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South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, and half of Tennessee. They are to be sacrificed without measure or mercy; no compromise to comfort them ; no diplomacy, no temporising, no promises of admission into the copartnership of robbing; but open, naked, and undisguised force. They are to be passed under the yoke; to become the vassals of the cotton spinners; the slaves of the woollen weavers. Every owner of a manufacturing establishment will have as many cities for his tributaries, as the barbarian king gave to Themistocles; and from his clattering castles of looms and spinning jennies, will levy his exactions upon as wide a territory, create as much dismay, and perpetrate as much tyranny, as ever did the most determined lifter of black mail.'
There is very little show of Statistics, and not much direct or formal argument, in any part of this pamphlet; but two or three strong points are taken and strongly presented ; and the whole is sustained by a vigorous declamation, rich in happy allusions to the classics, both ancient and modern ; and yet not at all overburdened with ornament.
9. Plan of the City of Baltimore.*_This map is one of the most beautiful and finished specimens of topographical drawing, which we have ever seen. İn size it is about five feet by four, and embraces the entire city of Baltimore, as extended by a recent act of the Legislature of Maryland. All the streets, the harbor, and wharves, and every remarkable point in the city are accurately delineated. It contains also a view of Baltimore in 1752, when it was a village with about 300 inhabitants; and another view taken in 1822, when its population was 64,000. It is moreover ornamented with a drawing of the elegant and classical Battle Monument, erected in the central square of the city, in memory of the brave men, who fell in the battle of North Point, September 12th, 1814; and also of the Washington Monument now erecting in Howard's Park. The borders of the map contain finely executed drawings of thirty five of the principal public edifices in the city; and it is but scanty justice to say, that in this respect, no city in the union can exhibit so many evidences of taste, enterprise, and public spirit. The Exchange alone would do honor to a nation, and the specimens of Godefroy's genius as an architect certainly have no parallel in this country. The present map is in all respects worthy of the highest commendation, and is equally creditable to the talents and taste of Mr Poppleton, to the zeal of the commissioners, and to the liberality of the citizens by whose encouragement it has been published.
* Plan of the City of Baltimore, as enlarged and drawn under the Direction of the Commissioners appointed by the General Assembly of Maryland. By T. H. Poppleton. Baltimore, 1523.
10. Memorials of Columbus.*_ This curious volume was lately published for the first time at Genoa, and issued a few months ago from the English press. About two thirds of the volume are made up of Documents consisting of Letters, Privileges, Notes, and other Writings of Columbus, the original Grants and Charters of the King and Queen of Spain to him, their Letters Patent, Warrants, and Licences, and other Official Papers, illustrating the discovery of America and the Life of Columbus. The first third of the book comprises a Historical Memoir of the great Navigator, by D. Gio. Batista Spotorno, Professor of Eloquence, and Doctor in Philosophy and the Arts in the Royal University of Genoa. The following account of the Manuscript Book, from which these Documents are printed, will show the grounds of their authenticity, and the manner in which they were obtained.
This Manuscript,' says Mr Spotorno, 'with another exactly similar, was sent by Columbus, by means of Francisco de Rivarolo, to his confidential friend Nicolo Oderigo, with instructions to deposit it in a place of safe custody, and to send notice thereof to his eldest son, Don Diego. This caution is another proof, that Columbus had not given up the idea of returning to his mother country, with the whole or part of his family ; and on that account he was anxious that his son should know in what place the Documents of his father were deposited. Whatever might be the reason, it appears that Oderigo kept both the Manuscripts in his own possession, to one of which (and it is the one from which our transcript has been made) were added the two autograph letters of Columbus, and subsequently the letter of Philip II to Ottaviano Oderigo, on his being elected Doge of Venice. Lorenzo Oderigo considered himself to be rendering a service to his country, by making it a present of both Manuscripts, an acknowledgment of which is given in the gracious decree of the most Serene College, of the 10th of January, 1670, as we read in the memorandum written on the back of the first leaf of our Manuscript.
"In the civil and military disturbances of later times, the secret archives of the Genoese Government underwent many vicissitudes; one of the two Manuscripts was taken from Genoa to Paris; and up to the 29th of January, 1821, it had not been restored to the government of our august sovereign, as the most illustrious syndics of Genoa were informed by a letter from his Excellency Count Galiani Napione. The other Manuscript, which was believed to be lost, reappeared after the death of the Senator, Count Michelangelo Cambiasi. The valuable library of this nobleman having been advertised for sale by auction, in the month of July, 1816, there was found in the catalogue, at No. 1922, Codice de Privilegj del Colombo. The Decurions of the city, being exceedingly anxious to purchase a monument so interesting to the glory of the Genoese, prevailed upon the executors of Cambiasi to suspend the sale of it, till the king's pleasure was known on the representation they had made on the subject to his Majesty. The king's orders were, that it should be sent to Turin, and deposited in the archives of the court. Count Carbonara, first President of the Royal Senate of Genoa, was instructed to do this without delay, in a letter of the 17th of March, 1817, from Count Borgarelli, then first Secretary of State for the interior.
* Memorials of Columbus ; or a Collection of Authentic Documents of that celebrated Navigator, now first published from the original Manuscripts, by order of the Decurions of Genoa; preceded by a Memoir of his Life and Discoveries. Translated from the Italian and Spanish. 1 vol. Svo. London, 1823.
• The wish of the Decurions of Genoa was subsequently gratified, as his Majesty, having had a most accurate copy of the Manuscript made at Turin, and deposited in the court archives, was graciously pleased to give up the original to the Genoese. On the 29th of January, 1821, it was transmitted by Signor Cav. Nicolo Solari, counsellor of his Majesty, to MM. the Marquis Girolano Cattanio, and advocate Matteo Molfino, at that time syndics ; to whom was subsequently entrusted the charge of erecting a monument, and of publishing the Manuscript itself, along with a translation, which is now executed. Having obtained possession of the Manuscript, it was determined by a special council on the 31st of July, 1821, to erect a custodia, or monument, in which it might be preserved with security and distinction. The general council approved this determination on the 16th of August following; in consequence of which, a marble monument was erected, designed by Signor Carlo Barrabbino, architect of the city, and executed by the sculptor Signor Peschiera.' Memoir, p. 143.
Such is a brief history of the curious papers here committed to the public, and the proof seems unquestionable, that the manuscript volume, from which they are copied, and which the Council of Genoa has honored so much as to enclose it in an appropriate monument, is one that was actually sent by Columbus from Spain to his native city. As connected with the discovery and early settlenient of America they must be valuable. Mr Spotorno's Memoir contains some original facts respecting the early life of Columbus, which has always been a dark subject, and which, with the light thrown upon it by his new biographer, is still left in much obscurity. He seems satisfactorily to have proved, however, that he was a Genoese by birth, the son of a wool carder, living in the part of the city now called St Stephen's parish. « The
year of his birth,' says his biographer, as I have proved elsewhere, must have been either 1446, or 1447. His mother's
name was Susanna, as we learn from the agreement already referred to. Casoni gives her the surname, well known in Genoa, of Fontanarossa, and states her to have been a native of Sauli, or Sori, a village on the shores of the Mediterranean, where the old Columbuses possessed a house, as appears from an inventory of the goods of the deceased Oberto Colombo, made by Bensevega, his widow, and the guardian of his minor children, and signed the 9th of January, 1238. (Berio MSS, Vol. I. p. 108.)
Our hero was the eldest of the sons, and was probably named Christopher, after a Columbus of that name, who was living at Genoa in 1440, as has been observed in some manuscript notices, found among the papers of the celebrated senator Federici. The second son was named Bartholomew, and the third, Giacomo, who was afterwards called Diego in Spain. The name of a sister, who was married to Giacomo Bavarello, a cheesemonger, has not reached us. Christopher had such an education as might be expected from a poor wool carder. He learned reading and writing, and the first elements of arithmetic; and in the occupation of carding wool along with his brother Bartholomew, his early days passed in obscurity. We are not at all ashamed to make this sincere avowal of the lowness of his condition, and to any one disposed to make it matter of reproach, would answer frankly, in the words of the noble Giulio Salinero, “ this wool carder will one day be so great and distinguished, that he would not disgrace the most illustrious families in Europe.” At fourteen years of age he went to sea, and continued in the profession of a sailor until his death. We have no account of his first voyages. We may collect from his letters, quoted by Ferdinand, (chap. IV.) that he had been in all parts of the Mediterranean, and that at Scio, an island belonging to the noble Giustinianis of Genoa, he saw the extraction of mastic from the lentisk tree. In the year 1472, he went to Savona, to which city his father Domenico had, two years before, transferred his residence and woollen manufactory. Memoir, pp. 12–15.
Not long after this period, Columbus went into the service of the king of Naples, and became captain of a ship of war. He found his way out of the Mediterranean, made voyages to the African Islands in the Atlantic; and, on one occasion, according to his own account, he sailed north one hundred leagues beyond the Ultima Thule of the ancients, and is supposed to have touched at Greenland. Various fortunes awaited him, till he conceived the grand project of new discovery, which he so successfully executed, and upon which the documents constituting so large a portion of these memorials have an immediate and important bearing.
11. Chancellor Kent's Lecture.*_ This is the Lecture delivered by Chancellor Kent, at the opening of the Law School in New York, over which he presides as a Professor in Columbia College. That one so eminently endowed with legal learning, and the peculiar talents to give it effect and power, and with such winning simplicity of manners and character to gain the confidence of young men, should have opened a Law School in the heart of the most active and commercial city in our country, we consider a truly happy circumstance for the profession. We trust it will make an epoch in the study of the Law among us; raise the tone of legal study and investigation; make it more scientific and dignified; and tend to give the profession more and more that moral value in the community, which, especially in a republican government, it is of such vast consequence that it should maintain. To effect this, we know no method more wise and sure, than the establishment of scientific Law Schools. We rejoice, therefore, most heartily in the extraordinary success, which is now attending on Chancellor Kent, and which is as gratifying a tribute to his rare talents, learning and character, as perhaps it would be possible to offer him.
We extract from his Lecture the following remarks on the character of the Supreme Court of the United States.
"The judicial power of the union is the ultimate expounder of the constitution, for it has cognizance of all cases in law and equity arising under the constitution, laws, and treaties of the union, and consequently, of all cases of a judicial nature arising upon the adverse claims and laws of the state governments. And when we reflect for a moment on the many cases in which the powers of the federal and state governments may be brought in collision with each other, or within the influence of each other's movements, the magnitude of the trust confided to the judicial of the union will be apparent. And the delicacy of it is infinitely increased in our view, when it is considered that the governments of the individual states are regularly organized communities, with much of the power, and more of the insignia of sovereign authority.
"The decisions of the federal courts ought therefore to be studied, digested, explained, and universally understood, in respect to all the leading questions of constitutional law. The authorities of every state, as well as the people at large, are interested in that knowledge. The harmony, and perhaps the stability of the union, depend in a very material degree upon the just and discreet exercise of the judicial power. I am no votary of the infallibity of any human tribunal; but it is no more than a just tribute to truth
* A Lecture Introductory to a Course of Law Lectures in Columbia College, delivered February 2, 1824. Published at the Request of the Trustees of the College. New York, 1824. pp. 23.