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B.C. 1490.

+ Here


consecrations, see vi. 22, 23. peace, etc., see iii. (38) wilderness, etc., see Ex. xix. 1.

c Nu.i. 11., xxvi. The use of oil in anointing:-As a cosmetic,—that is to say, as a 63. 64. means of giving to the skin and hair a smooth and graceful Origen, appearance—its use has been prevalent in hot climates from the according to his

manner, turns al earliest times. There is abundant historical evidence of this into

allegories usage of oil amongst the Egyptians, the Jews, the Greeks, and and mysteries, the Romans; and Pliny's statement that butter is used by the and tells us of a

threefold negroes, and the lower class of Arabs, for the purpose of anoint

of Scripture-(1) ing, is confirmed by the observation of all recent African travel. Literal, (2) Moral, lers. In hot climates, there is doubtless a practical as well as an (3) Mystical æsthetic object in anointing. The oil, being a bad conductor of comparing them

to the gridiron, heat, affords a certain amount of protection against the direct frying pan, and action of the solar heat ; it is likewise serviceable as a protection oven, against the attacks of insects, and as a means of checking exces- dressing the sive perspiration. The fact of oily and fatty matters being bad meat offering; ". conductors of heat, serves also to explain why the Esquimaux and But this itch of other dwellers in Arctic regions have recourse to the inunction of allegorising dark the blubber, etc. In their case the oily investment serves to pre- hath

small vent the escape of the bodily heat.d

danger in it." Trapp.

d Chamber's' Ency. CHAPTER THE EIGHTH.



and difficult texts



1-5.a See Ex. xxix. 1-4,

The duty of obedience.-If a boy at school is bidden to cipher, consecration and chooses to write a copy instead, the goodness of the writing

of the priests will not save him from censure.

a He. vii. 28, x. We must obey, whether we see

5—7; Ex. xxviii. the reason or not; for God knows best. A guide through an 2, 4. unknown country must be followed without demur. A captain Obedience is yields complete authority to the pilot. A soldier in battle must not truly per

formed by the fight when and where he is ordered : when the conflict is over, he

body him may reflect upon and perceive the wisdom of his commander in whose heart is movements that, at the time of their execution, were perplexing. dissatisfied. The

shell without & The farmer must obey God's natural laws of the seasons if he

kernel is not fit would win a harvest ; and we must all obey God's spiritual laws for store." if we would reap happiness here and hereafter.

Saadi. 6–12. (6—9)a See Ex. xxix. 4–6. (10—12) See Ex. xxx. anointing of 26–30.

Aaron Washed them with water. Here the ceremonies of consecration commence with ablutions, and we have seen that the priests a Ps.cxxxii. 9, 16; were required to bathe their hands and feet whenever they 1 Sa. ii. 28; Ex.

xxviii. 30, 36–38. entered the tabernacle. This doubtless was, not merely to insure physical cleanness, but also to symbolise that spiritual purity with which man should appear before God. The present wash- 6 Le. xxi. 10, 12; ing is, however, distinguished from the daily ablution, inasmuch Ps. cxxxiii. 2. as the whole person seems now to have been washed, but only the hands and feet on common occasions. The idea of the fitness of

“Hence, it may such a practice is so obvious, that it has been more or less in use

be, God appointin most religious systems. We find, at the heathen temples, ed the lavers of a similar use to this at the tabernacle. The Egyptian plate to be made priests washed themselves with cold water twice every day, and double, that the twice at night the Greeks had their sprinklings, the Romans mim might be their lustrations and lavations; the ancient Christians practised put within, and ablution before receiving the sacrament, and also bathed their be hid on every eyes on entering a church. The Roman Catholic Church retains side. This Orim


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something of the practice of ablution before, and sometimes after

mass; and Calmet says that the holy-water vessels at the enand Thummim signified,

saith trance of their churches are in imitation of the lavers of the one that in Christ tabernacle. The Oriental Christians have also their solemn wash. are hidden all the ings on particular occasions, such as Good Friday. The practice treasures of wisdom and know- of ablution was adopted by Mohammed in a very full sense ; for ledge (Col. ii. 3), his followers are not only obliged to perform their ablutions and that He hath before they enter a mosque, but before they commence their all secret things prayers, wherever offered, which they are required to repeat five

perfectly known and num- times each day. This is certainly the most burthensome system bered out before of ablution which ever existed either in ancient or modern times. Him, which He The Hindoos also rejoice in the purifying virtues of their idol. tinually to His ised Ganges, and wash also in other waters, because they believe

and that such will be equally effectual, if, whilst they bathe, they chosen, as need say, “O Ganges, purify me!” In fact, nothing is or has been requireth, by such means

more common than ablutions in the worship which different Himself hath nations render to their gods; and there are few acts connected sanctified (Ps. with their service which are not begun or ended with some rite

XV; 14;:10Xiv: symbolical of purification. In the religion of classical antiquity, 36.26_xpan74, 17, the priest was obliged to prepare himself by ablution for offering )"-Trapp

sacrifice ; for which purpose there was usually water at the

entrance of the temple. In very ancient times the priests seem c Dr. Kilto. to have bathed themselves in some river or stream. But such

ablutions were only necessary in sacrifices to the celestial gods, sprinkling being sufficient for the terrestrial and infernal

deities.c the priest's 13–17.. See Ex. xxix. 8–14. sin-offering

The holiness of the priests. The priests were chosen from

among men to be more holy, of which their washing was a sign, a Ex. xxviii. 2, as their splendid robes were to remind them of their dignity and 40 ; 13. lxiii, 1, xi. authority over the people. The high priest had seven special 5; Ezek. xliii. 20

ornaments :-1. White linen to denote purity; 2. A curious girdle, intimating that he must use discretion in all things ; 3. The long tunic of various colours, with bells, etc., signifying heavenly conversation upon earth, unity and harmony in faith

and morals ; 4. An ephod, with two precious stones on the b Jerome.

shoulders, teaching him to support the failings of the multitude ; 5. The rational, with its ornaments, showing that the high priest should teach sound and profitable doctrine ; 6. The mitre, indicating that all his actions should be referred to God above; 7. The plate of gold denoting that he should always have God in

view. the priest's 18–21.See Ex. xxix. 15—18.

Convincing power of holiness.-I would give more for one poor offering a Le. i. 6, S.

woman, whose poverty only makes her laugh and sing, who is

contented with her humble lot, who bears her burdens with One of the ad. cheerfulness, who is patient when troubles come upon her, who advantages of loves every one, and who, with a kind and genial spirit, goes goodness is, that about doing good, than for all the dissertations on the doctrines it blinds its pos of Christianity that could be written, as a means of preventing sessor to many of those faults in infidelity. I have seen one such woman who was worth more others which than the whole church to which she belonged and its minister could not fail to put together; and I was the minister, and my church was the the morally de

church! She lived over a cooper-shop. The floor of her apartfective. A con- ment was so rude and open that you could sit there and see what



be detected by

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the men were doing below. She had a sort of fiend for a husband—a rough, brutal shipmaster. She was universally called sciousness of un* Mother.” She literally, night and day, went about doing good. worthiness renI do not suppose all the ministers in the town where she lived ders people carried consolation to so many hearts as she did. If a person sighted in diswas sick or dying, the people in the neighbourhood did not think cerning the vices of sending for anyone else half so soon as for her. I tell you, of their neighthere was not much chance for an infidel to make headway bours; as persons there. If I wanted to convince a man of the reality of Christ- can easily, disianity, I said nothing about historic evidence ; I said, “Don't the symptoms of you believe Mother is a Christian ?" and that would silence those diseases

beneath which him. Where there is a whole church made up of such Christians

they themselves as she was, infidelity cannot thrive. You need not be afraid of have suffered." – its making its way into such a church. The Word of God stands Godfrey. sure under such circumstances, so that nothing can successfully o Beecher. rise against it. 22-26.a See Ex. xxix. 19-23.

the ram of Use of blood in consecration.-Banier, in his work on the consecration Mythology of the Ancients, gives, after Prudentius, a remarkable a He. ix. 11, 12,

xiii. 12. instance of the personal application of the victim's blood in the ceremonies of consecration. He calls it a sort of baptism of "The filling of blood,” which was thought to convey a spiritual regeneration. the hand with

sacrificial gifts It occurs in the Taurobolium, a sacrifice which was offered to signified that the Cybele at the consecration of her high priest, but not wholly priest was henceconfined to that occasion, and which had rites and ceremonies forth different from all other sacrifices. In order to consecrate the crifice to God, and

abled to offer 88high priest, a great hole was made, into which he entered, was endowod dressed in an unusual manner, wearing a crown of gold, and with the appur

which with a toga of silk tucked up after the Sabine fashion. Above the whole was a sort of floor, the boards of which, not being received from the

priesthood closely joined, left certain chinks, besides which several holes altar. Correwere bored in the boards themselves. Then they led up to the sponding to it is place a bull (sometimes a ram or goat) crowned with garlands, the Holy Bible,

the delivery of bearing on his shoulders fillets covered with flowers, and having accompanied his forehead gilt. Its throat was cut over the hole, so that the with prayer for blood fell upon the floor, which, being perforated, allowed it to

the reception of

the Holy Ghost, pass through in a shower upon the priest, who received it eagerly for the office and upon his body and clothes. Not content with this, he held back work of a priest his head to receive it on his cheeks, ears, lips, and nostrils; he in the Church of

God,' and with a even opened his mouth to moisten his tongue with it, and some

conveyance he swallowed. When all the blood was drained, the high-priest "authority to came out. The horrible appearance he presented may well be preach the Word:

of God, and to conceived ; but he was received with congratulation, and the

minister the holy people, not daring to approach his person, adored him at a Sacraments, distance, regarding him now as a man quite pure and sanctified. with which the They, who thus received the blood of the Taurobole, wore their Christian priests

are inaugurated." stained clothes as long as possible, as a sensible evidence of their –Wordsworth, regeneration. Might it not be, to prevent such a practice as this comp. Bingham, last, that in the sin-offering, if any of the victim's blood was Antiq. II. xix. 17. sprinkled upon a garment, that garment was directed to be care-o Dr. Kitto. fully washed in the holy place ?

the priests 27–30. (27—29) Sec Ex. xxix. 24–26. (30) Sce Ex. xxix. 21.

anointing Holiness and sanctity.Holiness is to the mind of a man what sanctity is to his exterior ; with this difference, that holiness, to good man is three a certain degree, ought to belong to every man professing Chris- quarters of his


of are.

" He

that is &





fruit unto



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tianity ; but sanctity, as it lies in the manners, the outward garb

and deportment, is becoming only to certain persons, and at cerway towards the being a good tain times. Holiness is a thing not to be affected; it is that Christian, where- genuine characteristic of Christianity which is altogether spirisoever he lives, or tual, and cannot be counterfeited ; sanctity, on the other hand, whatsoever he is called."-South.

is, from its very nature, exposed to falsehood, and the least to be “Goodness con

trusted ; when it displays itself in individuals, either by the sorsists not in the rowfulness of their looks, or the singular cut of their garments, outward things or other singularities of action and gesture, it is of the most we do, but in the inward thing we

questionable nature ; but, in one who performs the sacerdotal To be is the office, it is a useful appendage to the solemnity of the scene, great thing." which excites a reverential regard to the individual in the mind Chapin.

of the beholder, and the most exalted sentiments of that religion a Crabb.

which he thus adorns by his outward profession.a the days of 31–36. (31) See Ex. xxix. 31, 32. (32) See Ex. xxix. (33, consecration 34) See Ex. xxix. 30–35. (35) abide .. days, not to leave the

tabernacle for the sake of worldly occupations. (36) See Ex.

xxxix. 43. "There is a great

Description of holiness.—Christian holiness is no fabrication of think of calling man, and differs as much from ritual and conventional sanctity religion that is as the temple filled with God differed from the same temple just

as it was left by the builder's hand. To be holy is not to be God, and nered by Him in wrapt in entranced and unearthly contemplation, as was Simeon the harvest. The Stylites, and the so-called pillar saints; it is not to retire into fruits of the Spirit solitude, to leave the active duties of life and the trying anxieties

loves jov: of the Church unto others, with a view to gain that grace in peace, long-suffering, gentle- seclusion which Christ has chiefly promised to impart to His Dess, patience, people in fellowship (Eph. ii. 5, 6), as did Basil. It is not to be goodness; I. af-clad with a white garment at Easter, and, in connection with fruits are found others, a surpliced band, to overawe the imagination with the in any form, shadow of piety, as did the catechumens of Chrysostom. It is whether

you not to take monastic vows, to cross the Creator's design, to forshow

sake domestic life, as devout men were advised to do by Jerome. nursing a fretful It is not to interlard our common conversation with religious child, or as a man phrases, and passages of Scripture, and to be continually advertvexing detail of ing to the feelings and actings of the soul, as did Oliver Croma business, or (as well and the more rigid of the Presbyterian Puritans. It is not a physician fol- to bend and bow before patterns of sacred things, as did Archlowing the dark bishop Laud, and as do the modern Tractarians. It is not to of sick

invest the family circles to which we belong with the solemnity chanic fitting the of a funeral, and to cast upon every person and thing the frown joints and valves of a rebuking censorship. No; that which resembles some of of a locomotive; these things may be associated with holiness, but the blessing true besides, you itself is of a totally different nature. It consists in our having bring forth fruit the moral image of God, in our being like our Father in heaven. unto God.” — R. The power of sin is broken, and the Divine likeness is impressed Collyer.

upon us.

The likeness, it is true, is immensely distant from the original, so faint is the copy; yet it is a likeness of Him, and no

the other. The seal has been applied to the wax, and the identical rising sun fell on features have left their stamp. As Howe well observes, “the Memnon's statue, image is made in the wax in hollows; while it exists in the seal sic in the breast in an outbulging fulness.” This well represents the fact, that of stooe. Religion the likeness of God is seen in us, rather in our receiving and con

same taining His character than in our possessing it as a part of ourwith nature."

yo patience as a woman

ness, or as a me-

4 When


selves. We are holy, just as here and there a point or feature of God's gracious fulness is imprinted upon 'our nature, when that


Theo, Parker.

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nature is made soft and yielding by converting grace. How little then has anything formal and external to do with this great and blessed attainment.«

a A. Barrett.

his • be



CHAPTER THE NINTH. 144. (1) on . . day, first day after the week of consecration. the offering the .. Israel, the senate of Israel witness the perfect perform- self and

of Aaron for ance of these initiatory rites. (2) calf,a lit. son of the herd : people beast of the first year. (3) children of Israel, acc. to LXX.,

a He. vii. 24, 27. elders of Israel. kid, which was the sacrifice for the sin of the Ezra vi. 16, 17. ruler. (4) for .. you, i.e. the glory of the Lord, see v. 26. cEx.xxix. 43; Re.

Reconciliation through Christ. -Themistocles having offended xxi. 22. King Philip and not knowing how to regain his favour, took Religion in a young Alexander, his son, in his arms, and so presented himself strengthens before the king ; and, when he saw the young child smile upon authority, him, his wrath was soon appeased towards him. The sinner cause it procures

veneration, and should approach God with his Son Jesus Christ in his arms.

gains a reputaComfort of reconciliation.- A boy who had offended his father tion to it. In all came to him, saying, “ Papa, I cannot learn my lesson unless you the affairs of this are reconciled. I am sorry I have offended you, and hope I shall world. so much never do so again. I hope you will forgive me. This confession reality so much

reputation is in won from the father the kiss of reconciliation. “Now,"exclaimed power.” — the boy, “I will learn Latin and Greek with anybody."

5—7. (5) all.. Lord, i.p. bef. the dwelling-place of the atonement Lord's glory. (6) shall .. you,a Divine recognition of human made for the obedience and acceptance of the offering. (7) go .. altar, etc., people hitherto Moses had offered for Aaron, see viii. 13–17.

Sufficiency of Christ's atonement.-One cannot help a feeling of pity for the great Dr. Johnson, when he stood for an hour with a Ex. xxxiii. 18; uncovered head in the pitiless storm, on a spot which had wit- Hag. ii. 6—9. nessed his undutiful conduct to his father in early years. It is saddening to think of such an intellect looking upon any penance he could do as an atonement for sin, turning away from the only 5. He r. 1; 3, vii. true and perfect atonement. Vain are all such efforts to find 24, 27, ix. 7–9. peace to the troubled soul. Poor Niebuhr, the famous historian, when he lost the loving Amelia, with whom he had walked the

CS. S. Times. paths of life for fifteen years, regarded his anguish at the parting as an atonement for the errors of his life. Yet ever present to his soul was the bitterness of insufficiency.

8–14. (8) which .. himself, the priest must be accepted the offering before he sacrificed for others. (9) put.. horns,a etc., see iv. 7. for the (10) Sec iv. 9, 10. (11) See iv. 11, 12. (12) slew .. offering, i.e. priests first

a He. ix. 22. the ram, see v. 2. (13) pieces, i.e. piece by piece. (14) he..

6 He, xiii. 12; Lu. inwards, etc., see i. 9.

xxiii. 20—26, 33. Holiness and sanctification.—By most writers on the subject of

cl Jo. v. 6, 8; Christian purity, holiness is regarded as synonymous with • sanc- Eph. v. 26; Ps. tification” and “perfect love." To our mind, however, there is cxix. 140. such a distinction between them, as to forbid their use inter

" It has been said

that true religion changeably, when we essay to give clear and definite notions of will make a man the specific Scriptural import of evangelical holiness. Sancti- a more thorough fication and holiness are not duplicates of the same idea, what- gentleman ihan ever plausibility may arise to the contrary from their etymology; in Europe. And or they are so only in the sense that two circles may have a it is true.


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