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matter more immediately interesting to those for whom they are intended.

* The mischievous tendency of this course is to enhance the price of such works to an extent entirely disproportioned to the limited increase of utility, which such unnecessary detail confers.

• Influenced by these considerations, I determined in the outset to introduce into my Atlas such maps only, relating to the Old Continent, as were indispensably necessary to a clear understanding of general geography, as connected with the object of this work. For this purpose, maps of the World, Europe, Asia, and Africa, were prepared from the most approved European authorities; to which were added such alterations and improvements, as the late discoveries and unparalleled events in Europe rendered necessary, especially with regard to the boundaries as fixed by the Congress of Vienna, and the more recent changes, which some of those boundaries have undergone.'

The author's Map of South America we presume is the best, which has been published in this country, yet, the affairs of that immense portion of our continent are daily becoming so important, we think it would have been better, if he had enlarged his design, projected his map from a larger scale, and spread it over a greater number of sheets. We believe the sale would have in the end more than remunerated him for the increased labor and expense of such an undertaking. But in its present form his map is remarkably full in its details, and his authorities are of the first rank. He acknowledges himself chiefly indebted to La Cruz, Arrowsmith, Pazo, and the Reports of the United States' Commissioners, Bland, Rodney, and Poinsett. We presume La Cruz's great map, as brought down to the year 1817, corrected and published by Faden in London, is in many respects the most valuable map extant of the South American Continent. If we mistake not, this map was chiefly relied on by the American Commissioners in drawing up their Reports.

Mr Tanner acquaints us at large with the authorities on which he depended for his maps of North America, and of the United States, and remarks with discrimination on the merits and defects of each. In tracing the northern boundary of the United States, he has avoided the error, which occurs in almost all our recent maps of North America. He runs the line from the meridian of the Lake of the Woods, on the forty ninth parallel of latitude, till its meets the Rocky Moun

tains, and there it terminates. The space between the Rocky Mountains and the Pacific Ocean is left undefined, as it has never been settled by treaty between Great Britain and the United States. Commonly in our maps this line is carried through from the Lake of the Woods to the Ocean. In speaking of the deserved estimation in which Vancouver's charts are held, Mr Tanner remarks,

« The Ukase of the Emperor of Russia of September 4th, 1821, declares, that " All trade, whale fishing, fishing in general, and every branch of business in the ports and bays, and in general along the whole northwest coast of America, from Behring's Straits to the fifty first degree of north latitude, as also, along the Aleutian Islands, and on the east coast of Siberia, are permitted to Russian subjects only. Every foreign vessel is consequently prohibited, not only from landing on any of the coasts or islands specified in the foregoing section, but also from approaching them within a less distance than one hundred Italian miles. Whoever shall violate this prohibition is liable to confiscation of ship and cargo.” From the above it will be perceived, that the territory over which the emperor of Russia claims sovereignty, embraces a considerable portion of the discoveries of Cook, Vancouver, and Quadra, and is in fact a denial of the United States to any part of that territory beyond the latitude of fifty one degrees north. Whether the title of the United States to "the countries situated between the fifty first and sixtieth degrees of north latitude,”* be well or ill founded, is a question, the discussion of which is foreign to the purpose of this Memoir. The document under consideration was consulted, simply with a view to show the extent of the extravagant claims set up by Alexander; for this purpose the limits are indicated on my map by the characters usually employed to represent boundary lines that exist only in the imagination, and such as are not admitted by all the parties concerned.' Geographical Memoir, p. 3.

Speaking further on this subject, Mr Tanner adds,

• The northern boundary of the United States I have traced on my map agreeably to the account from the commissioners, appointed under the sixth article of the treaty of Ghent. The continuation of that line was drawn in strict conformity to the British treaty of 1818, which specifies that “ a line drawn from the most northwestern point of the Lake of the Woods due north or south, as the case may be, until the said line shall intersect the forty ninth parallel of north latitude, and from the point of such intersection due west along and with the said parallel, shall be the line of demarkation between the territories of the United States and those of his Britannic Majesty, and that the said line shall form the northern boundary of the territories of the United States, and the southern boundary of the territories of his Britannic Majesty, from the Lake of the Woods to the Stony Mountains.” I have inserted the above with the view of exposing the impropriety of representing the northern boundary as if extended to the Pacific Ocean. In this particular, all our most approved maps are false. There is no passage in the treaty of London, the only authentic document on the subject, which affords the slightest ground for supposing that its extension west of the Oregon Mountains was contemplated by either party ; on the contrary, it was agreed by the third article of that treaty, that “the right of either party to the country westward of the Stony Mountains' should remain open for future discussion.' Memoir, p. 8.

* See Report of the Committee of the House of Representatives of the United States on this subject, made during the session of 1820—1821.

We have quoted thus largely, because at some future time this may become a subject

of importance, and because the author's cominendable caution on this point is no slight proof of his diligence and accuracy in others of less moment. In his list of authorities he enumerates all the good maps and gazetteers, which have been published of the different states. Several manuscript maps were also consulted by him, and he exhibits abundant evidence of having obtained many original particulars in the topography of the new states and territories, with which he has enriched his maps, and by which he has been enabled to correct some important errors, that had crept into the works of his predecessors. In short, we are convinced by his Memoir, and by such inspection of his Atlas as our opportunity has allowed us to make, that he is strictly accurate in the following statement of his labors, and the sources of his information.

• That I have availed myself,' says he, of nearly all the recent and valuable additions to our stock of geographical knowledge, on the two continents of North and South America, particularly the former, will, I trust, be admitted by all who shall have directed their attention to the ample and original matter contained in the work. In the construction of the maps I have endeavored, as far as my feeble capacity would permit, to select from the immense mass of materials collected for the purpose such only, as were founded upon actual surveys and astronomical observations; and, in the absence of these, the relations of travellers, and other geographical memoranda, which appeared to be worthy of confidence, were resorted to. Information regarding the United States generally, I have sedulously endeavored to collect from every possible source, and the multitude of publications on subjects connected with it have been freely used.' p. 17.

The only instance discovered by us, in which the author has deviated from his rule of relying on the best authority, is in the map of Africa. We there find inserted a new river and city, on the authority of Captain Riley, which in this matter is about as good, we suppose, as the fabulous narrative of Robert Adams, or the fictitious travels of Damberger, or the romance of Gaudentio di Lucca. Not that we are wholly skeptical in regard to the honesty and general accuracy of Captain Riley, in things which came under his own observation, although even here some allowance must be made for a warm imagination and a predominant love of the marvellous. But this story of a great river, and a city called Wassanah south of the Niger, was related to him by a wily, wandering Arab, whom he had many reasons to distrust and despise, and to whose idle tales he ought not to have listened for a moment.

New insertions, on such authority, are not likely to stamp a map with much value, and their tendency is injurious by leading to the suspicion, that the author's judgment and discrimination may have failed him in other instances not so obvious.

It is a merit in Mr Tanner's Atlas, that the maps of the states, and others in which the plan could be conveniently followed, are exhibited on a uniform scale. This arrangement is peculiarly well fitted for communicating correct impressions to learners, and is always to be preferred where it can be introduced.

On the whole, as an American Atlas, we believe Mr Tanner's work to hold a rank far above any other, which has been published. The authentic documents to which he had access, the abundance of his materials, the apparent fidelity, with which they are compiled, the accurate construction of his maps, and the elegance with which they are executed, all these afford ample proofs of the high character of the work, of its usefulness as a means of extending the geographical knowledge of our own country, and of its claims to public patronage.

Mr Lucas's Cabinet Atlas is intended to occupy another sphere; it contains a series of maps embracing the whole surface of the globe, constructed in a form and brought into a compass suitable for constant reference and use. The work is introduced by a plate representing the comparative heights of the principal mountains, and also another exhibiting the comparative lengths and magnitudes of the chief rivers of the world, which latter was devised and drawn by Mr Lucas. In addition to these plates the Atlas contains ninety eight maps.

To give greater completeness and value to his work, the author has inserted, by way of introduction, seven ancient maps, which embrace the Roman Empire, Greece, Palestine, Egypt, and the expeditions of Alexander, and exhibit the topography of the whole ancient world with sufficient minuteness to connect ancient with modern geography, and to answer the general ends of historical reference.

Modern Europe is delineated on nineteen maps, one being assigned to each of the principal countries. Asia has seven maps, and Africa five, reckoning in this number distinct maps of the Madeira, the Canary, and the Cape de Verd Islands. Some of these were drawn by Mr Lucas, but generally they are copied from the most approved European maps, with such additions and changes as late events have rendered necessary

Of North America, including Canada, the United States, and Mexico, there are thirty one maps. All of these, except two or three, were drawn by Mr Lucas, and many of them, especially those of the new states and the territories, manifest much research and diligence in procuring materials, as well as judgment in selecting and using them. Distinct maps are given of Indiana, Illinois, Missouri, Arkansa Territory, and of the Northwest and Michigan Territories, and apparently with so much detail as to designate every place, town, river, lake, and division, with which it can be important to be made acquainted in the present stage of advancement in those districts of the Union. One excellent result of our system of public surveys is, that it affords the means of obtaining an exact delineation of the natural features of the

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