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B.C. 1490.

that medical

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brought to this gate and obliged to enter in, never to return. No one who enters in by that awful gate is ever allowed to come out again. Within this abode of misery there are multitudes of science had at lepers in all stages of the disease. Dr. Halbeck, a missionary of this time been the Church of England, from the top of a neighbouring hill, saw them at work. He noticed two particularly, sowing peas in the

tem, fr. the nice field. The one had no hands, the other had no feet these mem- of infectious disbers being wasted away by disease. The one who wanted the orders, and the hands was carrying the other, who wanted the feet, upon his symptoms by wh. back, and he again carried in his hands the bag of seed, and terised." dropped a pea every now and then, which the other pressed into the ground with his feet; and so they managed the work of one of the two kinds, man between the two. Two Moravian missionaries, impelled by

“bright an ardent love for souls, have chosen the lazar-house as their field is the most viru

white" of labour. They entered it, never to come out again; and it is lent; the dark is said as soon as these die, other Moravians are quite ready to fill much less severe, their place. “Ah ! my dear friends,” adds the late Rev. Robert M. MacCheyne,“ may we not blush and be ashamed before God that

lep., we, redeemed with the same blood and taught by the same Spirit, böhak. should be so unlike these men in vehement, heart-consuming love to Jesus and the souls of men ? "

14–17 (14) raw flesh, lit. living flesh. (15) unclean, "The characterthe presence of the living flesh, in parts, showing that the disease istics of this disis at work within. (16) raw.. white, the leprosy having come

ease are precisely

descr. by out all over the body. (17) clean, see on v. 13; also Bacon's Moses, being a note, vv. 5—8.

glossy white and The comparative harmlessness of manifest leprosy.—I. The man spreading scalo

upon an elevated who was distinctly a leper would be avoided ; so also the man

encircled who is desperately wicked. II. The man whose leprosy is partial with a red borand concealed might mingle with unsuspecting people and spread der. The natural contagion: so those who cloke their evil hearts with an appearance patches particiof virtue, may be corruptors of others who do not know of the evil. pates in the

Leprosy in the Holy Land.—“Sauntering down the Jaffa road, whiteness, on my approach to the Holy City, in a kind of dreamy maze,

the patches per

petually widen with, as I remember, scarcely one distinct idea in my head, I was their outline."

-startled out of my reverie by the sudden apparition of a crowd of Kitto. beggars, 'sans eyes, sans nose, sans hair, sans everything. They Sir W. Morice, held up towards me their handless arms, unearthly sounds gurgled Lord's Supper, through throats without palates—in a word, I was horrified. The lepers, when not obliged to live outside the city, have a Sir Theodore separate abode assigned to them, and they are shunned as unclean Mayem, on his and dangerous. No healthy person will touch them, eat with this advice to a them, or use any of their clothes or utensils, and with good noble friend who reason. The leper was required by Moses to stand apart, and asked his counsel give warning by crying, Unclean ! unclean !' Thus the ten tion of health :men that met our Saviour stood afar off, and lifted up their voice - Be moderate in of entreaty. They still do the same substantially, and, even in your diet, use their begging, never attempt to touch you. Among tent-dwell- much exercise, ing Arabs the leper is literally put out of the camp.”

"" 18–23. (18) healed, apparently being free fr. eruption. (19), white, etc., symptomatic of leprosy. (20) lower .. skin, In these days reaching below the scarfskin, see v. 2. (21) dark, the dusky come from the var, see note in margin vv. 5—8. (22) spread .. skin, active neglect of the leprosy. plague, i.e. leprosy. (23) it.. boil, lit, the scar of body in the overthe ulcer: or the burn of the ulcer.





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B.C. 1490.

The judicial death and burial of the leper.-4. priest,

robed with surplice and stole, went with the cross to the house of brain. In this railway age, the the doomed leper. The minister of the church began the neceswear and tear oi sary ceremonies, by exhorting him to suffer, with a patient and labour and intel- penitent spirit, the incurable plague with which God had stricken lect go on without pause or sell- him. He then sprinkled the unfortunate leper with holy water, pity. We live and afterwards conducted him to the church, the usual burial longer than our service being sung during their march thither. In the church, forefathers; but the ordinary habiliments of the leper were removed; he was we suffer more from a thousand clothed in a funeral pall, and, while placed before the altar,

anxie- between the trestles, the libera was sung, and the mass for the

cares. dead celebrated over him. After this service he was again only the muscles, sprinkled with holy water, and led from the church to the house we exhaust the or hospital destined for his future abode. A pair of clappers, a finer strength of barrel, a stick, cowl, and dress, etc., were given him. Before

leaving the leper, the priest solemnly interdicted him from Bulwer Lytton. “ Men that look appearing in public without his leper's garb,—from entering no further than inns, churches, mills, and bakehouses,—from touching children, outsides,

or giving them aught he had touched, - from washing his hands, think health an

or anything pertaining to him, in the common fountains or unto life, and streams,—from touching, in the markets, the goods he wished to quarrel with buy, with anything except his stick,-from eating and drinking tions for being with any other than lepers,—and he specially forbade him from sick; but I, that walking in narrow paths, or from answering those who spoke to

examined him in roads or streets, unless in a whisper, that they might not the parts of man, be annoyed with his pestilent breath, and with the infectious and know upon what tender Alla- odour that exhaled from his body,—and last of all, before taking ments that fabric his departure, and leaving the leper for ever to the seclusion of hangs,do wonder the lazar-house, the official of the church terminated the ceremony always 60; and

of his separation from his living fellow-creatures, by throwing considering the upon the body of the poor outcast a shovelful of earth, in imita

doors tion of the closure of the grave. that lead to death, do thank my God

24–28. (24) burning, an inflammatory eruption. (25) that we can die hair .. white, etc., the destr. of colouring matter in the hair but once." — Sir showing that the disease penetrated below the scarfskin and Thomas Brown,

affected the bulb of the hair. (26) no.. hair, and hence the a “And if the

poss. of its being only a surface eruption. then.. days, to test glossy spot con

the true nature of the appearance. (27) spread, see on v. 5. changed and (28) it .. burning,' and nothing more.

Homiletic hints (v. 28). — Appearance of evil. Many things in vance in , una is rather in: speech and conduct may have the appearance of sin. Not to prodistinct, it is the nounce upon their moral character without examination. To mark of the in- consider constitutional defects and infirmities. flammation, and

Leprosy in England. It was introduced into England in the the priest shall pronounce him reign of Henry I., and was supposed to have been brought out of clean, for it is the Egypt, or perhaps the East, by means of the Crusaders. To add (mere) hurt of to the horror it was contagious, which enhanced the charity of a inflammation."-Spk. Comm. provision for such miserables, who were not only naturally "If mankind in shunned, but even chased by royal edict from the society of the present day their fellow-creatures.—Lepers, or lazars, were sick persons rewere strictly to moved out of monasteries to cells or hospitals, always built out practices which of towns and cities. Their usual maintenance was from liberty promote

the allowed them to go upon every market day, to the market, where, health and well with a dish, called a clap dish, they would beg corn. Their sickbeing of

ness and loathsome appearance giving great disgust, many withbodies, and as held their charity, upon which account they were afterwards

that we are not







adhere to those

& nd


B.C. 1490.

would be little or no cause to com



the men modern

."- Hodg


* With browes




restrained from begging at large, but permitted to send the proctor of the hospital, who came with his box one day in every strictly to abstain month to the churches, and other religious houses, at time of from those which service ; and there received the voluntary charity of the congre- tend to injure gations. This custom is said to be the origin of the present


thero practice of collecting briefs. The leprosy was much more common formerly, in this part of the globe, than at present. It plain that is said, that there were in Europe fifteen thousand hospitals race is degenefounded for them. Perhaps near half the hospitals that were in rating, and that England were built for lepers.


scarcely possess 29–34. (29) plague, any suspicious mark. (30) dry the sixth part of scall, baldness fr. hair falling off. *(31, 32) behold, etc., see the strength of

their foresupra. (33) shaven,a to admit of close examination of sur

fathers." rounding parts, etc. (34) clean, it being only a natural bald

kin. ness, or arising from some harmless skin disease. Homiletic hints.-Excitements to evil to be repressed (on v. 29) Scall

, an eruption -the plague in the head. Those who thus suffer are-I. Often Perh. fr.' A. S. crotchety. II. Influenced by erroneous opinions. III. Men of scyl, shell, fr. one idea. IV. Self-willed.

scylan, to divide;

hence akin to E.ctent of leprosy in the past.-Lepers were so numerous in the twelfth century, that by a decree of the Lateran Council, under skalled Pope Alexander III., A.D. 1179, they were empowered to erect black, and piled churches for themselves, and to have their own ministers to berd.” -- Chaucer.

Or scall, a scale, officiate in them. This shows at once how infectious and offen

fr. Du schelle, sive their distemper was. On this account,“ In England, where bark, shell. a man was a leper, and was dwelling in a town, and would come a“ Lest the place into the churches, or among his neighbours when they were should be irriassembled, to talk to them to their annoyance or disturbance, a

flamed, and aswrit lay De Leproso amovendo.". What follows is remarkable. The writ is for those lepers “who appear to the sight of all men quence other they are lepers, by their voice and their sores, the putrefaction of appearances be.

of a their flesh, and by the smell of them.” And so late as the reign

leprous infection, of Edward VI. multitudes of lepers seem to have been in England; in wh. case the for in I. Edwd. 6, c. 3, in which directions are given for carrying priest might not the poor to the places where they were born, etc., we read the be able to form following clause :—“Provided always, that all leprous and poor ment." -Clarke. bed-rid creatures may, at their liberty, remain and continue in such houses appointed for lepers, or bed-rid people, as they now be in." 35–37. (35) spread .. skin, vitality of disease. (36)

" Who would not shall .. hair, the scall spreading being sign sufficient. (37) be covetous, and black .. therein, small proof of uncleanness sufficient : con- with reason, if

health could be vincing evidence of cleanness necessary,

purchased with Leprosy in Guadaloupe.--A very well grounded fear of being gold? Who not infected with this cruel disease, the difficulty of recognising the ambitious if it persons attacked with it, before the disorder has attained its were at the com

mand of power, height; the length of time that it remains secret, from the care

restored by of the patients to conceal it ; the uncertainty of the symptoms at honour? the beginning, which should distinguish it from other disorders, alas ! excited extraordinary claims among all the inhabitants of this stuff will not help

gouty feet to walk island. They were suspicious of each, because virtue and rank were no protection against this cruel scourge. They called this common disease the leprosy, and presented to the commander and governor nor a blue riband

bind up a wound several petitions, in which they represented all the above circum

so well as a fillet; s'ances ;

the general good, the uneasiness caused in this newly-the glitter of gold VOL. II.

sume in conse


But white



than a


0. T.


B.C. 1490.

34. says:


settled country; the inconveniences and the hatred which such or of diamonds inculpations produced among them ; the laws which had been will but hurt sore made against lepers, and their exclusion from civil society. They eyes, instead of demanded a general inspection of all those who were suspected of curing

them; having this disease, in order that those who were found to be and an aching head will be no

infected might be removed into a particular hospital, or some more eased by separate place.“ wearing a crown instead of a com- 38–41. (38) even spots, the slightest appearance of mon nightcap."- disease was to arouse suspicion. (39) freckled spot, Heb., Sir W. Temple. a Dr. Peysonnel.

bohak ; b still denotes superficial skin disease among the Arabs.

(40) hair .. head, fr. old age. bald, naturally. (41) part a “ If v. 12 refs. to Lepra vul- face, partial baldness. garis, as seems The freckled spot.— The Hebrew word here translated“ freckled most proh., the spot," is böhak, and the Arabs still use the same word to denote a Heb. böhak may kind of leprosy, of which Niebuhr says, “Bēþak is neither con

some kind of Eczema, a skin tagious nor dangerous. A black boy at Mocha, who was affected disease of a with this eruption, had here and there on his body white spots. somewhat simi- We were told that the use of sulphur had relieved this boy for a lar external character." — Spk. time, but had not entirely removed the disease.” He adds, Comm. See also subsequently, from Forskal's papers, the following particulars : Wilson, 165; Pa!- “ On the 15th of May, 1765, I myself first saw the eruption called grave, Arabia, ii. 'The latter būhak in a Jew at Mocha. The spots of this eruption are of

"The unequal size ; they do not shine, are imperceptibly higher than · Baras,' though the skin, and do not change the colour of the hair. Their colour never fatal, may is a dirty white, or rather reddish. The rest of the skin of the ulceration. How- patient I saw was darker than the inhabitants of the country ever, neither of usually were, but the spots were not so white as the skin of a diseases

European when it is not tanned by the sun. The spots of this corresponds exactlywith what eruption do not appear on the hands or near the navel, but on the we read of in neck and face, yet not that part of the face where the hair grows Numbers, so that thick. They spread gradually. Sometimes they remain only two the leprosy of the

remains months, sometimes one or two years, and go away by degrees of distinct fr. that themselves. This disorder is neither contagious nor hereditary,

and does not cause any bodily inconvenience.” Hence it appears c Rosenmuller, why a person affected with the būhak is declared in the above law

not to be unclean.c
42–46. (42) upon

forehead, hence the presence of 23; Mi, iii. 7.

white hair not the only test. (43) sore, stroke. (44) leprous, 6 2 K. vii. 3; Lam. having, at least, a tendency that way. (45) leper, any one iv. 15; Is.'lii. 11. of the foregoing varieties. put .. lip, a bandage on lower

part of face, leaving mouth free. unclean,' to prevent ¢ Nu. v. 2, sii. 14; others fr. coming in contact with him. (46) alone, apart, 2 K. xv. 5; 2 Ch. xxvi. 26; Lu. xvii. separated fr. the people, without .. be,c to save it from

contamination. d C. Clayton, M.A.

The cleansing of the leper.— The particulars here recorded

explain, in reference to sin-I. Its nature. It is-1. Abominable “At the present before God; 2. Incurable by man. II. Its consequences. It day there

are unfits for communion with–1. God's saints on earth; 2. Saints pesthouses in the E., set apart for and angels in heaven.

Learn :-(1) Self-distrust; (2) Selflepers, outside humiliation; (3) Self-purification.d

Covering the lip.--The prophet Ezekiel, in reference to the is one at Jerusa- death of his wife, was ordered not to “cry,” neither to cover the

lips (the margin has “upper lip'). The prophet Micah (iii. 7) Robinson, B. R. describes the confusion and sorrow of those who had by their i. 359.

wickedness offended the Lord. “Then shall the seers be ashamed,


of the Arabs."

a Ez. xxiv. 17,

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B.C. 1490.




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and the diviners confounded : yea, they shall all cover their lips, for there is no answer of God." Margin again has “ upper lip.

“People who are All these passages refer to the sorrow of those concerned. "A always taking person in deep distress puts his hand over his mouth, and hangs care down his head, as if looking on the ground. When a man

health are like

misers, who are suddenly claps his hand on his mouth, it denotes great sorrow or hoarding a treasurprise. To put the fingers in a line with the nose, conveys the sure which they idea of silence and submission. • Why is your hand on your

have never spirit mouth?” “ Not for joy. “ But why?” My son, my son, my -Sterne.

enough to enjoy." wicked son ! He has gone with the evil ones to the distant - Health ! thou country." “Ah, friend, why is your hand there ?” “ Alas, the chiefest good, tigers got among my cattle last night, and great is the slaughter." Bestowed by hea

ven, but seldom - “ The king is angry with Raman-his hand is now on his understood." mouth.”_"I may well put my hand on my mouth; have been Lucan. , taken by the neck, and driven from the presence of my lord. My e Roberts. requests have all been denied” (Job xxi. 5).

47–52. (47) garment,a clothing generally. (48) whether, of garments etc., minuteness of detail sugg. a disposition to evade the spirit of law, and quibble ab. the scope of a commandment. (49) a Jude 23; Re. greenish, etc., perh. some kind of mildew or fungus is indi- iii. 4; De. viii. 11. cated. (50) and, etc., the same course pursued with clothes as with persons. (51) fretting, rotting, corroding. (52) it .. fire, “When a man is only hastening the destr. of what had been a slow mouldering labouring under away.

the pain of any Homiletic hints.—Leprous garments of modern times. I. When distemper, it is worn so as to excite to sin: indecencies of dress. II. When worn recollects there of a cut and quality above one's station in life : false appear is a God, and that

III. When belonging to the opposite sex, and worn for he himself is but evil purposes.

The leprosy of clothes. The leprosy of clothes is described as object consisting of green or reddish spots that remain in spite of wash - envy, his admiing, and still spread ; and by which the cloth becomes bald, or

ration, or his con

tempt; and, havbare, sometimes on the one side, sometimes on the other. This ing no malice to Moses terms dropping or losing the hair; that is, if we are to gratify, the tales give the literal truth of the Hebrew text, in a passage which of slander excite might have its difficulties to a man of learning, if he knew tion." Pliny. nothing of the manufacture of woollen. These symptoms, too, of leprosy are said to be found sometimes only in the warp,

and at other times only in the woof. To a person who has nothing to

moral effect upon do with the manufactures of woollen, linen, or leather, but with the conduct of books only, this must doubtless be obscure; or, at most, he will mankind.

Let be led to think of specks of rottenness, but still without being any

gentleman rightly satisfied. I have not been able to obtain complete infor- dirty boots, old mation on this subject; but in regard to wool and woollen surtout, stuffs, I have consulted the greatest manufacturer in the electo-neckcloth, and a rate of Hanover, and he informs me that what he has read in my gence of dress,


negliGerman Bible, at this passage, will be found to hold good, at any he will, in all rate, with regard to woollen articles ; and that it proceeds from probability, find what is called dead wool, that is, the wool of sheep that have a corresponding died by disease, not by the knife; that such wool, if the disease negligence of ad

disposition has been but of short duration, is not altogether useless, but in a dress." --Sir Jonah sheep that has been long diseased, becomes extremely bad, and Barrington, loses the points ; and that, according to the established usage of

; honest manufacturers, it is unfair to manufacture dead wool into R. Fall, v. 228 ; any article worn by man, because vermin are so apt to establish Dr. R. Gordok,

ii, 9 themselves in it, particularly when it is worn close to the body,

a man. No mortal is then the

of his






find himself with



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