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9. cum-aspexi: Cum is equivalent to postquam here. G., 567; A., 62, 3, e.-canitiem : 'premature old age,' 'loss of youthful freshness. All through this satire the poet lashes old age, as commentators have observed. So here, and 22. 26. 56. 79. The “hoary head' is not a “crown of glory,' but a sign of debauchery; the “fair, round belly,' which is not uncomely in the elderly justice, is nothing but a swagging paunch; the bald pate is not a mirror of honor, but a mirror of dishonor; in short, 'no fool like an old fool.' Especially severe PERSIUS on the 'usedup' man; and the affected moralizing of young men, who had outlived their youth before they had had time to forget the games of boyhood, drove bim to satire. On the Neronian hypothesis, PERSIUS is endeavoring to masquerade as an old man. -nostrum istud vivere triste: “sour way of life.' This is a socalled figura Graeca, which out-Greeks the Greeks. Good authors are very cautious in adding an attribute to the infinitive, and do not go beyond ipsum, hoc ipsum. Scire tuum, v. 27; ridere meum, v. 122 ; velle suum, 5,53; sapere nostrum, 6, 38, can not be rendered literally into the language from which they are supposed to be imitated. Nursery infinitives (3, 17) belong to a different category.

10, nucibus: The modern equivalent is ‘marbles. The very games survive. (See 3, 50.) It is hardly necessary to prove that putting away such childish things means becoming a man. Da nuçes pueris, iners | concubine : satis diu | lusisti nucibus, CATULL., 61, 127-9.

11. patruos: On the accusative, see G., 329, R. 1; A., 52, 1, c. The patruorum rigor was proverbial. Owing to the legal position of the paternal uncle, who was often the guardian, it is the patruus, not the avunculus, who is the type of severity. So the cruel uncle of the ballad of the children in the wood' is the iather's brother.

12. quid faciam? G., 258; A., 57, 6.-sed: (I know you want me to do nothing), “but” (I can't keep quiet) 'I am a laugher born.'--petulante: literally, "given to butting,' hence "saucy' ---splene: The seat of laughter.-cachinno: a substantive, perhaps built by PERSIUS on the analogy of bibo, epulo, erro, etc. Comp. glutto, 5, 112; palpo, 5, 176. Hermann, following Heindorf, makes cachinno a verb, and reads: tunc, tunc-ignoscite, nolo; quid faciam sed sum petulante splene--cachinno, “Then—then-excuse me—I would rather not-wbat am I to do?–I can't help it-my spleen is too much for me-I must have my laugh.' Jahn (1868) accepts tunc, tuncignoscite, nolo, but goes no further.

13-23. The battery opens. Verse-wright and writer of prose alike care for nothing except applause. Follows a vivid picture of a popular recitation.

13. Scribimus inclusi : Comp. scribimus indocti, etc. HOR., Ep., 2, 1, 117.—inclusi: 'in closet pent' (Gifford's Baviad), to show the artificial and labored character of the composition in contrast with the beggarly result. Markland's ingenious conjecture, inclusus numeris, is not necessary. Heinr. admires Markl., but retains numeros as a Greek accusative !--numeros: 'poetry;' pede liber = pede libero, 'foot-loose," prose,' soluta oratio.

14. grande: “vast,” “grandiose. Grandis is always used with intention, which our word 'grand' sometimes fails to give. See 1, 68; 2, 42; 3, 45.55; 5, 7. 186; 6, 22.-quod pulmo: "something vast enough to make a lung generous of breath pant in the utterance of it.' Jahn (1868) reads quo for quod; quo is not so vigorous.—animae praelargus: a stretch of the adjectives of fulness (G., 373, R. 6; A., 50, 3, ); praelargur=capacissimus.

15. scilicet : Ironical sympathy, 'O yes !'-haec: The position is emphatic.-populo : 'to the public, in public. The political force of populus has ceased.-pexus: with hair and beard well dress’d.' 'Combed' hardly conveys the notion : say shampooed.'—togaque recenti: “fresh' (from the fuller).

16. natalicia sardonyche: Jewelry reserved for great occasions. The brilliancy of the sardonyx is a common theme. Rufe vides illum subsellia prima tenentem | cuius et hinc lucet sardonychata manus, MART., 2, 29, 1-2-tandem : shows impatience.--albus =albatus (comp. 2, 40; HoR., Sat., 2, 2, 61) on account of the toga recens.

niceos ad frena Quirites, Juv., 10, 45. Heinr. argues at length in favor of pale.'

17. sede celsa=ex cathedra.-leges: So Jahn (1868), despite the MSS. Legens may be explained at a pinch as lecturus, a comma being put after ocello; Hermann combines with pulmo, and


comp. Juv., 10, 238 sq., where os stands for the owner of the same. Add cana gula, Juv., 14, 10. But pexus and albus make such a synecdoche incredible.— liquido : quia liquidam vocem efficit. Comp. HoR., Od., 1, 24, 3: cui liquidam pater | vocem cum cithara dedit. The attribute is put for the effect, as in pallidam Pirenen, Prol., 4.-plasmate: according to QUINT., 1, 8, 2, a technical name for the professional training of the voice, a kind of rhetorical solfeggio. Others understand the plasma of a gargle to clear the throat.

18. mobile collueris: Mobile is predicative. Translate : after gargling your throat to suppleness by filtering modulation.'patranti ocello : an eye that would be doing,'' a leering, lustful eye.' QUINT. (8, 3, 44) says of patrare: mala consuetudine in obscenum intellectum sermo detortus. Comp. do’in SHAKSP., Troil. and Cressida, 4, 2: Go hang yourself, you naughty, mocking uncle ! You bring me to do, and then you flout me too. — fractus effeminatus, debauched,' 'languishing,' klaðapóc. Conington translates: 'with a languishing roll of your wanton eye.'

19. neque more probo nec voce serena: Litotes. See Prol., 1.

20. ingentis Titos: Comp. celsi Rhamnes, HoR., A. P., 342. Here, however, there is a reference to size of body (like ingens Pulfennius, 5, 190; torosa iuventus, 3, 86; caloni alto, 5, 95), for which PERSIUS seems to have had a Stoic contempt. Titi, perhaps another form of Tities, the old Sabine nobility (Mommsen, Röm. Gesch., B. 1, K. 4), of whom much aristocratic virtue might have been expected (sanctos licet horrida mores | tradiderit domus ac veteres imitata Sabinos, Juv., 10, 298–9). Instead of that we have great, hulking debauchees.—trepidare: 'quiver.' The word is used indifferently of pleasant and unpleasant agitation. The quavering measure thrills them so that they can not sit still. On the infinitive, see 3, 64.

21. scalpuntur intima: 'their marrow is tickled.' Scalpere is opposed to radere, 1, 107. Comp. 3, 114; 5, 15.

22. tun: -ne is often found in rhetorical questions.—vetule: you old reprobate, you old sinner.'—escas : 'tidbits;' escas colligere, cater."

23. quibus et dicas: Et belongs to cute perditus, which is variously explained “dropsical," unblushing,' “thoroughly diseased. The context requires a tough subject, and hide-bound' or ó case-hardened' might answer as a rendering.-ohe: a reminiscence of HoR., Sat. 2, 5, 96: importunus amat laudari ; donec "Ohe iam' | ad caelum manibus sublatis dixerit, urge, I crescentem tumidis infla sermonibus utrem, which last line helps us to understand cute perditus. PERSIUS, as is his wont, tries to improve on HORACE, and makes his man inelastic.

24-43. M. Study is useless except to show what a man has in him.-P. A low ideal for a student.—M. Fame is a fine thing.– P. It would be a fine thing if it were not shared by every dinnertable poet.—M. You are too captious. It is a great thing to have written poems that are proof against trunk-maker and pastrycook.

24. Quo didicisse? The exclamatory infinitive with involved subject. G., 534 (340); A., 57, 8, 9.

25. iecore: the seat of the passions. Here 'heart' or 'breast' would seem to be more appropriate.-caprificus: the wild figtree sprouts in the clefts of rocks and cracks of buildings, which it rends in its growth. Ad quae | discutienda valent mala robora fici, Juv., 10, 145.

26. En pallor seniumque: “So that's the meaning of your studious pallor (v. 124; 3, 85; 5, 62) and your (early) old age.' With senium comp. HoR., Ep., 1, 18,47: inhumanae senium depone Camenae. PERSIUS mocks at the weariness to the flesh which the student has undergone for so paltry a result. This is the arrangement of Jahn (1843) and Hermann. Jahn (1868) follows Heinr. in giving the line to the remonstrant. En, originally an interrogative, is, after the time of SALLUST, confounded with em, and combined with the nom. in the sense of em, which properly takes the accus. alone. So Ribbeck, Beiträge zur Lehre von den latein. Partikeln, S. 35.—0 mores: Cicero's famous ejaculation. - usque adeone : Usque adeone mori miserum est, VERG., Aen., 12, 646; usque adeo nihil est, Juv., 3, 84.

27. scire tuum nihil est, etc. : ' And is thy knowledge nothing if not known' (Gifford). These jingles were much admired in antiquity. The passage from LUCILIUS, which PERSIUS is said to have imitated, reads, according to L. Müller (fr. inc., 40, 73): ne dampnum faciam, scire hoc sibi nesciat is me. A better example in LUCR., 4, 470.

28. At: objects. See G., 490; A., 43, 3, 6.—digito monstrari: δακτύλω δείκνυσθαι (δακτυλοδεικτείσθαι). Quod monstror digito praetereuntium, HOR., Od., 4, 3, 22; saepe aliquis digito vatem designat euntem, Ov., Am., 3, 1. 19.—hic est: oúros šveīvos, in the well-known story of Demosthenes. Cic., Tusc. Dis., 5, 36.-di. cier: On the form, see G., 191, 2; A., 30, 6, e, 4. So fallier, 3, 50.

29. cirratorum: curl-pates.' Jahn cites Mart., 9, 29, 7: Matutini cirrata caterva magistri. School-boys wore their hair long, but PERSIUS does not waste his epithets, and youths of quality’are doubtless meant. Comp. the lautorum pueros of Juv., 7, 177.—dictata : “Persius takes not only higher schools, but higher lessons, dictata being passages from the poets read out by the master (for want of books) and repeated by the boys' (Conington). Translate a lesson-book,' a 'school classic.'

30. Ecce: introduces a satiric sketch of classic poets at work.'—inter pocula: 'over their cups.' Poems were read at table by an åvayvúorns, as lives of the saints are still read in religious houses.

31. Romulidae: Comp. Titos, v. 20; trossulus, v. 82; Romule, v. 87.-dia: Jeta, an affected word. “Let us hear,' say the company, 'what his charming verses are about’ (Pretor). Conington renders: “What news from the divine world of poesy ?'

32. hyacinthia lãena: The dandies of the day wore upper garments of military cut and gay colors. A similar military dandyism on the part of non-military men is observable in the Macedonian period. Comp. xlauvònpópoi ävdpes, THEOCR., 15, 6, with the commentators.

33. rancidulum quiddam: "affected stuff, 'namby - pamby trash.?-balba de nare=de nare balbutiens, “ with a nasal lisp,

with a snuffle and a lisp' (Conington). Balbus is especially used of the introduction of an aspirate, and ‘lisp,' which involves a spirant, is only approximate. Comp. Jaõua péya, inquid balba, LUCIL., 6, 20, with L. Müller's note.- locutus: Perf. Part. where we should expect a Present. G., 278, R.

34. Phyllidas Hypsipylas: Phyllis, fearing that she had been deserted by her lover, Demophon, hanged herself, and was changed into an almond-tree (Ov., Her., 2). Hypsipyle of Lem

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