fare, after the pattern of such gentlemen as PERSIUs. Comp. usque recusem-cenare sine uncto, v. 16, and ungue, puer, caules, v. 69.


38. doctores Graios: Comp. 5, 191.-Ita fit: “That is the way of it.'-sapere nostrum : 1, 9.—urbi: with venit. Venire with the Dat., like the Greek ładɛīv, on account of the personal interest involved, 'came' being='was brought,' allatum est. See Kühner, A. G., 2, 351, and Weissenborn on Liv., 32, 6, 4.

39, cum pipere et palmis: notoriously foreign productions. Comp. advectus Romam quo pruna et cottona vento, Juv., 3, 83. Palmis="dates.'— nostrum hoc: “this new wisdom of our day.' -maris expers : Hor., Sat., 2, 8, 15: Chium maris expers. The explanations are by no means convincing. Maris expers. (1) Not mixed with salt water, which was supposed to be wholesome, as in HORACE, 1. c. (2) = insulsum, Heinr., the most simple, foolish philosophy,' 'insipid sapience.' (3) Devoid of manliness (Casaubon). Comp. 1, 103, 104, in which case maris would be a pun, as there is an evident Horatian reminiscence. See Introd., xxiii. But the Horatian passage is itself variously interpreted. (4) The rendering, “innocent of the sea,' i. e., ' home-grown,' is in manifest contradiction to the drift of the passage.

40. fenisecae: Type of the rustic laborer. Comp. fossor, 5, 122. Fenisecae, the plebeian spelling for faenisecae, seems more appropriate here.-crasso unguine: They can not get a good article, but they are determined to imitate their betters, and so they take a poor one. With crasso unguine comp. 3, 104: crassis amomis.vitiarunt pultes: On vitiarúnt comp. 2, 65; puls is the national porridge, the farrata olla of 4, 31.

41. cinere ulterior: when you are the other side of the grave' (comp. 5, 152); nepairépw kóvews (Casaubon).

41-60. PERSIUS turns on his heir: Glorious news has come of a great victory. I wish to celebrate it by games—by largess. Will you forbid it? If you don't want what is left, let it alone. I can get somebody to take it-some beggar, perhaps, related to me through that son of earth, Adam.'


42. quisquis eris: does not so much show the indifference of PERSIUS himself' to his successor as the utter lack of real personality in the Satire. See note on 1, 44.-seductior: Comp. 2, 4. Paulum with seductior. Comp. PETRON., 13: seduxit me paululum a turba, and PLAUT., Asin., 5, 2, 75; TER., Eun., 4, 4,

The Accusative with the Comparative is rare but sure, Dräger, 1. c. $ 245, b; for examples with paulum, Sil., 15, 21; STAT., Theb., 10, 938 (Freund).

43. o bone, etc. : The only passage in PERSIUS that deals with the political life of his time, the only passage that has any historic force. A keen observer in his narrow sphere, PERSIUS has hit off very happily the features of this droll triumph of Caligula’s. True, he was only seven years old when it took place; but he lost his father when he was six, and yet recalls him vividly, and this parade must have made an abiding impression, whether he saw it or only heard of it. Caligula's German expedition is recounted in SUET., Calig., 43 seqq. : 'He ordered a triumph, which was to be unprecedentedly splendid, and cheap in proportion, as he had a right to the property of his subjects-changed his mind, forbade any proposal on the subject under capital penalties, abused the senate for doing nothing, and finally entered the city in ovation on his birthday' (Conington). With o bone comp. heus bone, 3, 94.-laurus =laureata epistola, the letter bound with bays, in which victories were announced.

44. Germanae pubis : 'flower of the German army' (Pretor), pubes being=ylexia.

45. aris | frigidus excutitur cinis : Of course to make room for new sacrifices, but frigidus intimates that the ashes had had time to cool; such occasions were rare. Comp. APUL., Met., 4, 83: arae viduae frigido cinere foedatae. Aris, Dat. Excutitur denotes haste. "The ashes are hustled off.?—postibus: ‘for the door-posts’ (of temples, palaces, the residence of the triumphator, and other buildings). With the Dative comp. Juv., 6, 51 : necte coronam | postibus.

46. lutea gausapa: "yellow wools. The coarse fabric known as gausapa was used to make yellow wigs for the mock German captives. The light hair of the Germans is a familiar characteristic, and a similar device is recorded of Domitian by Tacitus, Agr.,

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