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and in several western rituals mentioned by Martene. After this sermon or commination, the fiftyfirst psalm, anciently noted in the church as one of the penitential psalms, and especially called the psalm of confession, is appointed to be sung by the priest and clergy.

Then shall they all kneel upon Deinde prosternant se clerici in their knecs, and the priest and choro : et dicant vii psalmos clerks kneeling (in the place pænitentiales cum Gloria Pawhere they are accustomed to tri,” et sicut erat,et antisay the litany) shall


this phonaNe reminiscaris?”.. psalm. Miserere mei, Deus. Ps. li. Have mercy upon me, O

Miserere mei, Deus : secunGod, after thy great goodness; dum magnam misericordiam according to the multitude of tuam. Et secundum multituthy mercies do away mine of dinem miserationum tuarum fences, &c.

dele iniquitatem meam, &c.%

The ancient sacramentary of the English church, written in the ninth or tenth century, alluded to above, directs the same psalm to be sung on the present occasion". It also concurs with the missals of York and Salisbury, and other western formularies, in prescribing the following parts of the office.

Lord, have mercy upon us.

Christ, have mercy upon us. Lord, have mercy upon us.

Our Father, which art in heaven, &c. But deliver us from evil. Amen.

Min. O Lord, save thy servants;

Kyrie eleison.
Christe eleison.
Kyrie eleison.

Pater noster qui es in cælis.
Sed libera nos a malo. Amen.

Salvos fac servos tuos et ancillas tuas ;

e See note c, p. 241. Martene de Antiq. Eccl. Discipl. in Diy. Officiis, c. 17. p. 135, 136, 137, 141, &c.

f Missale Sarisb. fol. 29.
8 Ibid.
h Missale Leofric. fol. 8o.

Answ. That put their trust Deus meus, sperantes in te. in thee.

Min. Send unto them help Mitte eis, Domine, auxilium from above.

de sancto. Answ. And evermore might Et de Syon tuere eos. ily defend them.

Min. Help us, O God our Adjuva nos Deus salutaris Saviour.

noster. Answ. And for the glory of Et propter gloriam nominis thy name deliver us; be mer tui, Domine, libera nos et prociful to us sinners, for thy pitius esto peccatis nostris name's sake.

propter nomen tuum. Min. O Lord, hear our Domine, exaudi orationem prayer. Answ. And let our cry come

Et clamor meus ad te veunto thee.



The following prayers are derived from formularies of great antiquity, being very like prayers not only used on this occasion in the missals of Salisbury and York, but found in the sacramentary above alluded to, and in the sacramentary of Gelasius, A. D. 494.

Minister. Let us pray.

Oremus. O Lord, we beseech thee, Exaudi, Domine, preces nomercifully to hear our prayers, stras, et confitentium tibi parce and spare all those who con. peccatis : ut quos conscientiae fess their sins unto thee; that reatus accusat, indulgentiæ tuæ they, whose consciences by miseratio absolvati. sin are accused, by thy merci. ful pardon may be absolved; through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.

O most mighty God, and Omnipotens sempiterne Deus, merciful Father, who hast com qui misereris oronium, et nihil

i Miss. Sarisb. fol. 30. Ebo. ut supra. Sacramentar. Gelasii racens. in capite Jejunii. Muratori, tom. i. p. 504. MS. i Miss. Sar. fol. 30. Ebor. Leofr. fol 80.

passion upon all men, and hat odisti eorum quæ fecisti k est nothing that thou hast Domine Deus noster, qui ofmade; who wouldest not the fensione nostra non vinceris death of a sinner, but that he sed satisfactione placaris, reshould rather turn from his spice quæsumus super famulos sin, and be saved ; mercifully tuos : qui se tibi graviter pecforgive us our trespasses; re casse confitentur : tuum est ceive and comfort us, who are enim absolutionem criminum grieved and wearied with the

dare, et veniam præstare poburden of our sins. Thy pro nitentibus, qui dixisti poenitenperty is always to have mercy; tiam te malle peccatorum quam to thee only it appertaineth to mortem. Concede ergo, Doforgive sins. Spare us there mine, his famulis tuis ut tibi fore, good Lord, spare thy pænitentiæ excubias celebrent, people, whom thou hast re ut correctis actibus suis, condeemed; enter not into judg ferri sibi a te sempiterna gaument with thy servants, who dia gratulentur. Per &c.1 are vile earth, and miserable sinners; but so turn thine anger from us, who meekly acknowledge our vileness, and truly repent us of our faults, and so make haste to help us in this world, that we may ever live with thee in the world to come; through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.

These prayers are followed by a supplication, which is said by the clergy and people, and a benediction. The former of these was originally entitled an anthem, and was to be sung. It seems to have been in part derived from the anthems which formerly concluded the office in the Salisbury missal. It is now appointed to be said by all, in imitation of the direction given in the second chapter of the prophet Joel.

k Miss. Sar. fol. 30.
1 Ibid. Miss. Ebor. Sacr.

Gelasii Murat. tom. i. p. 504.
MS. Leofr. fol. 80.

Turn thou us, O good Lord, Antiphona. Convertimini ad and so shall we be turned. Be me in toto corde vestro, in favourable, O Lord, be favour- jejunio, et fletu, et planctu, able to thy people, who turn dicit Dominus m. to thee in weeping, fasting, and praying. For thou art a merciful God-Spare thy people, good Lord, Antiphona. Juxta vestibulum spare them, and let not thine et altare plorabunt sacerdotes heritage be brought to con

et Levitæ ministri Domini difusion.

centes; Parce, Domine, parce populo tuo : et ne dissipes ora

clamantium ad te, Domine n. -Hear us, O Lord, for thy Antiphona. Exaudi nos, Domercy is great, and after the mine, quia benigna est misemultitude of thy mercies look ricordia tua, secundum multi.. upon us.

tudinem miserationum tuarum respice nos Domine 0.

m Brev. Sar. in capite Jeju- turg. tom. ii. p. 84. nii, fol. 64.

• Ibid. Antiphonar. Greg. n Miss. Sar. fol. 30. Anti ibid. phonar. Gregorii Pamel. Li





VINDICATED, THE right of the clergy to perform ministerial duties is so intimately connected with the sacraments and other offices of the church, that some remarks on the point would have naturally occurred in this place, even if the course of our ritual had not regularly brought the ordinations before us. It is doubtless important that the clergy should be able to prove this right, as well for their own satisfaction as for that of their people; but it is more particularly expedient to consider this matter, when our orders and mission are denied, when we are accused of a schismatical intrusion on the offices of others, and all our ecclesiastical and ministerial acts are characterized as null, and devoid of all spiritual efficacy.

I do not think it necessary to enter on any of the general and abstract questions connected with this subject, because they would take too large a compass, and perhaps might seem misplaced in a work relating more peculiarly to ritual matters a;

a It is scarcely necessary to refer the reader, for information on these subjects, to the

latter part of the fifth and the seventh book of Hooker's Ecclesiastical Polity. The works

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