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B.O. 1490.

makes the form,




their best chins,

D. Jerrold.

flavour, much esteemed by those who use it. The finest qualities

are the Provence oil (rarely seen in Britain), Florence oil, and the thing, the Lucca oil. These are all used for salads and for cooking. The letter, the sub- Genoa is used on the Continent for the same purpose ; and Galli

Such a poli, which is inferior, constitutes the great bulk of what is ligion, in order to received in this country

for closh-dressing. Turkey-red dyeing, and be at all consist- other purposes: the Continental soap-makers also employ it ent, ought to extensively. The high price of the best qualities leads to much maintain a, ma adulteration with poppy and other oiks, but it is generally pretty ty." - Jacobi. safe when in the original fiasks as imported. The mode of

obtaining the finest kinds is by gentle pressure of the fruit. The There

& cake is afterwards treated with hot water, from the surface of good many pions which an inferior quality is skimmed. The Gallipoli oil is as careful of their obtained by allowing the olives to ferment in heaps, and then religion as of to press them in powerful oil-presses; the cake. or mare, is then

treated with water once or twice, until all the oil is removed ; only using it on holy occasions this inferior oil is darker in colour, being a yellowish or brownish for fear it should green. We receive the finest from Italy, and the commoner Hawed in fork' qualities from the Lerant. Mogador, Spain, Portugal. and Sicily. ing-day wear."

The present values range from £52 to £58 per tun for common kinds, and the finest Lucca is £l the half-chest, or nearly £85

per tan. The total quantity imported during the four years s Chambers' Ency. 1860—1863 is as follows :-1860, 21,800 tans; 1861, 16,500 tuns ;

1862, 19,062 tuns ; 1863, 19,299 tuns.. the law of the 24_30. (24, 25) place .. killed, il.on the X. of the altar. sin-offering it.. holy, the flesh of the victim was to be regarded as such. a Le. i. 11.

(26) priest .. it, and so bore the iniquity of the sinner, while b. Bampton Lect. he typically abolished it. (27) when .. blood, etc., “ these iii.; Hengstenberg; ordinances shadowed the contagion of sin, and the care we Holy Scripture," should have to cleanse ourselves by repentance."* (28) earthen 379; Kurtz, "sa- broken, since it might absorb some of the juices of the crificial Worship," meat.1 (29) most holy, lit. holiness of holiness. (30) to .. . Jo. vi. 52–57. withal,s to make atonement for.

Culinary ressels in the East (on v. 28).—This is a very remark. eLe. xi. 33–35.

able instruction. We all know that earthen vessels are broken, f“So contagions and others thoroughly scoured when supposed to be defiled, a thing is sio that among the Mohammedans and Hindoos, as they were also among

the the Jews. But the present instance is of a different character. heaven and earth;

The earthen vessel was to be broken, and the copper one scoured which therefore and rinsed, not because they were defiled, but because the flesh of must be likewise the sin-offering having been cooked in them, they had thuspurged by the last become too sacred for common use. At this time the culinary en pot which hela vessels of the Hebrews seem to have been exclusively of earthenthe sin-offering ware or copper. Iron, though known to them, was at this time was broken, and very little in use for any purpose, and even when they became

better acquainted with that valuable metal, it is doubtful if their rinsed in water." culinary or other vessels were ever made of it. At least, no pot, -Trapp. pan, or other vessel is said in all the Scripture to be of iron. 9 He. xiii. 11; Le. What is translated - iron pan," in Ezek. iv. 3, is properly an iv. 12; He is. 12, - iron plate," as the content alone sufficiently indicates. In point 1 3, 12–14.

of fact, the culinary and other domestic vessels throughont the ligion be true or East remain, to this day, as we find them thus early in the Mosaic lalse, it must be history, either of copper, earthenware, or wood, although, 10 necessarily doubt, the quality and manufacture have much improved. The only wise prin- present writer, in the course of journeys and residence in different ciple and safe parts of Western Asia, does not think that he ever met with an

d Ainsworth

it defileth very visible

the brazen Scoured and

" Whether


B.C. 1490.

instance of a cooking vessel of any other metal than copper; and dishes and bowls of the same inetal, tinned, are those which most

hypothesis for a usually make their appearance on the tables of kings and great man to live

and men. When luxury desires something more rich and costly for die by." — Tillotthe table than copper, it finds indulgence, not in silver and gold, Dr. Kitto. but in china and fine earthenware.




CHAPTER THE SEVENTH. 15. (1) trespass-offering, Heb., asham, guiltiness. (2) the law of the place, N. of altar. he, i.e. the priest. (3—5) fat, etc., see trespassLe. iii. 4, 9.

offering The power of law.-There are stronger things in the world than force. There are powers more difficult to overcome than a Ex. xxix. 13. strong or brazen gates. Suppose we found a prisoner condemned to die, and locked up in his cell, and we were to ask ourselves - Humility and how he could be saved from execution. There would appear love, great difficulty in getting him out of prison. That iron door, obscurities may with its great bolt; that high window, with its guard of strong tenets, constitute bars; those thick, strong walls ; those heavy gates outside ; that the watchful jailer,—how impossible it seems to overcome them all! true religion. The Yet these are not the only difficulties, nor the greatest. There is humble is formed another thing, stronger than all these, holding the poor prisoner loving to assoto death : there is the sentence of the law. For, unless he would ciate with eternal himself become a criminal, no man dares to help the condemned love.”—Lavater. one out. Get the sentence repealed, and the other difficulties are removed. I will take you in thought to two houses : one is your “ He that has not own; but the doors and windows are all fast, and you have no religion to govern key: it will be hard to get in. Beside it is another, belonging to

his morality is

pot a dram better your neighbour, ,-a house you know you have no right to enter, than my mastif and have been forbidden to approach. The door is open, and dog: so long as nothing withstands your entrance, that you can see. Yet it will you stroke him, be harder to go in there than into your own house ; for it would and do not pinch make you a trespasser on rights. An armed fortress belonging him, he will play to an enemy might be destroyed by force if a general were sent with you as fine to capture it; but, without a warrant, would that general go a very good into the palace of the king? When Eve stood beside the tree of moral mastiff knowledge of good and evil, there was no fence around it, keep- but if you hurt ing her steps aloof ; no shield to prevent her hand touching the him, he will fly

in your face, and fruit : yet there was a guard more powerful than walls to keep tear her from placking it, till she resolved to sin. The words, “ Thou throat.”—Selden. shalt not eat of it,” so long as her heart was right with God, were like a rampart of fire around that forbidden tree. If a father

b Dr. Edmond. has said to a dutiful child, " There is an object you must not handle,” it is more truly out of the child's reach than if he had merely placed it high up where the little hand could not get hold of it.

6–10. (6) male,a etc., see vi. 16—18. (7) sin-offering, a Nu. xviii. 9, 10. see vi. 25–30. priest . it, as his means of living (8) priest .. skin, see i. 6. (9) meat-offering, etc., see ii. 4–7. 6 Lu. x. 7. (10) one another, lit. man as his brother being equally divided.c

thers' house was The meat-offering (on v. 9).–Our translation of this passage

bread enough." presents a confusion more easily perceived than regulated by the "Put me, I pray general reader :—“And all the meat-offering that is baken in the thee, into one of

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oven, and all that is dressed in the frying-pan, and in the pan, priest's

shall be the priest's that offers it.” It is evident that here are omces, that I may three terms used, implying three different manners of dressing eat a piece of food. Do we understand them? The term “meat-offering" is bread" (1 Sa. ii. 36). This

certainly unfortunate here, as it raises the idea of flesh-meat, Tirshatha would without just reason, to say the least, especially as it stands connot suffer those nected with baking in the oven. Passing this, the following turncoats to do sentence, also, as it stands connected, expresses a meat-offering, houranin. 63)But dressed in a frying-pan; and then we have another kind of meat

to it was that poor offering, dressed in the pan. Of what nature is this pan? To priest that

an- answer this question, we must dismiss the flesh-meat. Whether 8wered

young the following extract from Denon may contribute assistance on Pareus, asking him an alms, ac

this subject, is submitted with great deference. It is his explacording to the nation of his plate lxxxv. “The manner of making macaroni in custom of those Egypt. The manufactory, and the shop for selling it, are both times: Nos pauperi fratres, nos

at once in the street ;-an oven, over which a great plate of nihil habemus, copper is heated ; the maker sheds on it a thin and liquid paste, au pisces, au caro, which is strained through the holes in a kind of cup which he au panis, a u misericordia ha. passes up and down on the plate: after a few minutes, the threads bemus.'" - Trapp.

of paste are hardened, dried, and baked, by a uniform degree of

heat, maintained without intermission, by an equal quantity of d Taylor in Cal

branches of palin-tree, by which the oven is kept constantly heated. The same degree of heat is given in the same space of time to an equal quantity of macaroni, which is perpetually re

newed on the plate, and sold directly as it is made." the law of 11–15. (11) law .. offerings,a see iii. 1—17. (12) thanks the peace

giving, for past mercies. fried, see vi. 21. (13) leavened offering

bread,this à distinct offering, see ii. 2, 9, 11. (14) out.. Ps. cxvi. 1. oblation, lit. out of each offering. cxix. 108; He.

it . . priests, i.e. one cake xiii. 15.

was to be a heave-offeringd for the officiating priest. (15) eaten 6 2 Ch. xxix. 31; offered,e i.e. they were to hasten to obey God : cheerful and Ps. 1. 14, 23, cvii. liberal use of Divine mercy. leave .. morning, as doubting

to-morrow's mercy. c Am. iv. 5.

The peace-offering.I. The particular prescriptions of this law. a Nu. xviii. 8, 11, 1. The matter of which they consisted ; 2. The manner in which 19. e 1 Co. x. 3; Col. they were offered. II. The occasions whereon the offering was iii. 15.

made. It was offered as--1. An acknowledgment of mercies re" Gratitude is the ceived ; 2. A supplication for mercies desired.I fairest blossom

Example of thankfulness.—The room is clean, even airy; a which springs from the soul, bright little fire burns in the grate ; and in a four-post bed you and the heart of will see sitting up a woman of sixty-four years of age, with her

knoweth hands folded and contracted, and her whole body crippled and pone more fra- curled together as the disease cramped it, and rheumatism has grant; while its opponent, ingra- fixed it, for eight and twenty years. For sixteen of these years titude, is a deadly she has not moved from her bed, or looked out of the window, or weed; not only even lifted her hand to her own face; and also is in constant poisonous in itself, but impreg- pain, while she cannot move a limb. But listen! She is so nating the very thankful that God has left her that great blessing, the use of one atmosphere in thumb! Her left hand is clinched and stiff, and utterly useless ; which it grows but she has a two-pronged fork fastened to a stick, with which pours." she can take off her great old-fashioned spectacles, and put them Ballou.

on again, with amazing effort. By the same means she can feed " Epicurus says, herself ; and she can sip her tea through a tube, helping herself • Gratitude is a with this one thumb. And there is another thing she can accomvirtue that has commonly profit plish with her fork : she can turn over the leaves of a large Bible annexed to it. when placed within her reach. A recent visitor addressed her




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with the remark, that she was all alone. “Yes," she replied in a peculiarly sweet and cheerful voice, “I am alone, and yet not

And where is the alone." “ How is that?” “I feel that the Lord is constantly virtue, say I, that with me.” “ How long have you lain here?” “For sixteen has years and four months; and for two years and four months I still the virtue is have not been lifted out of my bed to have it made : yet I have to be valued, for much to praise and bless the Lord for.” “ What is the source of the profit that your happiness ?”/ “The thought that my sins are forgiven, and attends it."dwelling on the great love of Jesus my Saviour. I am content Seneca. to lie here so long as it shall please Him that I should stay, and C. Simeon, M.A. to go whenever He shall call me.”8

g The Book and 16–21. (16) sacrifice .. vow, i.e. a peace-offering vowed a Spk. Comm. upon certain conditions. voluntary offering, i.e. one offered Bush. as the simple tribute of a devout heart at peace with God and 6 Ex. xii. 10. man : offered on no external occasion. (17) remainder, etc., as being then unlawful to be eaten. (18) imputed, placed to c The holy flesh his account. abomination, polluted, foul. shall .. ini.


offerings. quity, i.e. punishment due to it. (19) flesh, the holy flesh.c as .. flesh, i.e. the undefiled flesh. (20) soul.. people, i.e. he a Lo. xxii. 3, 9. shall be destroyed, shall perish.a (21) soul.. thing, the person e Le. xv. 3. doing so became himself unclean, and hence was under the law of v. 20.

“True religion is

the poetry of the Eaten the same day that it was offered.We here see that the heart: it has enflesh of some sacrifices was to be eaten on the day of offering ; in chantments usesome cases, however, what remained might be eaten on the next

ners; it gives us day, but nothing was to be kept for use till the third day-whatever both' happiness then remained was to be consumed by fire. As the people of the and East generally eat their meat the same day on which it is killed,

Joubert. and almost never later than the second day, we are inclined to "The pleasure of concur in the view of Harmer (Obserrations, i. 457), who thinks the religious man that this regulation was intended to preclude any attempt to is an easy and

portable pleapreserve the meat, by potting or otherwise, so that it might be taken to different parts of the country, and used superstitiously, as carries perhaps, as peculiarly holy food, or applied in some way incon- about sistent with the intention of the law. That intention was, that bosom. Without what became the offerer's share of the sacrifice he had presented, the eye or the he should eat cheerfully before the Lord with his friends, and envy of the that the poor and destitute should partake in the benefit. This

world."-South. object was insured by the regulation which precluded the meat f Dr. Kitto. from being kept beyond the second day.S

22—27. (22, 23) ye.. fat,a etc., prob. for physical as well as law conmoral reasons. ox.. goat, i.e. of such animals as were offered cerning fat in sacrifice. (24) may.. use, to wh. fat is applicable, save for and blood sacrifice or food. (25) beast, named in v. 23. (26, 27) eat . . 10; Ma. xxii. 21. blood, etc., no exception made as in the case of fat.

b Ge. ix. 4; Jo. Ye shall cat no manner of fat.—This is a very remarkable law ; vi. 53, 54; Lu.

xxii, 17-20. but it is not to be understood as an interdiction of all fat, but

c See Kitto, Note only the properly fat pieces which were offered on the altar in on De. xiv. 21. certain sacrifices, and which, partly, no doubt, in consequence of "It is the prothat appropriation, became too sacred for common food even in perty of the reanimals which had not been sacrificed. The parts of which this be the most relaw interdicted the use were : the fat with which the intestines fining of all inare covered, that is, the omentum, or caul, all the fat upon the fluences, intestines (mesenterium), the fat of the kidneys, and the fat tail

tages, no culture of a particular species of sheep. It is even uncertain whether of the tastes, no


such an one he

in his

No external advanB.O. 1490.





and have a sincere

desire to

truth are

these parts were allowed for other purposes than food; for, in v. habit of

24, the fat of beasts that died of themselves, or were torn of wild mand, no asso- beasts, is allowed for such purposes ; and the omission of a similar ciation with the allowance for cattle that died under the knife seems to imply elegant, or even that none was made. Independently of their consecration to the can bestow that altar, it is not difficult to discover other reasons which may have delicacy and that operated in causing this remarkable interdiction of employing grandeur of bear- those parts of animals which are of so much use to us for culinary only to the mind and other purposes. In the opinion of Michaelis, it was one of

to the great objects of some of the laws of Moses to change celestial conver- the character of the Israelites from that of a nomad and is but gilt and pastoral to that of a settled agricultural people. Accordingly, cosmetics, beside there are a number of regulations, the combined operation of tb is, as expressed which rendered such a change almost compulsory, The present in every look and is one of those which tended to wean them from that entire degesture."--Emer

pendence upon their flocks which is usual among nomad people, "I extend the and to induce new wants which only agriculture could supply. circle of real re- The present law, in particular, appears to be one of several, which ligion widely. Many

seem directed to oblige them to the cultivation of the excellent men fear God, olives of Palestine, the country which they were destined to and love God, occupy. Being here debarred the use of animal fat, and being

apparently, on the other hand, precluded the use of butter, no serve Him, whose resource remained for them but to cultivate and employ its oil, views of religious which in fact they did to a great extent when they were settled

very in the Promised Land. Whether this view be correct or not, the imperfect, and in some points ut- tendency of such a law to prevent falling back on nomad habits terly false. But can hardly be questioned. It was adapted to their condition in may not many Palestine ; but since their dispersion they have felt the interhave a state of diction of fat and (as they understand) of butter, as one of the heart acceptable peculiar evils of their state, and have been driven so to expound before God ?"- their law as to allow themselves the use of goose-fat as a Cecil.

substitute. the wave

28–34. (28, 29) oblation, gift, i.e. to the priest. (30) and heave

waved .. offering,a see Ex. xxix. 24-28. (31) breast .. offering

sons', as the priests' portion. (32) heave-offering, sce Ex. a 2 Co. viii. 12.

xxix. 28. (33) right .. part, the breast for the high priest b De, xviii, 3. and his household ; this for the officiating priest. (34) See Ex. “True religion is xxix. 28. always mild, pro- Selfish religionists. There are a great many men who are pions pitious, humble;

on this principle : “How economically can I go to heaven ?”

plays not the tyrant; Virtue is to them like gold to a traveller, and they say, "Now I plants no faith in want to spend just as little as I can. I want to make this voyage blood, nor bears just as cheaply as possible.” Men mean to get to heaven, but destruction her

chariot- they do not mean that it shall cost them any more virtue than wheels; but they can possibly help. Everything that the world will allow stoops to polish, them to have they take. They practise as little self-denial as dress, and builds they can get along with, hoping that there will be an equalisaher grandeur on tion of everything

in the world to come. Oh ! what a dangerous the public good." and degrading condition is that man in whose life lies right -Jas. Miller,

along the twilight line, where he is liable at any moment to be c Beecher.

cast over into darkness.c recapitu- 35–38. (35) this .. anointing, i.e. the appointed share :lation

or reward of the anointing. (36) in .. them, etc., see Ex. xl. a Spk. Comm.

13—15. (37) burnt, etc., see i. 6—13. meat, etc., see ii. 6, b Sinsworth. 14–18. sin, etc., see iv. 24–30. trespass, etc., see v. 1—7.

d Kitto.


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