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66. Carpenter-like, the versewright stretches his ruddled line (rubrica), sights it oculo derigit uno), and springs it. The modern carpenter uses chalk instead of ruddle, but the red pencil may be regarded as a survival of color. For references, see Rost's Passow, s. V. otásun. For the spelling derigat, remember that dirigere is 'to point in different directions ;' derigere in one.'—ac si derigat: On the sequence, see G., 604; A., 61, 1, R.

67. sive : seldom used alone; here for vel si.-in mores, in luxum, in prandia regum: a kind of anticlimax. In does not necessarily, though it does naturally, denote hostility. The prandium was originally a very simple meal. The Stoic model is set up in SENECA, Ep. 83, 6: Panis deinde siccus et sine mensa prandium, post quod non sunt lavandae manus. The manger sur le pouce became in time the déjeuner à la fourchette (calidum prandium, PLAUT., Poen., 3, 5, 14), and then the déjeuner dinatoire (prandia cenis ingesta, SEN., N. Q., 4, 13, 6). Regum, 'grandees,” nabobs, belongs to prandia alone.

68. res grandis : "sublimities.'

69. heroas: used as an adjective.-sensus : 'sentiments.'-ad. ferre : 'parade, bring on parade. On the Inf., see 3, 64.

70. nugari graece: "dabble in Greek verses,' a phase of fashionable education, no more peculiar to Nero than to HORACE (Sat. 1, 10, 31).—ponere lucum: 'put before our eyes,' “paint,' * describe.' Lucus, a favorite poetic theme. Jahn thinks of the grove in which Mars and Rhea Silvia met, Juv., 1, 7. Perhaps young poets tried their skill on groves, as young draughtsmen on trees.

71. artifices: With artifices ponere comp. artifex sequi, Prol., 11. -rus saturum: 'lush, teeming country.'—corbes-focus-porci: all properties’ of country life.

72. fumosa Palilia faeno: The festival called Palilia, in honor of Pales (from the same radical as pa-sco), was celebrated on the anniversary of the founding of Rome, April 21st. It was a day reeking (fumosa) with bonfires of hay (faenum), over which the peasants leaped, doubtless' to appease the evil spirit by a pretended sacrifice' (Pretor). The dictionaries will furnish the loci classici. The other form, Parilia, is due to dissimilation.' Comp. meridies for medidies.

73. unde: “the source of;' loosely used to show connection.Remus: not unfrequently takes the place of his longer brother, whose oblique cases do not fit well into dactylic verse. So turba Remi, Juv., 10, 73; reddat signa Remi, PROP., 4, 6, 80; and the other examples in Freund.-sulco : withand in the furrow.' See Prol., v., 1.—terens : wearing bright' (Conington), “furbishing.' König compares: sulco attritus splendescere vomer, VERG., Georg., 1, 46.-dentalia : share-beams,' VERG., Georg., 1, 171, with Conington's note.—Quinti: Cincinnatus, Liv., 3, 26.

74. cum dictatorem induit: So Jahn (1843). Decidedly the easiest reading, but the best in connection with terens. In his ed. of 1868, Jahn reads quem dictatorem. Hermann objects to the expression, and insists on dictaturam, appealing in his preface to Plin., H. N., 18, 3, 20, for dictaturam in the sense of vestem dictatoriam. Surely, to 'robe dictator' and to 'robe with the dictatorship’are not far apart, and the former is the more striking expression.-trepida: 'flurried. See v. 20.--ante boves: is supposed to give local coloring, and to bring before us the slow, bovine gaze' of the astonished cattle.

75. tua aratra: Poetic plural.-euge poeta: Here the applause comes in. Mr. Pretor considers the words from corbes to tulit a quotation, perhaps from one of Nero's poems.'

76. est nunc: PERSIUS attacks the antiquarii in imitation of Horace. The older Latin poets have long been restored to their rights. Accius and Pacuvius hardly need defenders. Hermann makes the sentence interrogative.—Brisaei : ‘Bacchic. Brisaeus was an epithet of Bacchus, transferred to the poet of Bacchus, who was perhaps too devoted a worshipper of the god. There was a famous saying of CRATINUS, who was in like manner called ταυροφάγος, a surname of Bacchus : ύδωρ δέ πίνων ουδέν αν τέκοι σοpóv, fr. 186 (2, 119 Mein.). Comp. HoR., Ep., 1, 19, 1.-venosus: For the figure, comp. Tac., Dial. 21. The standing out of the veins' refers not so much to the "shrinking of the flesh in old age' (Conington), as to the scrawniness of the person. So Tacit. uses durus et siccus of Asinius Pollio (1. c.), Gr. 1oxvós. “Angular,'' hard-lined,' is about what is meant. Others prefer thickveined," turgid.?—liber: of a play, QUINT., 1, 10, 18; PROP., 4 (3), 21, 28 (Jahn).-Acci: also written Atti (584–650 ? A. U.C.).. P.

CICERO calls him gravis et ingeniosus poeta, summus poeta (pr. Planc., 24, 59; Sest., 56, 120); HoR., altus (Ep., 2, 1, 56); Ov., animosi oris (Am., 1, 15, 19). Pacuvius said that the compositions of ACCIUS were sonora quidem et grandia sed duriora paulum et acerbiora.

77. Pacuvius: nephew of Ennius (534-622 A. U. C.). His great model was SOPHOCLES.- -verrucosa : warty,' intended to be a climax of ugliness. — moretur: ‘fascinates,' enthralls.' Fabula valdius oblectat populum meliusque moratur, HoR., A.


78. Antiopa: imitated from a lost play of EURIPIDES. The fragments have been collected by Ribbeck, Tr. Lat. Reliq., p. 62; comp. p. 278. Antiope, as the mother of Amphion and Zethus, and the victim of Dirce, is famous in literature and in art (the Toro Farnese).-aerumnis cor luctificabile fulta: “who props her dolorific heart on teen' (Gifford). Jahn defends the conception as truly poetical, apart from the obsolete language. “The only stay of her sad heart is sorrow.' The words are doubtless taken from the play itself, of course in different order. Aerumna was out of date as early as the time of QUINTILIAN (8, 3, 26), who protests against the use of it. As to luctificabile, if we go by the fragments, it is Accius, rather than PACUVIUS, that indulges in such formations as horrificabilis, aspernabilis, tabificabilis, execrabilis, evocabilis.

79. lippos: of the eyes of the mind. Comp. 2, 72.

80. sartago : literally 'a frying-pan,' 'hubble-bubble' (Conington), 'gallimaufry,' 'galimatias,' olio' (Gifford), olla podrida.'

81. dedecus : The language is disgraced and degraded by this mixture of old and new. PERSIUS would not have enjoyed Tennyson's resuscitations. See Introd., xxiv.-in quo: at which.'

82. trossulus : an old name of the Roman knights, of disputed origin. It was afterward used in derision. Jahn compares the German Junker.-exsultat: åvanndą, jumps up in delight.'-per subsellia : Jahn understands the 'benches’or forms' in court; others, perhaps more correctly, the seats in the lecturehall. There is a climax. First, private teaching; next, public lectures; thirdly, practical life, to which we come in the follow

ing verse.—Levis: the position is emphatic, “the smug, womanish creature.' Levis is levigatus. Ancient literature is full of al1asions to this effeminate παράτιλσις.

83. nilne: stronger than nonne, ‘not a blush of shame.'—capiti: rarer Ablative in i. Neue gives examples (Formenlehre, 1, 242). The simple Abl. is found with pellere, even in prose, and the Dative, which some prefer, would be forced.—cano: See note on v. 9.

84. quin optes : G., 551; A., 65, 1, 6.— tepidum: lukewarm,' decenter being faint praise. 'In good taste' (Conington). Gr. πρεπόντως. .

85. “Fur es : ' The accuser puts his point plainly enough; in three letters, as the Romans would say.-ait: Comp. V. 40.--Pedio: Jahn thinks it likely that this Pedius is not HORACE's man (Sat., 1, 10, 28), but one Pedius Blaesus, condemned under Nero, Tac., Ann., 14, 18; Hist., 1, 77. PERSIUS knew more about HORACE than about the causes célèbres of his own day.-rasis an. tithetis : commonly rendered 'polished antitheses. With radere comp. the Gr. dieouellevuévat ppovrides, ALEXIS, fr. 215 (3, 483 Mein.). But the figure may possibly be taken from the careful removal of overweight in either scale of the balance. The antitheses are scraped down to an exact equipoise.

86. doctas figuras: Doctus, Scaliger's correction, which requires, moreover, a period at figuras, is unnecessary. Doctas figuras, like artes doctae, dicta docta, doli docti. Figurae, σχήματα, embraces tropes.'-posuisse =quod posuerit. G., 533; A., 70,5,6.

87. an: 'what ?? can it be that ??—Romule : bitter, like Titi, Romulidae, trossulus. Comp. CATULL., 29, 5. 9. - ceves : “Wag the tail' keeps within bounds of possible translation.

88. men moveat? So men moveat cimex Pantilius, HoR., Sat., 1, 10, 78. The sentiment is that of the well-worn si vis me flere, dolendum est | primum ipsi tibi, HoR., A. P., 102. Moveat sc. Pedius.quippe: is often ironical,'good sooth.'-protulerim : The Perf. Subj. in a sentence involving total negation.

89. cantas ? 'you sing, do you ??—fracta te in trabe pictum: Shipwrecked men appealed to charity by carrying about pictures of the disaster which had overtaken them. Comp. 6, 32. Si fractis enątat exspes | navibus, aere dato qui pingitur, HoR., A. P.,

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20, and Juv., 14, 302. Trabe is the wrecked vessel as it appears
in the picture, although it is possible that the painting may have
been put on a broken plank of the ship, in order to heighten the
pathos. So Jahn.

90. ex umero: We say 'on the shoulder,' from a different
point of view. G., 388, R. 2.-nocte paratum : ‘got up over-

91. plorabit: an imperative future.—volet: Observe the greater exactness of the Latin expression. G., 624; A., 27, 2.-incurvasse: See v. 42, and add Liv., 28, 41, 5; 30, 14, 6; 40, 10, 5, and the S. C. de Bacanalibus (passim).

92-106. “But,' rejoins the impersonal personage, whom PERSIUS always has at hand, we have made great advances in art. Contrast this verse and that verse with the roughness of the Aeneid !?—“The Aeneid rough? Well, what is smooth ? [He gives a specimen of fashionable poetry.] If we had an inch of our sires' backbone, such drivel would be impossible. And as for art—it is as easy as spitting.'

I have followed the distribution as presented in Hermann. Jahn gives vv. 96, 97 to PERSIUS, 98–102 to the interlocutor, the rest to PERSIUS. It is impossible to discuss all the arrangements that have been suggested for this passage.

92. decor: Gr. xápıç.-iunctura: is used as in v. 64, of smoothness,' “ harmonious sequence,' the even surface without a break. See QUINT., 9, 4, 33. All the specimen verses that follow avoid mechanically the offences against iunctura that QUINTILIAN enumerates, and do not avail themselves of the license which he accords to a grata neglegentia. There is no elision, no synaloepha, in any of them. As these fashionable verses have been held up to derision by the satirist, commentators have been busy in hunting out defects, and translators have vied with each other in absurd renderings. But Jahn has wisely warned us against an over-curious search into the supposed faults of these verses,

which Vossius pronounced superior to any thing in the compositions of the critic himself. It is enough for us to know that to the ear of PERSIUS the lines lacked masculine vigor. The multiplication of diaereses, the length of the words, the careful avoidance of elision, the dainty half-rhyme of bombis and corymbis, the

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