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x. 20.



1–7. (1, 2) speak.. Israel, this law touching the slaying animals for

of animals for food, concerned the people equally with the priests. food

(3) killeth,a for food. (4) blood . . blood, guilty of having a Is. Ixvi. 3; Ja. shed blood unlawfully. (5) to .. end, etc., i.e. this the purpose iv. 17; De. xii

. of the injunction. offer .. Lord, if of everything slain some13, 14; He. iii. what had to be offered to the Lord, the practice of idolatry would 12; Ro. v. 13.

be prevented. (6) sprinkle, cast forth. (7) devils, Heb. 6 Le. ii. 17; Ex.

lasseirim = goats.d xxix. 18; Le. iv. 31; Nu. xviii. 17. The law concerning sacrifices.-Consider-I. How this matter

had stood before. It was allowed to all people to build altars and De. xxxii. 17; 2 Ch. xi. 15; Ps. offer sacrifices where they pleased. Hence this state had become cvi. 37, 39 ; 1 Co. an occasion for idolatry. II. How this law settled it. It forbade

the killing of beasts for sacrifice anywhere but at God's altar. d "The worship III. How this law was observed. While they kept their integrity of the goat, ac- they tenderly observed it. Its breach, however, was for many companied by the foulest rites, pre-generations, later on, a grievous evil. IV. How this matter vailed at Mendes stands now, and what use we are to make of the law. It is cerin Lower Egypt. tain the spiritual sacrifices we are now to offer are not confined The word, wh. strictly

to any one place. Christ is our altar and spiritual tabernacle. hairy ones, is in Devils.The Hebrew word Seirim, here translated devils (field Is. xiii. 21 and devils), properly signifies woolly, hairy, in general ; whence it is xxxiv. rendered used as well for he-goats, as also for certain fabulous beings or satyrs. TheLXX. has here matalois, sylvan gods, to whom, as to the satyrs, the popular belief ascribed vain things; and the form of goats. But, in the above passage, he-goats are prothe Vulgate dæ- bably meant, which were objects of divine honour among the monibus, demons.

Egyptians, under the name of Mendes, as emblems of the fructie M. Henry'.

fying power of nature, or of the fructifying power of the sun. "Superstition From this divinity, which the Greeks compared with their Pan, always inspires bitterness;

a province in Egypt had its name. Goats and he-goats, says ligion, grandeur Herodotus, are not slaughtered by the Egyptians whom we have of mind; the su- mentioned, because they consider Pan as one of the oldest gods. perstitious raises But painters as well as statuaries represent this deity with the beings to himself to face and the legs of a goat, as the Greeks used to represent Pan. deities."-Lavater. The Mandeseans pay divine honour to he-goats and she-goats; f Rosenmuller.

but more to the former than to the latter. f blood not to

8–12. (8) strangers, foreigners. (9) bringeth, etc.,

idolatrous usages were not in any wise to be connived at. (10) a Ge. ix. 4; De. eateth .. blood,a see on Le. iii. 17; vii. 26. set .. against, xii. 16, 23 ; 1 Sa. i.e. will be angry with. (11) life . . blood, the blood a type of xiv. 33.

the immortal principle, and was devoted to significant sacred b See note by Dr. uses. for . . soul, and this higher use shall save it fr. common Payne Smith on uses. (12) stranger, etc., he who for his convenience or advan

tage joins himself to Israel must respect the laws of Israel. c1 Jo. i. 7; Re.i. 5; Jo. vi. 53; He.

The prohibition to eat blood.To elucidate this ordinance, I ix. 21; Jo.' xix. shall-I. Confirm the fact here stated. God had from the be34; Ma. xxvi. 28; ginning appointed the blood of animals to be offered by man as Mk. xiv. 24; Ro.

an atonement for his soul. This appears throughout all the iii, 25.1. 91 Ep. Mosaic history and the New Testament. II. Consider the pro. 7; Col. i. 17, 20. d C. Simeon, M.A.

hibition as founded on it. It was most salutary as tending**Some men ind 1. To excite reverence for sacrifices ; 2. To bring continually to


be eaten

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B.C. 1490.

xiii. 8.


There are two

remembrance the way of salvation ; 3. To direct attention to the great sacrifice.d

happiness in Eating the blood a characteristic of savage life.- The Green- gluttony and in landers, though they do not usually eat their meat raw, have drunkenness, but a superstitious custom, on every capture, of cutting out a piece no delicate viands of the raw flesh and drinking the warm blood. A European taste with a thrill writer states that he often followed their example in the chase of pleasure, and and assuaged his hunger by eating a piece of raw reindeer's what generosity flesh ; nor did he find it very hard of digestion, but it satisfied there is in wine his appetite much less than cooked meat. The Abyssinians also to impart its glow eat meat raw. Travellers who have witnessed their brunde to their shrivelled feasts, can attest the intoxicating effects of this kind of food, hearts."-Whipple. and they must have been astonished at the immense quantities

Curiosities of that can be eaten in the raw state, compared to that when the Food, P.: L. Sim

monds, 43. meat is cooked, and at the insensibility which it sometimes produces.e

13–16. (13) hunteth, etc.,a the rule applied as well to wild blood not to as to domesticated animals. (14) cut.. off, sce on Ex. xxxi. 14. be poured (15) eateth, etc., see on xi. 39. (16) he.. iniquity, i.e. “it out as a shall not be borne by the sacrifice of atonement.”

a Ac. xv. 30; Jo. Hints for hunters.-I. That their purpose in hunting should not be mere sport. Any beast, etc., that may be eaten. God's

b Wordsworth. creatures not to be sacrificed to love of adventure; selfish disregard of life, etc. That the life of wild, no less than of domes

distinct grounds ticated, animals is sacred. Hence the blood to be regarded.

III. given for the proThe God of all life to be revered. The blood to be covered. hibition of blood Heathens poured out the blood as a libation to the god of the as food; first, its chase.

the vital fluid; The costliness of hunting.–Our great English game, hunting secondly, its conand shooting, is costly altogether; and how much we are fined secration in sacri

ficial worship." for it annually in land, horses, gamekeepers, and game laws, and

Spk. Comm. all else that accompanies that beautiful and special English game, I will not endeavour to count now; but note only that, changes a man to

"Superstition except for exercise, this is not merely a useless game, but a deadly a beast, fanatione, to all connected with it. For, through horse-racing, you get cism makes him every form of what the higher classes everywhere call “ Play” in

a wild beast, and

despotism distinction from all other plays; that is, gambling—by no means beast of burden.” a beneficial or recreative game; and, through game-preserving –La Harpe. you get also some curious laying out of ground; that beautiful arrangement of dwelling-house for man and beast, by which we ruption of the have grouse and blackcock—so many brace to the acre,

best thing proand men

duces the worst, and women-so many brace to the garret. I often wonder what is grown into a the angelic builders and surveyors—the angelic builders who maxim, and is build the "many mansions” up above there, and the angelic sur commomony veyors who measured that four-square city with their measuring other instances, reeds—I wonder what they think, or are supposed to think, of by the pernicious the laying out of ground by this nation, which has set itself, as effects of superit seems, literally to accomplish, word for word, or rather fact for

thusiasm, the corword, in the persons of those poor whom its Master left to repre- ruptions of true sent Him, what that Master said of Himself,—the foxes and birds religion."--Hume. had homes, but He none.c— Additional Note:—It was usual with c Ruskin. heathen sportsmen, when they killed game, to pour out the blood Dr. Gordon, as a libation to the god of the chase. The Israelites, by this law, Christ as Made were effectually debarred from such heathen superstitions.

Known, ii. 32.

own natureas the



" That the cor

stition and




CHAPTER THE EIGHTEENTH. B.C. 1490. principles

145. (2) I.. God, a reminder of their covenant relation : as independent well as of the source of their laws. (3) Egypt.. Canaan, of circum

neither the land they had left, nor the land they were going to, stances

should influence their religious life. (4) ordinances, cerea Ro. i. 23-29. monial observances. (5) statutes, ordinances. he.. them,

shall not be cut off : shall live in the enjoyment of all the \ Ez. xx. 11, 23; Divine favour secured by obedience. Lu. X. 28; Ro. x. 5 ; Ga. iii. 12; Ne. God the Supreme Ruler.-Men are not-1. To be ruled by the ix. 29.

habits and customs of the past. II. Are not to take those who

have succeeded as examples. III. Are to be warned by Divine “ The God Almighty judgments on the wicked. IV. Are not thoughtlessly to adopt gives the know- the fashions of the present time and place. Not to “do at Rome ledge of Himself

as Rome does,” etc. to any one, it makes him cease

The holiness of God.—The sun may as well discard its own to be vicious; for rays, and banish them from itself, into some region of darkness he who, by faith, far more remote from it, where they shall have no dependence at has obtained the knowledge of

all upon it, as God can forsake and abandon holiness in the world, God, must imme- and leave it a poor orphan thing, that shall have no influence at diately discover all from Him to preserve and keep it. Holiness is something of His glorious God, wherever it is : it is an efflux from Him, that always hangs fections ; and he upon Him, and lives in Him; as the sunbeams, although they who dis-gild this lower world and spread their golden wings over us, yet covered

these, they are not so much here, where they shine, as in the sun, from will find himself obliged to love

whence they flow. God cannot draw a curtain betwixt Himself God; and he who and holiness, which is nothing but the splendour and shining of loves God must Himself; He cannot hide His face from it; He cannot desert it needs obey Him." in the world. He that is once born of God shall “ overcome the

world,” and the prince of this world too, by the power of God in v. 4. Dr. J. Tun- him. Holiness is no solitary, neglected thing ; it has stronger stall

, Academicia, confederacies, greater alliances, than sin and wickedness. It is 143.

in league with God and the universe ; the whole creation smiles c Cudworth, upon it; there is something of God in it; and, therefore, it must

needs be a victorious and triumphant thing. unlawful 6–10. (6) near .. him,a lit. flesh of his body, i.e. blood remarriages

lations of certain degrees of consanguinity. uncover, etc., i.e. a 1 Co. v. 1, vi. 9, 10, 13; Ga. v. 19 to have intercourse with. (7) father, etc., were not these -21; Mark vii. dreadful sins possible there would be no need of such a law. (8) 21, 22; Ep. v. 3 of .. wife, as the sin of Reuben.c. (9) sister,a the distinguish-7. 6 Ge. xix. 31.

ing offence of the Egyptians. born .. abroad, prob. ref. to c Ge. xxxv. 22. half-sister. (10) of .. daughter, niece. I d 2 S. xiii. 12; Violation of law of consanguinitý.-I. Must result in deterioraEz. xxii, 11. e Spk. Comm.

tion of the race. II. In unwholesome restraints upon the interf This seems once course of the members of families. III. Marriages just within to have been al- the prescribed limits sometimes promoted to prevent the surrender lowed, as in the

of family property. cage of Abraham (Ge. xi. 29, cf. xx.

Unholy marriages.The thoughtlessness of youth and headlong 12).

impetus of passion frequently throw people into rash engage"I express my ments, and in these cases the formal morality of the world, more conviction that Scripture

careful of externals than of truth, declares it to be nobler for word such rash engagements to be kept, even when the rashness is felt





B.O. 1490.

worst of all


mer times: case of Amram and


it, nor ever did

by the engaged, than that a man's honour should be stained by a withdrawal. The letter thus takes precedence of the spirit. To

against marriage satisfy this prejudice, a life is sacrificed. A miserable marriage with a deceased rescues the honour; and no one throws the burden of that misery wife's sister. upon the prejudice. I am not forgetting the necessity of being Surely it is not a stringent against the common thoughtlessness of youth in form- crime, and if it be ing such relations; but I say that this thoughtlessness once constitutes it so. having occurred, reprobate it as you will, the pain which a must be, for the separation may bring had better be endured than evaded by an

crimes, an unholy marriage, which cannot come to good.

and unjust law." 11–15. (11) thy . . sister, incest forbidden of every degree. -Gilfillan.

g (12) thy . . sister, aunt.a (13) kinswoman, lit. remainder. (14) aunt, brought into that relation by marriage. (15) thy .. a Allowed in forlaw, Heb. callah, a bride.

The law of Moses relating to marriage. In his statutes relative Jochebed, Ex. vi. to marriage, and sometimes, also, in other parts of his law, Moses 20. expresses near relationship, either by the single word (sheer) 6 Ge. xxxviii. 18, pars, scil, carnis, or more fully by the two words, sheer-basar, 26; Ez. xxii. 11. pars, carnis (part or remainder of flesh). The meaning of these From all that I terms has been the subject of much controversy. Some would have been able translate them flesh of flesh ; others, remnant of flesh. But those question, "Whethat say most of their etymology, are in general not so much ther a man may oriental philologists, as divines and lawyers; and yet we should marry a deceased rather like to have an illustration of any obscure etymological opinion is,' that question, from those who unite with the knowledge of Hebrew, neithor 'doos an acquaintance with its kindred Eastern languages. There are Holy Scripture some also, who would make this distinction between sheer and anywhere forbid sheer-basar, that the former means only persons immediately con- the Jews."Dr. nected with us, such as children, parents, grandchildren, grand- Lee. parents, and husbands or wives; and the latter, those who are “I admit that related to us only mediately, but in the nearest degree, such as marriage with a our brothers and sisters, who are, properly speaking, our father's forbidden in Leflesh. Others, again, think that sheer-basar means nothing but viticus." Bp. of children and grandchildren. These conjectures, however, are by Lincoln. no means consonant to the real usage of the language in the The prohiMosaic laws themselves; for in Le. xxv. 48, 49, sheer-basar fol-bition in v. 18 is

only against marlows as the name of a more remote relation, after brother, paternal rying a uncle, or paternal uncle's son ; and in Nu. xxvii. 8–11, it is com- sister during the manded that “if a man die without sons his inheritance shall be life of the first given to his daughters ; if he have no daughters it shall pass itself implies a to his brothers, of whom if he has none then to his paternal liberty to marry uncles; and if these are also wanting, it shall then be given unto the sister, after his nearest sheer in his family.” It is manifest that, in this pas-Chalmers. sage, sheer includes those relations that follow in succession to

" When Themisa father's brother. If the reader wishes to know what these tocles words etymologically signify, I shall here just state to him my marry his daughopinion, but without repeating the grounds on which it rests. ter, there were Sheer means—1. A remnant; 2. The remnant of a meal ; 3. A

two suitors, the piece of anything eatable, such as flesh ; 4. A piece of anything fool, and the in general. Hence we find it subsequently transferred to reta- otherwise but tionship in the Arabic language; in which, though with a slight not rich; orthographical variation, that nearest relation is called Tair or which of the two Thsäir, whom the Hebrews denominate Goël. In this way, sheer, he had rather his even by itself, would signify a relation. Basar, commonly ren- daughter should dered flesh, is among the Hebrews equivalent to body; and may ed, I had rather thence have been applied to signify relationship. Thus, thou art she should marry

VOL, II, 0. T.


wife, which of

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one rich and a


B.O. 1490.


a man without money.

a De.
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at that time."

my flesh, or body (Ge. xxix. 14), means, thou art my near kins

When both words are put together, sheer-basar, they may than be rendered literally, corporeal relation, or by a half Hebrew money without a phrase, kinsman after the flesh. In their derivation there are man. The best of marriages is in

no further mysteries concealed, nor anything that can bring the the man or the point in question to a decision ; and what marriages Moses has woman, not in permitted or commanded, we cannot ascertain from sheer-basar, th- means or the frequent and extensive as is its use in his marriage-laws : but money."- Venning.

must determine, from his own ordinances, in which he distinctly c Michaelis.

mentions what sheer-basar, that is, what relations, are forbidden

to marry.. deceased 16-21. (16) thy .. wife, i.e. if she had children.a (17) wife's sister

uncover . . daughter, i.e. prob. the daughter by former xxv. 5. marriage. (18) neither, etc., “This sentence forbids a married

man to bring into his household another wife to vex her who is case of H. Anti- already his wife.”c (19) uncleanness, see on xx. 18. (20) pas avd Hero- thy .. wife, see Ex. xx. 18. (21) let . . fire, sacrifice thy dins : Baptist appealed

fed children as á burnt-offering. Molech,a first mention of this to it in proof of idol. A name sig. king, prob. the heathen Saturnus. their sin. There Molech.— Molech, the national deity of the Ammonites, is often is no prof tat mentioned in the Old Testament, and the Israelites are very Philip was dead

specially and solemnly warned against his worship. The name Jos. Ant. xviii. signifies "king" or " ruler ;” and Milcom or Malcham is just 5, 1.

the same radical word with the pronoun affixed, " their king." 6. It may pos- Molech was “the fire-god.” He represented the sun, like Baal, sibly have been but in a different aspect. Baal represented the life-power and spire a horr r of protecting power, Molech the destructive or consuming power. conjoint cohabi- He was, in fact, the great destroyer, the author of all calamities

with -of war, famine, and pestilence. He was supposed to delight the in cruelty, suffering, and misery. Hence the cruel and inhuman

character of his worship, and the brutal acts perpetrated upon c Wordsworth,

his altars in the name of religion. Purifications and ordeals by Decibed as fire were the ordinary rites. Children were made to pass through idol of brass, 'ace

the fire to Molech ;” that is, they were burned to death (Le. xviii. stretched out, in 21, xx. 2). Solomon introduced his worship, and, at the instigawh. thchil, was tion of his Ammonite wives, built a temple to Molech on one of with fire, while the summits of Olivet (1 K. xi. 7). At a later period an image the priests were of the deity was set up in the Valley of Hinnom. It is mentioned beating rums. by Jeremiah, and a terrible prophetic curse is pronounced against to have no dount the place on account of the cruelties perpetrated (Je. vii. 31). that Lev. xviii. 18, Mesha, king of Moab, when his army was routed and hemmed in marriage with a by the Israelites, offered up his son as a burnt-offering to Molech deceased wite's

on the walls of his capital (2 K. iii). Jewish tradition describes sister is per. mitted." –"Dr. the image of Molech as of brass, with the head of a calf and body

of a man. The arms were stretched out, as if in the act of reThe meaning of ceiving something. The idol was hollow, and when a special that no man sacrifice was to be offered, the priests kindled a fire within, and sh: uld marry his made it red-hot. Then the infant was taken and placed in the wile's

sistr arms of the monster to be roasted alive! Drums were beaten, while that wite and frantic shouts raised by the surrounding devotees, to drown is living." Bp.

the cries of the poor child. Such a religion as this was not merely e Dr. Porier. calculated to demoralise men, but actually to convert them into

demons. unlawful

22–25. (22) thou, etc.,a the characteristic sin of Sodom. lusts a De. xxiii. 17;|(23) neither, etc., an almost incredible sin. (24) nations ..

mother and dau.

same time." -Bush.




M Caul.


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