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B.C. 1490.

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« Make no vows

The sin-and trespass-offerings compared. We will—I. Compare these two offerings together. They agree in many things; but they differ in-1. The occasions on which they were offered. Så. xxv. 22.

7; Jud. xi. 30; 1 The sin-offering was for something done amiss through ignorance or infirmity; the trespass-offering for sins committed through in- ePs. li. 4; Josh. advertence or the power of temptation ; 2. The circumstances

vii. 19; 1 Jo. i. 9. attending their offering. II. State what they were both designed f Bush, who conto teach us. 1. That sin, however venial it may appear to us, is tinues, “The no light evil ; 2. That there may be much guilt attaching where form of the conthere is but little suspicion of it; 3. That the moment we see stantially this: 'I that we have sinned, we should seek for mercy in God's appointed have sinned; I way; 4. That we never can be truly penitent for sin, if we are not desirous also to repair it to the utmost of our power.9

iquity; I have

trespassed, and Judicial oaths.—The most important oaths affecting the general have done thus public are those which are required to enforce the truth from and thus; and do witnesses in courts of justice. It may be stated that jurymen, pentance before where they are called upon to exercise their functions, are also thee; and with required to take an oath. The oath is read to the juror thus :- this I ma ko "You shall well and truly try the issue between the parties, and atonement. The

animal was then a true verdict give, according to the evidence, su help you God;"

considered to and the juror kisses the New Testament. Witnesses who are bear vicariously called to give evidence must all be first sworn in a similar manner, the sins of the

who the words being, “ The evidence you shall give shall be the truth, person,

brought it." the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God.” Hence the person who is a witness must have sufficient under-9 C. Simeon, M.A. standing to know the nature and obligations of an oath ; and on this ground young children are incompetent to be witnesses. Another to forbear this or condition or qualification required in the party who takes an that: it shows no oath as a witness is, that he has a competent sense of religion ; great

strength, in other words, he must not only have some religious knowledge and makes thee but some religious belief. He must, in substance, believe in the self."-Fuller. existence of a God, and in the moral government of the world ; and though he cannot be questioned minutely as to his particular siders the num

" religious opinions, yet, if it appear that he does not believe in a ber of absurd and God and future state, he will not be allowed to give his evidence, ridiculous oaths for it is assumed that without the religious sanction his testi- necessary to be mony cannot be relied upon. So long, however, as a witness appears to possess competent religious belief, the mere form of tries, on being the oath is not material. The usual practice in England and admitted Ireland is, for the witness, after hearing the oath repeated by the any society or officer of court, to kiss the four Gospels by way of assent; and in ever, will be less Scotland, the witness repeats similar words after the judge, surprised to find standing and holding up his right hand, “swearing by Almighty prevarication

still prevailing, God, as he shall answer to God at the great day of Judgment,” where

perjury but without kissing any book. Jews are sworn on the Penta- has led the way." teuch, keeping on their hats, and the oath ends with the words, -Abbé Raynal. "So help you, Jehovah.” A Mohammedan is sworn on the

“Hasty resoKoran ; à Chinese witness has been sworn by kneeling and lutions are of the breaking a china saucer against the witness-box. Thus, the nature of vows; mere form of taking the oath is immaterial; the witness is and allowed to take it in whatever form he considers most binding

equally avoided.” upon his own conscience—the essential thing being, however, n Chambers' Ency. that the witness acknowledge some binding effect derived from his belief in a God or a future state.h

7-10. (7) if .. able, etc., the circumstances of the trans- "If a poor man gressor mercifully considered. 8—10, see i. 15.

brought the oblaVOL. II. 0. T.





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Pigeons in the East.—Pigeons were so plenteous in Palestine tion of the rich, and the neighbouring countries, that he must have been poor inhe was accepted deed who could not afford a pair. Adrichomius, the traveller, but if the rich tells us that there was a single tower to the south of Jerusalem brought the obla- in which 5,000 doves nestled. Maundrell also remarks of Kefteen, tion of the poor in Syria, that “ the adjacent fields abounding with corn give

the cepted." Mai- inhabitants great advantage for breeding pigeons, insomuch that monides.

you here find more dove-cotes than other houses."a a Bush. “Rashi observes 11–13. (11) if .. able, see v. 7. tenth .. epbah, rather there less prob. than half a gallon. (12, 13) memorial, etc., see ii. 2.

Divine jealousy and consideration.I. Without regard to human classes of men, the rich, the poor, circumstances, confession of and atonement for sin shall be made. and the very II. With a due regard to human circumstances, the atonement poor; so there shall be within the means of the trespasser. III. Atonement for are three kinds

each needful and possible. of offerings pre

Doces symbolical.I. Of the vast multitude of converts in chapter, adapted Messiah's days (Is. lx. 8). II. Of the Holy Ghost (Ma. iii. 16, to the circum. Jo. i. 32); pure, gentle, harmless, faithful, heaven-sent. III. Of stances of these several classes." the meekness of Christ (Song v. 12). Cf. De. xxxii. 18; Ps. -Bush.

xxxi. 1, 2; God as the Eternal Rock, Jo, i. 8 ; Jesus in bosom of “So low doth the Father (Song ii. 14); dove, i.e. the bride, the Church, in cleft of Most High stoop rock (Col. iii. 3); the Church's “life is hid with Christ in God." to man's mean. IV. Of mourners (Is. xxxviii. 14, lix. 11). “I bave often had ness, that He will them (a small kind found at Damascus) in my house, but their accept of a very present

note was so very sad that I could not endure it; besides, they from him that kept it up by night as well as by day ; nothing can exceed the would bring a plaintiveness of their midnight lamentation.' V. Of the return better if it were in the power of of Israel from captivity (Ho. xi. 11); they shall come back as his hand. Lycur- certainly as migrating doves return. VI. Of the eagerness of gus enjoined his the saint to enjoy the heavenly rest (Ps. lv. 6), and thus escape

the trials of life.a crifices; for God,

“ So prayed the Psalmist to be free saith he, respect

From mortal bonds and earthly thrall ; ternal devotion

And such, or soon or late, shall be

Full oft the heart-breathed prayer of all. oblation."-Trapp.

And when life's last sands are rove, a Topics.

With faltering foot and aching breast, b Malcolm.

Shall sigh for wings that waft the dove,

To flee away and be at rest." 6 the trespass 14–16. (14, 15) holy .. Lord, defects in his religious life, offering as wrong offerings, or offerings with blemishes, etc. estimaa Le, xxvii, 25.

tion, valuation. by .. sanctuary,a a fine, a money compen" What an absurd thing it is to sation. (16) he.. amends, restitution. shall thereto, pass over all the over and above the value to make the amends complete. valuable parts of Religious defalcations.-I. Notice some of the shortcomings of a man, and fix

men in relation to religion. II. Observe the conduct to be purhis infirmities!" sued when the mind, heart, and conscience are apprised of these

shortcomings. “Imperfection is Universal imperfection.—The creation is indigent; every creain some sort es: ture wants somewhat even whereof it is capable ; and our own we know of life

. wants, in many respects, we cannot but feel. Nothing is perfect It is the sign of in its own kind, in respect of all possible accessories thereto. life in a mortal Even the state of the glorified spirits above is not yet every way body, that is to say, of a state of perfect-much is wanting to their full and complete felicity; progress and the body and community whereto they belong," the general


Lacedemopians to offer small sa

eth more the in

than the external




our attention on


sential to all that

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part nascent.

b J. Howe.

assembly," is not yet entire and full; their common Ruler and Lord is not acknowledged and had in honour as He shall be ; in the meanwhile their consummate blessedness, which much de- that lives is, or

change. Nothing pends on these things, and the solemn jubilee to be held at the can be, rigidly close and finishing of all God's work, is deferred ; yea, and if we perfect: part of go higher, the blessed God Himself, the author and original of all things, although nothing be wanting to the real perfection of The foxglove His being and blessedness, hath yet much of His right withheld blossom-a third from Him by His lapsed and apostate creatures ; so that, which part bud, a third

part past, & third way soever we turn ourselves, there remains to us much matter part in full bloom of rational, yea, and holy desire, and most just cause that our -is a type of the love, place we it as well and duly as we can, have its exercise life of this world.”

-Ruskin. that way; we have before us many desiderata, according as things yet are.

17-19. (17) though .. not,a etc., ignorance of the law does a Le. iv. 2; Ps. not absolve fr. punishment due to the transgressor. (18) esti- x02. 12.; Lu. xii.

48; 1 Ti. i. 13. mation, see v. 15. ignorance, inadvertence, heedlessness. (19) certainly .. Lord. hence the sacrifice must be offered o Ezra x. 2; and the confession made to Him.

Natural ignorance.-We read of an ancient king, who being desirous to know what was the natural language of men, in "As if anything order to bring the matter to a certain issue, made the following

ignorance. experiment:– He ordered two infants, as soon as they were born, The multitude of to be conveyed to a place prepared for them, where they were fools is a protec: brought up without any instruction at all, and without ever hearing a human voice. And what was the event? Why, that when they were at length brought out of their confinement, they spake no language at all, they uttered only inarticulate sounds thou knowostthy like those of other animals. Were two infants in like manner to own ignorance;

and thou art igbe brought up from the womb without being instructed in any norant it religion, there is little room to doubt but (unless the grace of knowest not thyGod interposed) the event would be just the same. They would self.”—Luther. have no religion at all; they would have no more knowledge of God than the beasts of the field, than the wild ass's colt. Such CJ. Wesley. is natural religion ! abstracted from traditional, and from the influences of God's Spirit.'c


vii. 7-12.

were common as

tion to the wise." -Cicero.

“If thou art wise



xxiii. 4.

1–7. (1, 2) commit.. Lord,“ despise the commandments of breach of the Lord. fellowship, lit. the putting of the hand; partner- trust ship; as striking hands on a bargain. violence, fraud, rob- a Ac. v. 3, 4; Le.

xix. 12; 1 Jo. iv. bery. deceived, cheated, defrauded, calumniated. (3) that..

20; Col. iii. 9. lost, wh, legally should be restored. (4) restore, and also 6 2 Sa. xii. 9; Ps. confess the sin. (5) he.. principal, i.e. the thing itself, the li. 4. whole of it. add.. thereto, i.e. ā fifth of the value as a fine c De. xxii. 2; Ex. or compensation. (6) ram . . flock, a perfect rum. (7) priest, à Nu. v. 7. etc., see vv. 15, 16.

“ The ordinary Breach of confidence.-I. Note some examples of this sin. 1. saying is, C.sunt Injury to, or loss of borrowed goods, see 2 Ki. vi. 5; 2. Retaining money after your

; a found article, knowing, or not seeking, the owner ; 3. Obtain- prudence ing property under false pretences. II. Effects of this sin. 1. adviseth to meaDiminishes the trust men should have in each other ; 2. Lessens sure the ends of the stock of general kindness, sce Ma. v. 42 ; 3. Fosters a spirit though of dishonesty. III. The Divine view of this sin. 1. Reparation by never so iuti






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to be made to man; 2. Confession and atonement to be made to

God. mate a friend."F. Osborn.

Turkish honesty.-Keppel relates, in his Journey across the "Take special Balcan, that, in the winter of 1828, a Turkish postman was sent

that thou to some distant part with a considerable sum of money in specie. friend or servant The money, in such cases, is carried in bags, which the merchants with any matter call“ groupes.” They are given to the postman, and without that may endan: receiving any written document as proof of the receipt. This for so shalt thou man, on returning from his journey, was applied to by à French make thyself a house for fifteen thousand piastres ; a sum, at that time, equal to bond - slave to fifteen thousand dollars. He made no attempt to evade the him that thou demand, but immediately said, “I have doubtless lost the bag, and leave thyself al- must therefore pay you as soon as I can raise the money.” After

his maturely thinking of the loss, he returned by the same road, mercy:"-Sir W. quite confident that if any Mohammedan should find the money Raleigh. “Trust not any

it would be returned to him. He had travelled nearly the whole man with thy life, distance, when he arrived, in a very melancholy mood, at a small, credit, or estate. miserable coffee-house, where he remembered to have stopped a For, it is mere few moments on his way. He was accosted at the door by the to enthrall him- café-jee, who called out to him, “ Hallo, sheriff ! when you were self to his friend, last here you left a bag, which I suppose to contain gold. You as though, occa- will find it just where you placed it.” The postman entered, and ed, he should not discovered the identical bag, evidently untouched, although it dare to become must have been left exposed to the grasp of the numerous chance an enemy.”—Ld. customers of a Turkish café. Burleigh. the law of

8–13. (8, 9) because, a etc., prob. the reason for the name of the burnt- the offering (10) put .. garment, etc., such as the inferior offering priests ministered in. (11) other garments, prob. the holy a Ps. lxvi. 13–15. garments. clean place, place free from impurities. (12)

burning, kindled, see i. 7. (13) fire : - altar, etc.,« so the

atonement of Christ is always available for purging and taking c Ezek. xliv. 19. d Is. vi. 6, 7.

The fire of holy desires.-Consider-I. The text as typifying "* It was one of holy desires and Divine love, by the emblem of fire. 1. Fire the distinguish. illuminates ; 2. It warms and heats ; 3. It separates true metal chieftainships of from dross ; 4. It always ascends ; 5. It melts and softens hard one of the sa- materials; 6. It has a comforting quality ; 7. It assimilates

nobility, materials to its own nature ; 8. Without it we could not exist. wont out.

II. How we may quench the fire of holy desires. By–1. Inconattendants bad a sideration or unwatchfulness ; 2. A trifling spirit; 3. Not keepparticular name ing our eye single either in eating or drinking ; 4. Backbiting from their special and railing ; 5. Unnecessary disputations ; 6. Conceit; 7. Noning his fire blaz- obedience to the rules of God's Word.e ing all night long Linon garments.—There are three words used in Hebrew to

was indicate linen of various qualities. The first of these is plain asleep." ner's ** Polynesia." | linen, answering to the Greek linon. This was used in all the

garments of the day of atonement. The second is “fine linen." "All costume off a man is pitiful This was always used in the garments “ of glory and beauty.” or grotesque. It The third is linen of peculiar brightness, as well as fine and is only the be- white. (Re. xix. 8.) The garment of plain linen was worn on rious eye peering seasons of humiliation or confession, and when the thought of cere life passed the holiness of Him who was to be approached was made within it, which prominent, and not the condition of acceptance or honour that restrain laughter attached to those who served. (Bee Le. xvi. ; Ezra ix. 10; Da. the costume of x. 5; Re. xv. 6.) Fine linen, on the contrary, was used in the any people. Let garments of glory and beauty," which were put on the priests

Ex. xxviii. 42.

away sin.

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in the day of the consecration. The linen used in the hangings and inner curtain of the tabernacle was also of fine linen. The third kind “was,” says Gesenius, “ very fine in texture, and most taken with a fit

harlequin be costly, used as the clothing of kings, and of those who were very of the colic

, and rich." It was not only remarkable for whiteness, but for bright his trappings will and resplendent whiteness, as in the mount of transfiguration mood too. When

glistening ” (and Re. xix. 8). David, when he danced before the soldier is hit the ark, was clothed in this kind of linen. Thus, then, on by a cannon ball the day of atonement, which was a day of humiliation, the rage are as besimple linen was worn. In the priesthood of presentation the purple." garment of glory and beauty was used, which was distinguished reau. for its whiteness, and the strength and fineness of its texture, but in types which refer to the Church's final glory, when she e W. Stevens. will be displayed in her estate of royalty, we find the bright - B. W. Newton. resplendent linen.

14—18. (14) law .. offering, the minchah, or priest's por- the heavetion, see ii. (15) handful, see ii. 2. (16) remainder, etc.,a offering see ii. 3. (17) it.. leaven, etc., see ii. 10, 11. (18) every.

a Le. xxiv. 9. holy, this may mean he who touches them shall first purify himself, or that the vessels employed shall first be sanctified. 61 Co. v. 6-18. Holiness a crown of glory.The highest honour which the

c Ps. lxxxix, 7. Romans bestowed upon their greatest captains was to grant them a day of triumph, and, in that, permission to wear a crown of "Teachers grass or leaves, which withered the day following ; but the students of theotriumph of the just shall be eternal, and their never-fading tain 100k, certain crown is God Himself. O, most happy diadem! O, most precious conventional garland of the saints, which is of as great worth and value as is tones of voice, a God Himself! Sapores, king of the Persians, was most ambitious clerical gait, à of honour, and would therefore be called “ The brother of the neckcloth, sun and moon, and friend to the planets.” This vain prince habits of mind as erected a most glorious throne, which he placed on high, and professional thereon sat in great majesty, having under his feet a globe of their externals." glass, whereon were artificially represented the motions of the sun, the moon, and the stars; and to sit crowned above this " All belief which

does not render fantastical heaven he esteemed as a great honour. What shall

happy, be, then, the honour of the just, who shall truly and really sit more free, more above the sun, the moon, and the firmament, crowned by the loving, more achand of God Himself, and that with a crown of gold, graven is, °i fear, an erwith the seal of holiness, and the glory of honour ? And this honour arrives at that height, that Christ Himself tells us : “ He superstitious bewho shall overcome, I will give him to sit with Me in My

lief."- Lavater. throne ; even as I have overcome, and have sat with My Father a Bp. Taylor. in His throne.”d

19–23. (19, 20) in the day, “and so, fr. that day forward, the priests:every day.”a tenth .. ephah, i.e. an omer. for .. perpetual, offering i.e. at every time of consecration, or every day fr. the time of a Ainsworth. consecration.d (21) pan, see ii. 5. (22) it .. burnt,e lit. it0 Ex. xvi. 36. shall ascend in fire as a whole burnt-offering. (23) it .. eaten,

C Knobel, Kiel, save in case of peace-offerings the sacrificer could not eat of his Kalisch. own offering.

d Delitzsch, Kurtz. Vegetable oils. - The liquid vegetable oils are very numerous,

e Ex. xxix. 25 and several are of great commercial importance. First in rank is

He, vii. 23. olive oil, made from the ripe fruit of the common olive (Olea

"At bottom every Europea). When good and fresh, it is of a pale greenish-yellow religion is anticolour, with scarcely any smell or taste, except a sweetish nutty Christian which






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