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nos, after bearing two children to Jason, was forsaken by him (Ov., Her., 6). These doleful themes (plorabilia) were popular in PERSIUS's time. The plural is contemptuous in Latin as in English.

35. eliquat: ‘filters.' Every rough particle is strained out so as to make the voice “ liquid.' The passage from APUL., Flor., p. 351, Elm., cited by Jahn, canticum videtur ore tereti semihiantibus in conatu labellis eliquare, indicates a cooing position of the lips, in which the mouth simulates a colander.-supplantat: ÚTOOKENIGEL (LUCIL., 29, 50, L. M.), “trips up.' To judge by HoR., Sat., 2, 3, 274, balba feris annoso verba palato, of which the language of PERSIUS seems to be an exaggeration, the sounds impinge upon the roof of the mouth instead of coming out boldlya kind of lolling utterance.tenero: adds another shade: the tripping is light, for the roof is sensitive; "minces his words as though his mouth were sore' (Pretor).

36. adsensere viri: Observe the Epic vein. Adsensere omnes, VERG., Aen., 2, 130; adsensere dii, Ov., Met., 9, 259 (Jahn). Viri, “heroes.'—non- !--non- ? On the form of the question, see G., 455; A., 71, 1, R.

37. levior cippus: Sufficiently familiar is the old wish, SIT · TIBI. TERRA · LEVIS, which, like the modern R.I.P., was promoted to the dignity of initials (S·T·T·L.).— ossa: Patrono meo 088a bene quiescant, PETRON., 39.

38. manibus =cineribus, remains' (Conington). On this ‘materialism,' see Tylor, Primitive Culture, 2, 24 foll.

40. nascentur violae : ‘Lay her i' the earth | and from her fair and unpolluted flesh | may violets spring.' SAAKSP., Hamlet, 5, 1.—‘Rides' ait: As in HoR., Ep., 1, 19, 43. Ait is used like inquit (G., 199, R. 3), without any definite reference.-nimis uncis | naribus indulges: 'you are too much given to hooking, curling your nose.' Naribus uti, HoR., Ep., 1, 19, 45; naso adunco, HoR., Sat., 1, 6,5.

41. an: when used alone is more or less rhetorical, and is intended to force a conclusion involved in the foregoing; “What?'

So then ?? G., 459; A., 71, 2,5. PERSIUS's use of it is instructive: v. 87; 2, 19. 26; 3, 19. 27. 61; 5, 83. 125. 163. 164; 6, 51. 63. - velle meruisse: See G., 275, 2; A., 53, 11, d, for the tense of meruisse. The Perf. after velle is legal rather than Greek. Comp. v. 91, qui me volet incurvasse querela. So HoR. (Sat. 2, 3, 187), mimicking the legal tone: ne quis humasse velit Aiacem, Atrida, vetas ? cur ? Other Perf. Infinitives with varying motives are found: 1, 132; 2, 66; 4, 7. 17; 5, 24. 33; 6, 4. 6. 17. 77.

42. os populi: 'popular applause,' “ a place in the mouths of men’ (Conington). Comp. the phrase in ore esse.—cedro digna: Cedar oil was used to preserve manuscripts. Speramus carmina fingi | posse linenda cedro, HoR., A. P., 331-2.

43. nec scombros nec tus: The fear of the mackerel is a stroke of CatuLLUS, 95, 8, which Milton imitates, Ep., 10: gaudete scombri. Comp. Mart., 4, 86, 8. For tus, comp. HoR., Ep., 2, 1, 269: deferar in vicum vendentem tus et odores i et piper et quicquid chartis amicitur ineptis. The modern equivalent is the grocer or the pastry-cook.

44-62. The poet gives up his dramatizing and speaks in his own person. 'I am not indifferent to fame, but I reject a standard which approves such stuff as Labeo's, such ditties as "persons of quality” dictate after dinner, a standard which makes a hot dish the test of poetic fervor, and covers a multitude of poetic sins with a cast-off cloak. If you had eyes in the back of your head, you would see that all this praise is for value received.'

44. dicere feci: G., 527, R. 1; A., 70, 2.

45. non ego: 'I do not decline your praise—no, not I.' G., 447; A., 76, 3, d. Comp. 2, 3; 3, 78; and HoR., Ep., 1, 19, 37, non ego ventosae plebis suffragia venor.-si forte quid aptius exit: “if I chance to turn out (off) a rather neat piece of work. Exit may mean “to leave the shop' (ex officina exire, Cic., Parad., pr. 5), or “to leave the potter's wheel,' as urceus exit, HoR., A. P., 22 (Jahn). Conington translates ' hatch' on account of rara avis. Kakòv qóv. The passage is imitated by Quint., 12, 10, 26.

46. quando: gives the reason for his saying si forte. There is no necessity of writing quanquam, but the translation although' is not unnatural, as causative particles are often adversative. Comp. cum and Gr. énel.-rara avis : proverbial as in the famous line of Juv., 6, 165.

47. laudari metuam : So HoR., metuens audiri, Ep., 1, 16, 60; metuit tangi, Od., 3, 11, 10. In prose the construction is less common with metuo than with vereor. G., 552, R. 1; M., 376, Obs. -cornea: 'of horn. The metaphorical use seems to be novel. Comp. ΗοΜ., Οd., 19, 211: οφθαλμοί δ' ώς ει κέρα έστασαν ήε σίδηpos.-fibra : heart.'

See 5, 29. 48. recti finemque extremumque: the ultimate standard.' Conington renders' be-all and end-all.'

49, euge, belle: like decenter (v. 84), are current expressions of approbation at public readings. Euge, 'bravo ! belle, "well said !' decenter, 'pretty fair ! MARTIAL gives us a list of popular comments (2, 27, 3–4): Effecte! graviter! st! nequiter! euge! beate! | hoc volui !—excute: a favorite word with PERSIUS as with SENECA, Ep., 13, 8; 16,7; 22, 10; 26, 3; De Ira, 3, 36 (Jahn). The metaphor is taken from shaking clothes in order to get out any thing that may be concealed in them-Gr., łnocle:v. We should say “analyze.'

50. quid non intus habet: The figure is kept up. • What is not covered up in that beggarly rag of a belle ??—non=nonne. G., 445 and R.; A., 71, 1.-Atti: See v. 4.—Ilias ebria: Comp. ebrius sermo, SEN., Ep., 19, 9.

51. veratro: white hellebore (album multum terribilius nigro, Plin., H. N., 25, 5, 21), a strong emetic, which students took to quicken their wits.' The modern veratrum is a different drug. -elegidia: contemptuous, 'bits of elegies' on such theines as Phyllis and Hypsipyle. E. a Greek word not in Greek lexicons, like poetridas, Prol., 13.—crudi: with their dinners undigested and their brains muddled.

52. dictarunt: “extemporize.'— lectis: "sofas.' The ancients wrote in a recumbent posture far more frequently than we do.

53. citreis: “of citron wood," wood of the thyia' (Thyia articulata, African Arbor Vitae, Plin., 15, 29). The fabulous cost of tables of this material is well known. Cic., Verr., 4, 17, 37.— scis: “you know how. Scire in this sense is related to posse, as Fr. savoir to pouvoir, a traditional distinction.—calidum: ‘hotand-hot' (Pretor).-ponere: 1. “serve up;' 2. ' cause to serve up,' "treat to. Heri non tam bonum posui et multo honestiores cenabant, PETRON., 34.-sumen: a dainty dish in the eyes of Greek and Roman. Comp. vulva nil pulchrius ampla, HoR., Ep., 1, 15,


41; PLUT., Sanit. Praec., 124 F; ALCIPHR., Ep., 1, 20; and the joke in ALEXIS, fr. 188 (3, 473 Mein.).

54. comitem horridulum trita donare lacerna: This is the kind of patronage that galled LUCIAN (De Merced. Cond., 37), who mentions the paltry present of an έφεστρίδιον άθλιον ή χιτώνιον Únovapov. On the word comitem, see 3, 7. Horridulum comitem, shivering beggar of a companion,' “poor devil in your suite.' For the custom, comp. HoR., Ep., 1, 19, 37: Non ego ventosae plebis suffragia venor | impensis cenarum et tritae munere vestis.

56. qui pote? Pote is an archaism for potis. Both potis and pote are used as predicates without regard to number and gender.— vis dicam : G., 546, R. 3; A., 70, 3, J, R. Vis does not wait for an

See 6, 63.-nugaris: "you are a twaddler' (Conington).-calve: PERSIUS calls up his vetulus (v. 22) again, and gives him a huge “bombard’ of a belly. Nero had a venter proiectus, and some editors fancy that Nero's person is aimed at here, and Nero's poetry in the verses that follow. See Introd., xxxvi.

57. aqualiculus : (said properly to mean'a pig's stomach ') paunch,' cloak-bag of guts,' SHAKSP.-protenso sesquipede: Comp. the Greek proverb: παχεία γαστηρ λεπτόν ου τίκτει νόον. Even M. Martha is forced to say: Le trait n'est ni spirituel ni poli (Moralistes Romains, p. 147). For the justification, see v. 128. Jahn (1843) reads propenso.

58. Iane: Janus, who sees both ways, is secure from being laughed at behind his back.—ciconia pinsit=pinsendo ludit. The fingers of the mocker imitate the clapping of the stork's bill. Pinsit, “pounds,' because the ciconia levat ac deprimit rostruia dum clangit, ISIDOR., Orig., 20, 15, 3. "Pecks at’ is not correct; claps'is nearer. What seems to be meant is mock applause.

59. auriculas: The imitation of ass's ears by the hands belongs to universal culture.-imitari mobilis =ad imitandum m. G., 424, R. 4; A., 57,8, f.- albas : on account of the white lining. Ov., Met., 11, 176: auresvillis albentibus implet.

60. linguae: The thrusting out of the tongue in derision is as common now as it was then.-canis Apula: Apulia was the diflov "Apyos of Italy. Siticulosae Apuliae, HoR., Epod., 3, 16.— tantae : So Jahn and Herm. "Tongues big enough to represent


the thirst of an Apulian hound' (Pretor). Jahn compares for the construction, Luc., 1, 259: quantum rura silent, tanta quies. Conington considers tantum ' much neater,' and makes quantum sitiat =quantum sitiens protendat, a length of tongue protruded like an Apulian dog in the dog-days.'

61. vos, o patricius sanguis : HoR., A. P., 291: vos, o | Pompilius sanguis. The Nom. for the Vocative in solemn address. G., 194, R. 3; A., 53, a.- fas est=fatum est, “it is ordained.'

62. occipiti : Notice the exceptional Abl. in i. Comp. Auson., Epigr., 12, 8: occipiti calvo es, and capiti, v.83.-posticae: chiefly of the back part of a building: "back-stairs' (Conington).– occurrite: turn round and face' (Conington and Pretor).sannae: 'flout,' gibe,''fleer,' pūkos.

63-82. PERSIUS takes up the thread which Janus had rudely snapt: “We have heard the bounden praise of dependants. What does the town say? Why, they admire the smooth flow of the verse, the grand style. If they find these requisites, little do they care about theme or order of development; the 'prentice hand that bungles an eclogue, undertakes an epic-nay, jumbles eclogue and epic--Bravo, poet! all the same. Another mania is the passion for the old poets, a Pacuvian revival. What is to be expected when all this bubble-and-squeak language is the daily food of our children and the dear delight of lecture-halls ??

63. Quis=qui. G., 105; A., 21, 1, d.—quis enim: Enim, like yáp; "why, what else ?? (of course. G., 500; A., 43, 3, d.

64. nunc demum: as if something marvellous had been accomplished.-severos : "captious, critical.'

65. effundat: suffers to glide smoothly,' a harsh expression. -iunctura: The image is that of the joining of pieces of marble, as in an opus tessellatum. Comp. LUCIL., fr. inc., 10, 23 (L. M.): quam lepide láteis conpostae, ut tesserulae, omnes | arte pavimenti atque emblemati' vermiculati. The poet is compared with an artisan, not with an artist. He knows how to fit the pieces together so perfectly as to present a continuous smooth surface to the pressure of the most exacting nail. Comp. v. 92.-tendere versum: “to lay off a verse,' as a carpenter lays off his work. The propriety of the word tendere is heightened, if we remember that the hexameter was called the versus longus.


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