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ROŇ A NS IX. ere they all children: but in " Isaac fhall thy seed be called. 8. That is, They which are the children of the flesh, thele are not the children of God: but the children of the promile are counted for the seed. 9. For this is the word of promile, " At this time will I come, and Sara shall have

10. And not only this, but when * Rebecca also had conceived by one, oven by our father Isaac, 11. (For the children being not yet born, neither having done any good or evil, that the (1) purpose of God according to election might stand, not of works, but of • him that calleth.) 12. It was taid unto her, The « * elder [Or, greater] Thall serve the younger [Or, leffer]. 13. As it is written, Jacob have


a son.




9 Joh. 8.37, 39. I know that ye becca his Wife conceived. are Abraham's Seed. Jesus faith

1..! + Rom. 4. 17. God who unto them, if ye were Abrahams quickneth the Dead, and calleth Children, ye would do the Works those Things which be not, as cf Abraham.

s though they were. r* Gen. 21. 12. God said unto c* Gen. 25. 23. The Lord Abraham, Let it not be grievous in said unto her, Two Nations are in thy Sight, because of che Lad, and thy Womb, and two manner of because of thy Bond-woman; in People shall be separated from thy all that Sarah hath faid unto thee, 10 Bowels : and the one People thall hearken unto her Voice ; for in be stronger than the other people, 1/aac shall thy Seed be called. + Heb.

and the Elder shall serve the Younger, 11.18. Of whom it was said, That 2 Sam. 8. 14. And he put Gari. in isaac shall thy Seed be called. fons in Edom; throughout all Edons

8.5+ Gal.4. 28. Now we, Bre-15 put he Garisons, and all they of E: thren, as Isaac was, are the Chilo dom became Davids Servants. dren of the Promise.

13. Mal. 1. 2, 3. I have lov, 9.

Gen. 18. 10. And he said, ed you, faith the Lord: yet ye I will certainly, return unto thee say, Wherein hast thou loved us? according to the Time of Life ; 20 Was not Efau Jacobs Brother? and Sarah thy Wife shall have a faith the Lord: yet I loved Jacob, Son, see

and I hated Esau, and laid his 10. a 7 Gen. 25. 21. And Ifaac Mountains and his Heritage waste, intreated the Lord for his Wife, for the Dragons in the Wilderbecause she was barren i and the 25 ness. Lord was intreated of him, and Re


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(1) The Purpose and Fletion of God here, does not respect the eternal Condition of Jacob and Ejau. The Meaning therefore is not, that God, by an absolute and unconditional Decree, determined Jacob to Happiness, and EJ to Misery, before either of them were borr, or had done Good or Ep. vil; but the Meaning is, that God before Jacob and Esax were born, had determined that Jacob should be the Father of the Jewish Church, and that Christ should descend from his Loins, not from the Loius of Esau. This God might do, without any Injustice to Eau, who was notwithftarding capable of eternal Happiness.

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I loved, but Esau have I hated. 14. What shall we say then? Is there f unrighteousness with God? God forbid. 15. For he faith to Mofes, I will have mercy (1) on whom I will have mercy, and I will have compassion on whom I will have compassion. 16. So then it is (2) not of him

) that willeth, nor of him that runneth, but of God that Theweth mercy. 17. For the

17. For the b fcripture faith unto Pharaoh, Even for this fame purpose have I (3) raised thee

UP, e Prov. 13. 24. He that spareth all my Goodness to pass before his Rod,' hateth his Son: but he thee, and I will proclaim the Name that loveth him, chaftneth him be- of the Lord before thee ; and will times. See the Note on Luk. 14. be gracious to whom I will be 26.

s gracious, and will shew mercy on 14. f + Deut. 32. 4. -All his whom I will sheto Mercy. Ways are judgment : a God of 17. h | See Gal.3.8, 22. The ScriTruth, and without Iniquity, just pture foreseeing that God would and right is he. + 2 Chron. 19. 7. justifie the Heathen through Faith, There is no Iniquity with the Lord 10 preached before the Gotpel unto our God, nor respect of Persons, Abraham, saying, In thee shall all nor taking of Gifts. + Job 34. Nations be blested. The Scripture 10. -Far be it from God that he hath concluded all under Sin, that should do Wickedness, and from the the Promise by Faith of Jesus Almighty, that he should commit is Christ might be given to them Iniquity. t Pfal. 92. 15.-There that believe. is no unrighteousness in him.

i * Exod. 9. 16. In very deed, 15. 8 * Exod. 33. 19. I will make

for (1) These Words are cited to prove, that God was at liberty, if it fo pleased him, to admit the Gentiles to the same Privileges which were offered to the Jews, which even the believing Jews were unwilling to allow. They do not imply that God will deny Mercy to any Person who is a fit Object of it ; nor is it here implied, that God will be wanting to any, or refuse to give Grace sufficient to fit those for Mercy who do their own Part, and apply themselves to him for it. I will farther add, chat in the Gospel Sense, he is a fit Objef of Mercy, who sincerely performs the Conditions on which it is promised.

(2) It is not here implied, that God will reject any one that desires to accept of Salvation on the Terms it is offered. But the Sense of the Words seems to be this: The Person chosen by God to inherit the Blcfings promised to Abraham, (among which the principal was, that is his Seed all the Nations of the Earth should be blessed) was thus remarkably dia ftinguished by the Mercy and Bounty of God.' It is not therefore of him that willeth, as Abraham willed that the Blessings to be derived to Mankind by Christ, who was to descend from his Loins, should come by Ishmael ; and as Isaac willed and intended the Blessing for Elan ; nor of him that runneth, as Efau ran, to get the Venison, and to obtain the Blessing; but it was purely an Act of God's Favour, who appointed Ja. cob to be the person.

(3) The Meaning of these Words is not, that God created Pharaoh on purpose that he might be an Example of his Vengeance and severity ;


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up, that I might shew my Power in thee, and that my name might be declared throughout all the earth. 18. Therefore (1) hath he mercy on whom he will have mercy, and whom he will, he hardneth. 19. Thou wilt say then unto me, Why doth he yet find fault? For who hath resisted his will? 20. Nay but, О man, who art thou that * repliest against God [Or, answerest again, or, disputest with God] ? * fhall the thing formed lay to him that formed it, Why hast thou made me thus? 21. ' Hath not the (2) Pot



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for this cause have I raised thee up, our Father: we are the Clay, and for to thew in thee my Power, and thou our Potter, and we all are the that my Name may be declared Work of thy Hand. throughout all the Earth.

21.'+ Prov. 16. 4. The Lord Job 9. 12. Behold, he ta. s hath made all things for himself: keth away, who can hinder him ? yea, even the Wicked for the Day Who will say unto him, What dost of Evil. * Jer. 18. 6. O House of thou? Job 33. 13. Why dost chou Ifrael, cannor I do with you as strive against him ? for he giveth this Potter? saith the Lord. Be. 220t account of any of his Matters. Io hold, as the Clay is in the Potter's Isa. 29. 16. --Shall the Work fay of Hand, so are ye in my Hand, O him that made it, He made me not ? House of Israel.

* Wild. 15.7 Or, shall the thing framed, fay of The Potter tempering soft Earth, him that framed it, He had no un- fashioneth every Vefsel with much derstanding? * Ifa. 45. 9. Wo un- labour for our Service: 15


yea, to him that striveth with his Ma. the same Clay he maketh both the ker: let the Potsherd strive with Vessels that serve for clean Uses, the Potsherds of the Earth : Shall and likewife also all such as ferve to the Clay fay to him that fashioneth the contrary: but what is the it, What makest thou ?cr thy Use of either fort, the Porter him Work, He hath no Hands? t Isa. self is the Judge. 64. 8. But now, O Lord, thou art


for God made no Man to be miserable. The Hebrew in Exodus, from whence this Passage is cited, signifies, for this Cause bave I made thee to Stand, That is, I have preserved and kept thee alive, notwithstanding the Plagues which have been already inflicted, though thou hast long since deserved to be destroyed. Or, the Words may relate to Pharaoh's Advancement to the Throne. Those who will have them to signifie, that Pharaoh was created for this purpose, cannot blame him for answering the End of his Creation. (1) The Calling of the Gentiles to partake of the Blessings of the Gospel

, was an instance of the great Goodness and Mercy of God. The Jews too were likewise called, and their rejection upon their hardning their Hearts, and refusing to accept of that gracious Offer, was an instance of his Justice. God is indeed said to have hardned the Hearts of Pharaoh, and of the Egyptians, of Sihon, and the Kings of Canaan, but that is to be understood figuratively, as importing only a bare Permifion. See the Notes on Job. 12.40. and Afts 7. 42.

(2) The Meaning of this Allufion seems to be this: As the Porter, out


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Tear of our Lord 60. 635 ter power over the clay, of the fame lump to make mone vessel unto honour, and another unto difhonour ? What if God willing to fhew his wrath, and to make his power known, endured with much long-suffering the ñ vessels of wrath • * fitted [Or, made up] to destruction: 23. And that he might make known the p riches of his glory on the vessels of mercy, which he had afore prepared unto glory ? 24. Even us whom he hath called, not of the Jews only, but also of the Gentiles. 25. As he faith also in 9 Osee, I will call them my, people, which were not my people; and her, beloved, which was not beloved. 26. And it shall come to pass, that in the place

where m + 2 Tim. 2. 20. But in a great

ordained to this condemnation, une Houfe there are not only Vessels of godly Men. Gold, and of Silver, but also of 23. P + Col. 1. 27. See on Rom.

Wood, and of Earth; and some to 2.4. F: Honour, and some to Dishonour. 25. 9 * Hof. 2. 23. - I will say


1 Thef. I. 10. - Jesus to them which were not my People, which delivered us from the Wrath Thou art my People; and they shall to come. :.. Thes. 5. 9. God say, Thou art my God. si Per. hath not appointed us to Wrath ; 2. 10. Which in time past were but' to obtain Salvation by our 10 not a People, but are now the People Lord Jesus Christ.

of God; which had not obtained of Pet, 2. 8. A Scone of Itum- Mercy, but now have obtained bling, and a rock of Offence, even Mercy. to chem which stumble at the Word, 26.* Hof. 1.9, 10. —Ye are being disobedient, whereunto also


t . your God. Yer the Number of 4. There are certain Men crept in the Children of Israel shall be as unawares, who were before of old

the of the fame Lump of Clay, hath Power to make one Vessel for an honoure able Use; and another for a dishonourable Use ; fo Almighty God may, without injustice, make choice of one Nation to be in a peculiar manner his People, and confer singular Favours upon them, which he does not think fit to bestow upon other Nations. If therefore God be confidered only as the Creator of the World, the Jews will not have any thing that they can reasonably obje&t against him, for casting off the Bulk of their Nation, and choosing for his people, those of them who believed, and the believing Gentiles. But God did not proceed in an arbitrary manner with them, as is manifest from the Reasoning in the following Verse

. He bore long with them, and they had many gracious Offers made to them by the Son of God. Nor were they delivered over to Punishment, before they had, by their own Deservings, fitted thevaselves

It is farther observable, that when God made choice of the Posterity of Abraham, Ifaac, and Jacob, to be his peculiar People, the residue of Mankind were not left in an hopeless Condition ; for they were manifestly included in the Promise made to Abraham, Gen 22 18. In thy Seed shall all the Nations of the Earth be blesed. See the Nore on

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they were appointed. Jude Verons not my People, and I will not be


for Deftruétion.

A8s 13.48.


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where it was laid unto them, Te are not my people; there thall they be called the children of the living God. 27. Efaias also crieth concerning Israel, . Though the number of the children of Israel be as the sand of the sea,

remnant shall be saved. 28. For he will finish * the work [Or, the account], and cut it short in righteousness : because a short work will the Lord make upon the earth. 29. And as Esaias said before, a Except the Lord of fabaoth had left us a seed, we had been as Sodoma, and been made like unto Gomorrha. 30. (1) What shall we say then ? that the Gentiles which followed 110t after righteousness, have attained to righteousness, even the righteousness which is





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the Sand of the Sea, which cannot 29. a * Isa. 1. 9. Except the Lord be measured nor numbred ; and it of Hofts had left us a very small fhall come to pass, that in the place. Remnant, we should have been as where it was said unto them, Ye Sodom, and we should have been are not my People, there it shall be slike unto Gomorrah. † Lam. 3. 22. said unto them, Ye are the Sons of It is of the Lords Mercies that we the living God

are not consumed, because his 27. Isa. 10.22, 23. Though Compassions fail not. thy People Israel be as the sand of Þ *. Ifa. 13. 19. Babylon, the the Sea, yet a remnant of them 1o Glory of Kingdoms, the Beauty of Mall return : the Consumption des the Caldees Excellency, shall be creed thall overflow with righte- as when God overthrew Sodom and oufnefs. For the Lord of Hofts Gomorrah. Jer. 50. 40. As God shall make a Consumption, even overthrew Sodom and Gomorrah, determined in the midst of all the 1s and the neighbour Cities thereof, Land.

faith the Lord : So shall no Man ut Rom. 11.5. . Even so then at abide there, neither shall


Son this present time also there is a of Man dwell therein. Remnant according to the Election 30. See on Rom. 1. 17. of Grace.



(1) In this and the following Verse, we have the Conclusion the Apostle draws from what he had laid down in the former Part of the Chapter ; namely, That the Gentiles, who before the Coming of Christ had no Notion of the Method of obtaining Iuftification and Salvation, upon its be. ing made known to them, complied with the Terms it was offered to them upon, and therefore obtained it : Whereas the generality of the Jews, who had some knowledge of these Things, iniffed of it, because they fought it not in God's Way, but thought to obtain Justification or Pardon, and Salvation by the Law of Moses. Hence it is manifeft, that the Apostle had no design to teach, in this difficult Chapter, that God was a respecter of Persons; which he would be, had he by a secret Decree determined, before people had done good or evil, that some few should te necessarily happy, but the much greater Number of Men and Women necesarily Miferable; for if this had been the Apostle's Meaning, he would have mentioned it in the Conclufion he draws from what he had said.

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