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contracting the populosity of those times, we shall not pass over this point without some enquiry into it.9

Now for the true enquiry thereof, the means are as obscure as the matter, which being naturally to be explored by history, human or divine, receiveth thereby no small addition of obscurity. For as for human relations, they are so fabulous in Deucalion's flood, that they are of little credit about Ogyges' and Noah's. For the heathens, as Varro accounteth, make three distinctions of time. The first from the beginning of the world unto the general deluge of Ogyges, they term Adelon,1 that is, a time not much unlike that which was before time, immanifest and unknown; because thereof there is almost nothing or very obscurely delivered; for though divers authors have made some mention of the deluge, as Manethon the Egyptian priest, Xenophon, De Equivocis, Fabius Pictor, De Aureo seculo, Mar. Cato, De Originibus, and Archilochus the Greek, who introduceth also the testimony of Moses, in his fragment De Temporibus; yet have they delivered no account of what preceded or went before. Josephus, I confess, in his discourse against Appion, induceth the antiquity of the Jews unto the flood, and before, from the testimony of human writers, insisting especially upon Maseus of Damascus, Jeronymus Ægyptius, and Berosus; and confirming the long duration of their lives, not only from these, but the authority of Hesiod, Erathius, Hellanicus, and Age

9 whereof, &c.] Instead of this passage, the first five editions have the following:-"So that some conceiving it needless to be universal, have made the deluge particular, and about those parts where Noah built his ark; which opinion, because it is not only injurious to the text, human history, and common reason, but also derogatory to the great work of God, the universal inundation, it will be needful to make some further inquisition; and although predetermined by opinion, whether many might not suffer in the first flood, as they shall in the last flame, that is who knew not Adam nor his offence, and many perish in the deluge, who never heard of Noah or the ark of his preservation."

1 Adelon.] To the heathen who either knew nothing of the creation, or at least beleeved itt not, the first distinction of time must needs bee aonλov, that is utterly unknowne, for the space of 1656 from the creation to the flood, and the second, the mythicon, little better, as the very name they give itt (yt is fabulous), importes, whereas in the church of God, the third (which they call historicall, and began not till after the 3000th yeare of the world's creation with them) was continued in a perfect narration and unquestionable historye from the beginning of time through those 3000 yeares.-Wr.

silaus. Berosus, the Chaldean priest, writes most plainly, mentioning the city of Enos, the name of Noah and his sons, the building of the ark, and also the place of its landing. And Diodorus Siculus hath in his third book a passage, which examined, advanceth as high as Adam; for the Chaldeans, saith he, derive the original of their astronomy and letters forty-three thousand years before the monarchy of Alexander the Great; now the years whereby they computed the antiquity of their letters, being, as Xenophon interprets, to be accounted lunary, the compute will arise unto the time of Adam. For forty-three thousand lunary years make about three thousand six hundred thirty-four years, which answereth the chronology of time from the beginning of the world unto the reign of Alexander, as Annius of Viterbo computeth, in his comment upon Berosus.

The second space or interval of time is accounted from the flood unto the first Olympiad, that is, the year of the world 3174, which extendeth unto the days of Isaiah the prophet, and some twenty years before the foundation of Rome. This they term mythicon or fabulous, because the account thereof, especially of the first part, is fabulously or imperfectly delivered. Hereof some things have been briefly related by the authors above mentioned, more particularly by Dares Phrygius, Dictys Cretensis, Herodotus, Diodorus Siculus, and Trogus Pompeius. The most famous Greek poets lived also in this interval, as Orpheus, Linus, Museus, Homer, Hesiod; and herein are comprehended the grounds and first invention of poetical fables, which were also taken up by historical writers, perturbing the Chaldean and Egyptian records with fabulous additions, and confounding their names and stories with their own inventions.

The third time succeeding until their present ages, they term historicon, that is, such wherein matters have been more truly historified, and may therefore be believed. Of these times also have written Herodotus,2 Thucydides, Xeno

2 Herodotus.] Yet the first parte of his historye begins not till the times of Apries, that is, Hophreas, whose reign began not till the seige of Jerusalem by Nabuchodonosor, 475 yeares after Saul, the first king of Israel, and at least 1224 yeares after the flood, of all which time (which to them was most obscure and fabulous) the sacred storye is soe plaine that thence Eusebius tooke his argument to convince the heathen

phon, Diodorus, and both of these and the other preceding such as have delivered universal histories or chronologies; as (to omit Philo, whose narrations concern the Hebrews) Eusebius, Julius Africanus, Orosius, Ado of Vienna, Marianus Scotus, Historia tripartita, Urspergensis, Carion, Pineda, Salian, and with us Sir Walter Raleigh.

Now from the first hereof, that most concerneth us, we have little or no assistance, the fragments and broken records hereof inforcing not at all our purpose. And although some things not usually observed may be from thence collected, yet do they not advantage our discourse, nor any way make evident the point in hand. For the second, though it directly concerns us not, yet in regard of our last medium and some illustrations therein, we shall be constrained to make some use thereof. As for the last, it concerns us not at all; for treating of times far below us, it can no way advantage us. And though divers in this last age have also written of the first, as all that have delivered the general accounts of time, yet are their tractates little auxiliary unto ours, nor afford us any light to detenebrate and clear this truth.

As for Holy Scripture and divine relation, there may also seem therein but slender information, there being only left a brief narration hereof by Moses, and such as affords no positive determination. For the text delivereth but two genealogies, that is, of Cain and Seth; in the line of Seth there are only ten descents, in that of Cain but seven, and those in a right line with mention of father and son, excepting that of Lamech, where is also mention of wives, sons, and a daughter. Notwithstanding, if we seriously consider what is delivered therein, and what is also deducible, it will be probably declared what is by us intended, that is, the populous and ample habitation of the earth before the flood. Which we shall labour to induce not from postulates and entreated maxims, but undeniable principles declared in Holy Scripture, that is, the length of men's lives before the flood, and the large extent of time from creation thereunto.

We shall only first crave notice, that although in the relation of Moses there be very few persons mentioned, yet are there many more to be presumed; nor when the Scripture of their novel idolatryes, the most whereof sprang upp in the end of these fabulous times.-Wr.

in the line of Seth nominates but ten persons, are they to be conceived all that were of this generation. The Scripture singly delivering the holy line, wherein the world was to be preserved, first in Noah, and afterward in our Saviour. For in this line it is manifest there were many more born than are named, for it is said of them all, that they begat sons and daughters. And whereas it is very late before it is said they begat those persons which are named in the Scripture, the soonest at 65, it must not be understood that they had none before, but not any in whom it pleased God the holy line should be continued. And although the expression that they begat sons and daughters, be not determined to be before or after the mention of those, yet must it be before in some; for before it is said that Adam begat Seth at the 130th year, it is plainly affirmed that Cain knew his wife, and had a son, which must be one of the daughters of Adam, one of those whereof it is after said, he begat sons and daughters. And so, for ought can be disproved, there might be more persons upon earth than are commonly supposed when Cain slew Abel, nor the fact so heinously to be aggravated in the circumstance of the fourth person living. And whereas it is said, upon the nativity of Seth, God hath appointed me another seed instead of Abel, it doth not imply he had no other all this while; but not any of that expectation, or appointed (as his name implies) to make a progression in the holy line, in whom the world was to be saved, and from whom he should be born, that was mystically slain in Abel.

Now our first ground to induce the numerosity of people before the flood, is the long duration of their lives, beyond seven, eight, and nine hundred years. Which how it conduceth unto populosity, we shall make but little doubt, if we consider there are two main causes of numerosity in any kind or species, that is, a frequent and multiparous way of breeding, whereby they fill the world with others, though they exist not long themselves; or a long duration and subsistence, whereby they do not only replenish the world with a new annumeration of others, but also maintain the former account in themselves. From the first cause we may observe examples in creatures oviparous, as birds and fishes; in vermiparous, as flies, locusts, and gnats; in animals also vivi

parous, as swine and conies. Of the first there is a great example in the herd of swine in Galilee, although an unclean beast and forbidden unto the Jews. Of the other a remarkable one in Athenæus, in the Isle Astipalea, one of the Cyclades, now called Stampalia, wherein from two that were imported, the number so increased, that the inhabitants were constrained to have recourse unto the oracle of Delphos, for an invention how to destroy them.

Others there are which make good the paucity of their breed with the length and duration of their days, whereof there want not examples in animals uniparous. First, in bisulcous or cloven-hoofed, as camels and beeves, whereof there is above a million annually slain in England. It is also said of Job, that he had a thousand yoke of oxen, and six thousand camels; and of the children of Israel passing into the land of Canaan, that they took from the Midianites threescore and ten thousand beeves; and of the army of Semiramis, that there were therein one hundred thousand camels. For solipeds or firm-hoofed animals, as horses, asses, mules, &c., they are also in mighty numbers; so it is delivered that Job had a thousand she asses; that the Midianites lost sixty-one thousand asses. For horses, it is affirmed by Diodorus, that Ninus brought against the Bactrians two hundred eighty thousand horses; after him Semiramis five hundred thousand horses, and chariots one hundred thousand. Even in creatures sterile, and such as do not generate, the length of life conduceth much unto the multiplicity of the species; for the number of mules which live far longer than their dams or sires, in countries where they are bred, is very remarkable, and far more common than horses.

For animals multifidous, or such as are digitated or have several divisions in their feet, there are but two that are uniparous, that is, men and elephants, who, though their productions be but single, are notwithstanding very numerous. The elephant, as Aristotle affirmeth, carrieth the young two years, and conceiveth not again, as Edvardus Lopez affirmeth, in many years after, yet doth their age requite this disadvantage, they living commonly one hundred, sometime two hundred years. Now although they be rare with us in Europe, and altogether unknown unto America, yet in the

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