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to mock him with malignant cruelty. It throws him to the ground, but never subdues him. What a current of emotions must have poured through his manly breast amidst this interchange of reviving and expiring hopes. How natural was it, that the lines of melancholy and of indignation, such as we yet behold in his bust, should have been imprinted on his severe countenance ! Hardly had he passed the years of youth, when he appeared in his own behalf as accuser of his faithless guardians ; from whom, however, he was able to rescue only a small part of his patrimony. In bis next attempts, insulted by the multitude, though encouraged by a few who anticipated his future greatness, he supported an obstinate contest with himself, till he gained the victory over his own nature. He now appeared once more as an accuser in public prosecutions, before he ventured to speak on the affairs of the state. But in the very first of his public speeches we see the independent statesman, who not dazzled by a splendid project, opposes a vast undertaking. When Philip soon after displayed his designs against Greece, by his interference in the Phocian war, he for the first time appeared against that monarch in his first Philippic oration. From this period he had found the great business of his life. Sometimes as counsellor, sometimes as accuser, sometimes as ambassador, he protected the independence of his country against the Macedonian policy. Splendid success seemed at first to reward his exertions. He had already won a number of states for Athens ; when Philip invaded Greece, he had already succeeded not only in gaining over the Thebans, but in kindling their enthusiasm ; when the day of Chæronea dashed his hopes to the earth. But he courageously declares in the assembly of the people, that he still does not repent of the counsels which he had given.
* An unexpected incident changes the whole aspect of things. Philip falls the victim of as sassination; and a youth, who as yet is but little known, is his successor. Immediately Demosthenes institutes a second alliance of the Greeks ; but Alexander suddenly appears before Thebes ; the terrible vengeance, which he here takes, instantly destroys the league ; Demosthenes, Lycurgus, and several of their supporters, are required to be delivered up; but Demades is at that time able to settle the difficulty and to appease the king. His strength was therefore enfeebled, as Alexander departed for Asia; he begins to raise his head once more, when Sparta attempts to throw off the yoke; but under Antipater he is overpowered. Yet it was about this very time, that by the most celebrated of his discourses he gained the victory over the most eloquent of his adversaries; and Æschines was forced to depart from Athens. But this seems only to have the more embittered his enemies, the leaders of the Macedonian party; and they soon found an opportunity of preparing his downfall. When Harpalus, a fugitive from the army of Alexander, came with his treasures to Athens, and the question arose, whether he could be permitted to remain there, Demosthenes was accused of having been corrupted by his money, at least to be silent. This was sufficient to procure the imposition of a fine ; and as this was not paid, he was thrown into prison. From thence he succeeded in escaping; but to the man who lived only for his country, exile was no less an evil than imprisonment. He resided for the most part in Ægina and at Trezen, from whence he looked with moist eyes towards the neighboring Attica. Suddenly and unexpectedly a new ray of light broke through the clouds. Tidings were brought, that Alexander was dead. The moment of deliverance seemed at hand; the excitement pervaded every Grecian state ; the ambassadors of the Athenians passed through the cities; Demosthenes joined himself to the number, and exerted all his eloquence and power to unite them against Macedonia.
' In requital for such services, the people decreed his return; and years of sufferings were at last followed by a day of exalted compensation. A galley was sent to Ægina to bring back the advocate of liberty. All Athens was in motion; no magistrate, no priest remained in the city, when it was reported that Demosthenes was advancing from the Piræeus. Overpowered by his feelings, he extended his arms and declared himself happier than Alcibiades; for his countrymen had recalled him, not by compulsion, but from choice. It was a momentary glimpse of the sun, which still darker clouds were soon to conceal. Antipater and Craterus were victorious ; and with them the Macedonian party in Athens; Demosthenes and his friends were numbered among the accused, and at the instigation of Demades were condemned to die. They had already withdrawn in secret from the city ; but where could they find a place of refuge ? Hyperides with two others took refuge in Ægina in the temple of Ajax. In vain! they were torn away, dragged before Antipater, and executed. Demosthenes had escaped to the island Calauria in the vicinity of Træzen ; and took refuge in the temple of Neptune. It was to no purpose, that Archias, the satellite of Antipater, urged him to surrender himself under promise of pardon. He pretended he wished to write something; bit the quill, and swallowed the poison contained in it. He then veiled himself, reclining his head backwards, till he felt the operation of the poison. “O Neptune !” he exclaimed, “they have defiled thy temple ; but honoring thee, I will leave it while yet living.” But he sank before the altar, and a sudden death separated him from a world, which, after the fall of his country, contained no happiness for him. Where shall we find a character of more grandeur and purity than that of Demosthenes ?' pp. 275–281.
New Series, No. 1S. 52
The three remaining chapters treat of the Sciences in Connerion with the State, the Arts in Connexion with the State, and the Causes of the Fall of Greece. They are all filled with ingenious and learned observations, and leave a most lively impression on the reader's mind. The character of Thucydides is beautifully drawn, but we must refer to the volume itself for that and several other admirable sketches.
Mr Bancroft deserves the public thanks for translating this volume. He has observed, in the preface, that the translator's task is an humble one. It may be made so; but it is. not necessarily so. This translation implies a command, not only of the German language, such as few possess, but an accomplishment of still greater value, a good knowledge of the English tongue. Nor could it have been executed, but by a person conversant with the large range of classical learning, which the work embraces. To make a translation of such a work, and as this is made, is no humble exploit. We should be much rejoiced, and think it auspicious of good to. the literature of the country, if Mr Bancroft should be induced, by the reception of this volume, to translate the rest. The whole would form a treatise on antiquity different from any, with which we are acquainted, and better calculated, than any other, to give to general readers accurate knowledge of the institutions of Egypt, Persia, India, Carthage, and the other nations, which are described by Mr Heeren.
This gentleman holds a place, in the front rank of the professors at Göttingen, is one of the most esteemed German writers of the present day, is a correspondent of the National Institute of France, and worthy of the fame which he enjoys at home and abroad. It does America credit that she has made to English literature the accession of a volume like this; and we venture to say, that the circulation among us of the whole of Mr Heeren's Reflections,' would visibly elevate the standard of knowledge, in the interesting department to which it belongs. No one in the country is better qualified for the enterprise than Mr Bancroft, and we should be glad to be permitted to regard this volume, as a partial pledge that he will undertake it.
ART. XXIV.-MISCELLANEOUS NOTICES.
1. Moore's Annals of the Town of Concord.—From this pamphlet we have received much instruction and entertainment. In connexion with its immediate object it embraces many collateral facts relating to the history of New England, which are important and interesting. The township now called Concord, and the seat of government in New Hampshire, was formerly inhabited by the Penacook Indians. The lands in that place and vicinity were first explored about the year 1720, by Mr Eastman and other persons from Haverhill, Massachusetts. These persons petitioned the General Court of Massachusetts on the next year, for a grant of lands at Penacook, but did not succeed in obtaining an appropriation till 1725. The year following a committee was appointed by the governor to survey the tract, and the settlers took possession. It was called the plantation of Penacook till 1733, when it received the name of Rumford ; nor was it till 1765 that it received a charter as the town of Concord, from the government of New Hampshire.
The principal events in the early history of the settlement are brought together with much judgment by Mr Moore. He gives an account of the differences between the governments of Massachusetts and New Hampshire, respecting jurisdiction over this settlement, the petitions to the king, and references to commissioners. He relates the remarkable incidents of the Indian wars. At some times the inhabitants attended worship on the Sabbath armed. The biographical notices are particularly full and valuable; nor is any one more striking than that of the venerable Mr Walker, who graduated at Harvard College in 1725, and five years after settled in the wilderness of Penacook, as minister of the people there, who gave him a unanimous invitation, with a stipulated salary of one hundred pounds a year, and two pounds yearly increase, till it should amount to one hundred and twenty pounds. Mr Walker continued pastor of the same people fifty two years, and died 1782, aged 76. He was three times in England, as an agent for the concerns of the settlement, and was much noticed and befriended by Lord Mansfield. He was a member of the first Provincial Congress, and engaged with much ardor in the American cause.
Several persons are mentioned in this historical sketch, who evinced heroism, firmness, and virtues worthy to be recorded and remembered. For a Memoir of the Penacook Indians contained in the work, Mr Moore acknowledges himself indebted to Mr John Farmer.
2. President Humphrey's Address.-President Humphrey opens his Address with an appropriate eulogy on his predecessor, Dr