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found scattered through these volumes; the subject, we mean, of Free Schools, taught on what is often called the Lancastrian system ; but, what ought to be called the system of Mutual or Monitorial Instruction. There has been much angry discussion about the author of this improvement; but the important facts admit of no question. It was first practised at Egmore, near Madras, by Dr Bell, an English clergyman connected with the East India Establishment, who, between 1789 and 1797, gave it a pretty fair experiment on about two hundred boys. His peculiar arrangements were, in part, suggested by modes of instruction which he found in use among the natives, to whom he was, in particular, indebted for the very important hint to teach children, at once both to read and write, by teaching them to begin with copying the alphabet in sand. The main merit, however, of combining the whole into an effective system is due to his own practical good sense and diligent benevolence, and he would probably have carried it forward farther than he did, but his health failed him in 1797. In consequence of this, he returned to England, and, in the same year, published a small volume, giving a detailed statement of what he had effected; but did nothing more towards introducing his system into his native country.

From this time, however, Joseph Lancaster, an active Friend, who was for some years zealously supported by his own Society, and therefore had great facilities for success, began to practise mutual instruction. He adopted the whole of Dr Bell's method; added to it a considerable number of details, which, by making it more mechanical, enabled one instructer to manage a greater number of pupils; made his first publication on the subject in 1803; and very soon obtained a great reputation both for the system and himself, making it so famous and useful throughout England and Ireland, that, since the peace of 1812, it has been diffused over many parts of the continent, and is now in active operation in Russia, France, and Switzerland.

The principal features of this system are, that it employs the more advanced pupils to teach those least advanced ; that it sustains the attention of all more uniformly and vigorously by keeping all constantly under the examination and supervision of these numerous young teachers; that it excites a more useful and efficient emulation, by giving instant rewards and punishments for success and misconduct; and that, by all its arrangements, it much diminishes the expense of education, and therefore renders this great principle of moral life in a community accessible to greater numbers, on easier terms, and in a higher degree, than it ever was before. How far the system of mutual instruction can be carried, we do not yet know. It is still very young. Twenty years have hardly elapsed since it was first heard of in Europe, and there is no reason to believe, it is yet developed in nearly all its powers and proportions. Thus far it has been chiefly applied to instructing the lower classes of society in the humblest elements of knowledge, because here was the grossest want, and here all remedies were most easily and effectually administered. It has, however, in some instances, gone much farther. Monitors are already known under different names in not a few large schools in New England ; and in the National Institution at West Point, under the management of Colonel Thayer, which would do honor to any country, a considerable and very important portion of the instruction is given by the more distinguished pupils. But, perhaps, the most striking instance of its application to the higher branches of knowledge, which has thus far been made, is in the High School at Edinburgh, where it was introduced by the late Rector, Dr Pillans, now Professor in the University of Edinburgh; and where a successful experiment of thirteen years in teaching Latin, Greek, Geography, several branches of Mathematics, some of the physical sciences, and, in short, whatever is suitable to be taught to boys under sixteen, can leave no doubt that the system of mutual instruction may be usefully applied to the higher as well as the lower departments of human knowledge. Professor Griscom's account of this school, which is well known, as one of the most valuable in Europe, is not so minute as would have been interesting; but it is very satisfactory, as to the general results obtained.

* This grammar school is of ancient standing, and like the university, it is under the direction of the magistrates of the city. It dates an existence of nearly three hundred years, but the present building was erected in 1777. It is one hundred and twenty feet long. The number of scholars is at present between eight and

Nero Series, No. 17. 24

nine hundred. Four teachers are employed in addition to the rector. This gentleman, by the effort of a particular genius, and indefatigable activity, has completely succeeded in introducing into this large school, the system of monitorial instruction, and applying it to classical learning. He has under his exclusive charge, twenty three classes, each containing nine boys. Every class has its monitor, who hears the rest recite. They occupy three rooms, and are all engaged at the same time. The rector superintends the whole, and decides all questions of dispute, when appeals are made to him against the decision of the monitors. In each room is a custos morum, who watches the behavior of the scholars and notes every instance of remissness. Almost the only punishment resorted to, is the imposing of additional tasks on offenders, and obliging them to attend the school, during the hours and half days of ordinary vacation. The twenty three classes all recite the same lesson at the same time. The noise they make is unavoidably great, but it is the sound of useful activity. We were highly gratified with the evidences of intelligence and attainment, which the boys displayed when collected into one room, and examined before us by the rector. The superiority of their instruction appeared not only in the facility of their translations, but in the readiness with which they recited parallel passages, and referred to the illustrations of different classical authors, and in their acquaintance with the geography, chronology, &c. of the historical passages, which were given them as extemporaneous exercises. Great merit is obviously due to the rector, for bringing this method of teaching so perfectly to bear upon the higher parts of education, and showing its adaptation to subjects which have generally been thought beyond its reach. The High School contains a good library for the benefit of the teachers and boys of the upper class. The whole cost of tuition in this excellent school, is but three pounds per annum, including the use of the library. There are few boys in the school above sixteen years of age, a period which leaves them sufficient time for apprenticeship to almost any kind of business. With such advantages of intellectual and moral instruction, is it surprising that Scotland should have taken such an elevated stand among the nations, for the intelligence, industry and sobriety of her people ? The very flourishing condition of the High School of Edinburgh, in which about nine hundred boys are taught by four masters and a rector, afforded, to my mind, a very satisfactory demonstration, not only of the practicability, but the excellence of the monitorial system, when applied to any or all of the exercises of a superior grammar school. The public, in all the large cities of England, Scotland, and the United States, have long since been convinced, that this system is of inestimable inportance in the education of the Jower classes ; and because it has been adopted chiefly in the Free

Schools, many persons seem to have drawn the illogical conclusion, that it is not adapted to higher seminaries, or to the instruction of boys in the more elevated parts of learning. The example of the High School has clearly shown the error of this opinion. By the partial employment of this easy and pleasant mode of instruction, the rector of the High School, (since chosen professor of humanity in the university,) was able, as he informed me, to manage his two hundred and seven boys with more facility, than he could have taught one hundred upon the old plan, and withi greater efficiency. It is not to be supposed, that the whole instruction is to be communicated through the monitors. Such parts only of the recitations are confided to them, as it is ascertained, that they are fully competent to attend to; much of the time, (probably one half,) is spent by the rector in explanations and examinations before the whole school. By this judicious course of proceeding, a high degree of emulation is excited, habits of great industry and activity are maintained, and an education of the best kind is afforded at about one third of the cost of the ordinary grammar schools of our cites. So well convinced are the citizens of Edinburgh of the advantages of this plan of instruction, they have under consideration the establishment of a High School in the new town, in which provision is to be made for the more complete introduction of the monitorial system.' vol. ii. 334-336.

It is well worth consideration, how far a system so thorough and effectual can be introduced into our own large cities, where, in some cases, the expense of public instruction is growing to be our heaviest, though our proudest burden. From a comparison of the preceding statement with well known facts it appears, that the city of Boston, which makes, we doubt not, in proportion to its means, a more honorable exertion for the instruction of its own community, and is rewarded by a more excellent success, than any other city of equal size in the world, pays at least twice as much for the instruction of a boy at its admirable Latin School, as is paid for the instruction of a boy at the High School, in the more expensive city of Edinburgh, where the Head-master receives, if we mistake not, a salary very much larger than that afforded to any teacher in the United States. But this view of the case, which applies with more or less force to very large portions of our country, is not the strongest. The future must be looked to as well as the present. The demand for instruction increases every year, as we trust it long will continue to increase, and every year new school houses are built, and new teachers put in requisition to meet it. But we fear there is a point, where the expense of the common system will be found too heavy, even for the wisest and most generous communities, and that it will, at last, be necessary either to give up that constant advancement in the higher branches, which has of late so honorably raised the standard of education among us, or else to make some change in the system and mode of instruction, which will ensure the permanency and improvement of what we all regard as the very first benefit of our political institutions. It is, therefore, a matter of serious concern to those, who have the management of public instruction in our large cities and towns, to inquire, how far it can be improved, and not only improved but raised, by adopting, according to the particular circumstances of each case, some portions of the system of Mutual Instruction, which may enable them to effect more than has yet been effected without any increase of the apparatus now employed, or of the burdens now imposed.

Professor Griscom, whom few useful inventions seem to have escaped, speaks also of Lithography, a cheap and beautiful substitute for engraving, which has been known about twenty years in Europe, where it is already of vast and growing importance in the arts, and which quite recently has been a little practised in the United States. It was discovered, under rather singular circumstances, by Aloys Sennefelder, who was born at Prague in 1772, and educated at Munich, where his father was long an actor of some reputation on the public theatre. He was first sent to the university of Ingolstadt, where he studied law, and afterwards, while yet very young, wrote several pieces for the stage, which were well received. But he was suddenly stopped in his literary career at the age of twenty, by the death of his father, who left a family consisting of a widow and nine children, all in great want. Aloys was the oldest, and endeavored at once to find some ready means to keep them from immediate suffering. He asked for a very humble place in the custom house, and was refused. He offered himself for the military service and was rejected, because he was not a native Bavarian. At last, he resorted to chemical experiments in dyeing, and here, too, failed, as he seemed destined to fail in everything.

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