The intellect, with an appendix on language

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Harper & brothers, 1869
 

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CONTENTS DIVISION FIRST THE INTELLECT OR UNDERSTANDING INTELLECTIVE OR INTELLECTUAL STATES OF THE MIND PART ...
63
ORIGIN OF KNOWLEDGE IN GENERAL Section Page 36 Connexion of the mind with the material world
65
Of the origin or beginnings of knowledge
66
Our first knowledge in general of a material or external origin
68
Further proof of the beginnings of knowledge from external causes
70
The same subject further illustrated
72
Subject illustrated from the case of James Mitchell
73
Illustration from the case of Caspar Hauser
74
Of connatural or innate knowledge
77
The doctrine of innate knowledge not susceptible of proof
78
The further discussion of this subject unnecessary
80
Further remarks on the rise of knowledge by means of the senses
81
THE POWER OF SENSATION 48 Sensation a simple mental state originating in the senses
83
All sensation is properly and truly in the mind
84
Sensations are not images or resemblances of objects
87
The connexion between the mental and physical change not susceptible of explanation
88
PERCEPTION OR THE PERCEPTIVE POWER 52 Of the meaning and nature of perception
89
Of the primary and secondary qualities of matter
90
Of the secondary qualities of matter 55 Of the nature of mental powers or faculties and their names
92
THE SENSES OF SMELL AND TASTE 56 Nature and importance of the senses as a source of knowledge
94
Of the connexion of the brain with sensation and perception
95
Order in which the senses are to be considered 59 Of the sense and sensation of smell
96
Of perceptions of smell in distinction from sensations
97
Of the sense and sensation of taste
98
Design and uses of the senses of smell and taste
99
THE SENSE OF HEARING 63 Organ of the sense of hearing
100
Nature of sonorous bodies and the medium of the communi cations of sound
101
Varieties of the sensation of sound
103
Manner in which we learn the place of sounds
104
Application of these views to the art of ventriloquism
105
Uses of hearing and its connexion with oral language
106
Section Page 69 Of the sense of touch and its sensations in general
107
Idea of externality suggested in connexion with the touch
108
Origin of the notion of extension and of form and figure
110
On the sensation of heat and cold
111
On the sensation of hardness and softness
113
Of certain indefinite feelings sometimes ascribed to the touch
114
Relation between the sensation and what is outwardly signi fied
115
THE SENSE OF SIGHT 76 Of the organ of sight and the uses or benefits of that sense
117
Statement of the mode or process in visual perception
118
Of the original and acquired perceptions of sight
119
Of the knowledge of the figure of bodies by the sight
121
Measurements of magnitude by the eye
123
Of objects seen in the mist and of the sun and moon in the horizon
124
Of the estimation of distances by sight
126
Estimation of distance when unaided by intermediate objects 128
128
Of objects seen on the ocean
130
Explanatory remarks
131
OF RELIANCE ON THE SENSES AND IDEALISM 87 By means of sensations we have a knowledge of outward things
132
Objection to a reliance on the senses
133
Some alleged mistakes of the senses owing to want of care
135
Of mistakes in judging of the motion of objects
138
Of mistakes as to the distances and magnitude of objects
140
The senses liable to be diseased
141
On the real existence of a material world
142
Doctrine of the nonexistence of matter considered
143
The senses as much grounds of belief as other parts of our constitution
145
HABITS OF SENSATION AND PERCEPTION 98 General view of the law of habit and of its applications
147
Of habit in relation to the smell
149
Of habit in relation to the taste
150
Of habit in relation to the hearing
152
Of certain universal habits based or sounds
154
Application of habit to the touch
156
Other striking instances of habits of touch
159
Habits considered in relation to the sight 100
160
Sensations may possess a relative as well as positive increase of power
162
Of habits as modified by particular callings or arts
163
The law of habit considered in reference to the perception of the outlines and forms of objects
164
Notice of some facts which favour the above doctrine
165
Additional illustrations of Mr Stewarts doctrine
166
Section Page CHAP X MUSCULAR HABITS 111 Instances in proof of the existence of muscular habits
167
Muscular habits regarded by some writers as involuntary
169
THE CONCEPTIVE POWER CONCEPTIONS 114 Conceptivity and characteristics of conceptions
172
Of conceptions of objects of sight
173
Of the influence of habit on our conceptions
175
Influence of habit on conceptions of sight
176
Of conceptions attended with a momentary belief
177
Conceptions which are joined with perceptions
180
Conceptions as connected with fictitious representations
182
SIMPLICITY AND COMPLEXNESS OF MENTAL STATES 122 Origin of the distinction of simple and complex
183
Nature and characteristics of simple mental states
184
Simple cognitive states representative of a reality
185
Origin of complex notions and their relation to simple
186
Supposed complexness without the antecedence of simple feelings
187
Illustrations of analysis as applied to the mind 190 128 The precise sense in which complexness is to be understood
188
Complex notions of external origin
191
Of objects contemplated as wholes
192
Something more in external objects than mere attributes or qualities
193
Explanatory remarks on the true philosophical method
194
ABSTRACTION THE ABSTRACTIVE POWER 134 Abstraction implied in the analysis of complex ideas
197
Instances of particular abstra ideas
198
Names and complexity in the power of abstraction
199
Of generalizations of particular abstract mental states
202
GENERAL ABSTRACT IDEAS 139 General abstract notions the same with genera and species
203
Process in classification or the forming of genera and species
204
Early classifications sometimes incorrect
205
Illustrations of our earliest classifications
206
Of the nature of general abstract ideas
207
Objection sometimes made to the existence of general notions
209
The power of general abstraction in connexion with num bers c
210
Of general abstract truths or principles
211
Of the speculations of philosophers and others
212
Of the opinions of the Nominalists
213
Of the opinions of the Conceptualists
214
Further remarks of Brown on general abstractions
216
OF THE POWER OF ATTENTION 152 Names given it and its result when in exercise
217
Dependence of memory on attention
220
Of exercising attention in reading
222
Alleged inability to command the attention
223
DREAMING AND SOMNAMBULISM 158 Defi ion of dreams and the prevalence of them
225
Connexion of dreams with our waking thoughts
226
Dreams are often caused by our sensations 2277
227
Explanation of the incoherency of dreams 1st cause
229
Apparent reality of dreams 1st cause
230
Apparent reality of dreams 2d cause
231
Of our estimate of time in dreaming
232
Of the senses sinking to sleep in succession
235
General remarks on cases of somnambulism
236
Further illustrations of somnambulism
238
DIVISION FIRST THE INTELLECT OR UNDERSTANDING INTELLECTIVE OR INTELLECTUAL STATES OF THE MIND PART SECOND TH...
241
INTERNAL ORIGIN OF KNOWLEDGE 169 The soul has fountains of knowledge within
243
Declaration of Locke that the soul has knowledge in itself
244
Opinions of Cudworth on the subject of internal knowledge
245
Further remarks of the same writer on this subject
246
Writers who have objected to the doctrine of an internal source of knowledge
248
Knowledge begins in the senses but has internal accessions
250
Instances of notions which have an internal origin
252
phy
254
THE INTUITIONAL OR SUGGESTIONAL POWER 177 Place general objects and names of this power
255
Ideas of existence mind selfexistence and personal identity
257
Origin of the idea of externality
259
Idea of matter or material existence
260
Origin of the idea of motion
262
Nature of succession and origin of the idea of succession 264
264
Of time and its measurements and of eternity
267
The idea of space not of external origin
269
The idea of space has its origin in suggestion
271
Characteristic marks of the notion of space
272
Of the origin of the idea of power
273
Origin of the idea of the first or primitive
275
Of the ideas of right and wrong
276
Origin of the ideas of moral merit and demerit
277
Of other elements of knowledge developed in suggestion
278
Suggestion a source of principles as weîl as of ideas
279
Consciousness the second source of internal knowledge its Page
282
Section Page 287 Of the influence of demonstrative reasoning on the mental
287
RELATIVE SUGGESTION OR JUDGMENT
289
Relations of degree in adjectives of the positive form
295
Of complex terms involving the relation of cause and effect
302
Resemblance the first general law of association
308
Cause and effect the fourth primary law
314
Original difference in the mental constitution
320
CASUAL ASSOCIATIONS 1 INTELLECTUAL
326
Tendency of the mind to pass from the sign to the thing sig 220
332
Section Page 242 Power of the will over mental associations
337
Further illustrations of philosophic memory
350
Of that species of memory called intentional recollection
351
Instance illustrative of the preceding
353
Remarks on the memory of the aged
354
On the compatibility of strong memory and good judgment
356
Marks of a good memory
357
Directions or rules for the improvement of the memory
358
Further directions for the improvement of the memory
361
Of observance of the truth in connexion with memory
363
Of mnemonics or systems of artificial memory
364
DURATION OF MEMORY 262 Restoration of thoughts and feelings supposed to be forgotten
365
Mental action quickened by influence on the physical system
367
Other instances of quickened mental action and of a restora tion of thoughts 368
368
Effect on the memory of a severe attack of fever
369
Approval and illustrations of these views from Coleridge
370
Application of the principles of this chapter to education
372
Connexion of this doctrine with the final judgment and a fu ture life
373
REASONING 269 Reasoning a source of ideas and knowledge
375
Illustrations of the value of the reasoning power
376
Definition of reasoning and of propositions
378
Process of the mind in all cases of reasoning
379
Grounds of the selection of propositions
381
Reasoning implies the existence of antecedent or assumed propositions
382
Of reasoning à priori
384
Of reasoning à posteriori
386
Of reasoning à fortiori
387
Of reasoning in connexion with language or expression
390
DEMONSTRATIVE REASONING 281 Of the subjects of demonstrative reasoning
392
Use of definitions and axioms in demonstrative reasoning
393
The opposites of demonstrative reasonings absurd
394
Demonstrations do not admit of different degrees of belief
395
Of the use of diagrams in demonstrations
396
Of signs in general as connected with reasoning
397
character
399
Further considerations on the influence of demonstrative rea soning
400
MORAL REASONING 289 Of the subjects and importance of moral reasoning
402
Of the nature of moral certainty
403
Of reasoning from analogy
404
Caution to be used in reasoning from analogy
406
Of reasoning by induction
407
Of the caution necessary in inductive processes
408
Of combined or accumulated arguments
409
PRACTICAL DIRECTIONS IN REASONING 297 Logic and rules relating to the practice of reasoning
411
Of being influenced in reasoning by a love of the truth
412
Care to be used in correctly stating the subject of discussion
413
Consider the kind of evidence applicable to the subject
414
Reject the aid of false arguments or sophisms
415
Fallacia equivocationis or the use of equivocal terms and phrases
417
On the sophism of estimating actions and character from the circumstances of success merely
419
Of adherence to our opinions
420
Effects on the mind of debating for victory instead of truth
421
IMAGINATION 306 Imagination an intellectual process closely related to reason ing
423
Definition of the power of imagination
424
Process of the mind in the creations of the imagination
425
Further remarks on the same subject
426
Illustration from the writings of Dr Reid
427
Grounds of the preference of one conception to another 428
428
The creations of imagination not entirely voluntary
429
Illustration of the statements of the preceding section
431
On the utility of the faculty of the imagination
432
Works of imagination give different degrees of pleasure
433
Importance of the imagination in connexion with reasoning
435
Of misconceptions by means of the imagination
437
Explanation of the above misrepresentations of the imagina
438
Feelings of sympathy aided by the imagination
439
COMPLEX IDEAS OF INTERNAL ORIGIN 321 Of complex ideas of external origin
440
Nature of complex ideas of internal origin
441
Of complex notions formed by the repetition of the same thing
442
Of the help afforded by names in the combination of numbers
443
Instances of complex notions made up of different simple
444
Not the same internal complex ideas in all languages
446
Origin of the complex notion of a Supreme Being
448
PART THIRD IMPERFECT AND DISORDERED INTELLECTUAL ACTION
451
Section Page CHAP I CONNEXION OF THE MIND AND BODY 328 Disordered intellectual action connected with the body
453
The mind constituted on the principle of a connexion with the body
454
Illustration of the subject from the effects of old age
455
The connexion of the bodily system with the mental shown from the effects resulting from diseases
456
Shown also from the effects of stimulating drugs and gases
457
Influence on the body of excited imagination and passion
458
This doctrine of use in explaining mental phenomena
460
EXCITED CONCEPTIONS OR APPARITIONS 335 Of excited conceptions and of apparitions in general
461
Of the less permanent excited conceptions of sight
462
Of the less permanent excited conceptions of sound
463
First cause of permanently vivid conceptions or apparitions Morbid sensibility of the retina of the eye
464
Second cause of permanently excited conceptions or appari tions Superabundance of blood in the system
467
Methods of relief adopted in this case
469
Third cause of excited conceptions Attacks of fever
470
Fourth cause of apparitions and other excited conceptions Inflammation of the brain
471
Facts having relation to the fourth cause of excited concep tions
473
PARTIAL INSANITY 345 Meaning of the term and kinds of insanity
474
Of disordered or alienated sensations
475
Of disordered or alienated external perception
476
Disordered state or insanity of intuition
477
Unsoundness or insanity of consciousness
479
Insanity of the judgment or relative suggestion
480
Disordered or alienated association Lightheadedness
481
Of partial insanity or alienation of the memory
482
Of the power of reasoning in the partially insane
484
Instance of the above form of disordered reasoning
485
Of readiness of reasoning in the partially insane
486
Partial mental alienation by means of the imagination
487
Insanity or alienation of the power of belief
488
TOTAL INSANITY OR DELIRIUM 359 Idea of total insanity or delirium
490
Of perception in cases of total or delirious insanity
491
Of association in delirious insanity
492
Of the memory in connexion with delirious insanity
494
Of the form of insanity called furor or madness
495
Of the causes of the different kinds of insanity
496
Of moral accountability in mental alienation
497
Section Page 368 Of the imputation of insanity to individuals
498
Of the treatment of the insane
499
APPENDIX ON LANGUAGE
501
NATURAL SIGNS 1 Of the natural and necessary communication of the mental states from one to another
503
Mental states first expressed by gesture and the countenance
504
Of the use made of natural signs by the deaf and dumb
505
Further illustrations of the great power of natural signs
507
Of the system of signs existing among the N A Savages
510
Of the symbolic exhibitions of the Hebrews
512
Of the instinctive interpretation of certain natural signs
513
Considerations on the use of natural signs
516
Remarks on the original formation of oral signs
518
Of the possibility of forming an oral language without Divine aid
520
Oral signs or words are in general arbitrary
522
Words at first few in number and limited to particular objects
523
Formation of appellatives implies the feeling of resemblance
525
On the increase in the number of nouns or appellatives
526
Of the formation of verbs
527
Formation of adjectives and other parts of speech
528
The foregoing principles confirmed from the deaf and dumb
529
Of the formation of prepositions
530
Of the origin and original import of conjunctions
531
Further remarks on the meaning of conjunctions etc 23 Of the origin of particular or proper names
532
Principle of selection and significancy of proper names
533
Of the origin and significancy of the names of places
534
WRITTEN SIGNS 26 Of the causes which led to the formation of written signs
535
The first artificial signs addressed to the eye were pictures
536
Of hieroglyphical writing
538
Of the written characters of the Chinese
539
The Chinese character an improvement on the hieroglyphical
540
Artificial delineations employed as signs of sound
541
The preceding views confirmed by recent researches
542
On the recent formation of the Cherokee syllabic alphabet
543
Facts relative to the invention of the Cherokee alphabet
544
Conventional written signs as expressive of numbers etc
546
CHARACTERISTICS OF LANGUAGES 37 All anguages have their characteristic traits
548
Characteristics of the languages of uncivilized nations
549
Characteristics of language in civilized and scientific nations
550
Characteristics of languages depend much on habits
551
Languages aid in forming correct ideas of national character
552
Of the correspondence between national intellect etc
553
Different languages suited to different minds and subjects
555
Such differences shown by attempts at translating
556
Of the study of the Greek and Latin languages
558
Of an universal language
560

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