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quality, and in unfavourable situations in 181. 7s., independent of the united labour of point of climate, have been given to cottag- all the members of the family circle. What ers, at a nominal rent for a term of years, we a blessed transition would it not prove to the are satisfied, that the average produce of the poor children! To be raised from the lowlots would be infinitely more than the great est scale of human society, from being canproportion of the people have the least idea didates for admission within the precincts of of. The poor man's cow, it is said, yields a a prison, for transportation to a penal settlemuch larger quantity of milk than the rich ment, or an elevated position on the scaffold, man's; his hen produces more eggs; and to that of candidates for admission into his garden or field furnishes much larger places of instruction, to be taught the glosupplies of food, than the garden or field of rious truths of Christianity, that through the his more wealthy neighbour. The reason is portals of the church they may ultimately beobvious; depending on his cow, his hen, and come candidates for admission into that house his garden, for many of the necessaries of life, not made with hands, eternal in the heavens. and acting on the old maxim, “ If you wish And, if no other advantages whatever than a thing well done, do it yourself,” the poor those just named, were to accrue to the man, with the aid of his family, cultivates his country from the plan recommended, those field or his garden, feeds his cow, and his alone would be worth much more than all hen, without allowing his domestic work to the expense required to carry it into effect. interfere in the smallest degree with his hired For, as the foundation of the strength of labour. Thus the cultivation of the poor every society may justly be said to consist in man's field, &c. costs him nothing; but it is the number of the people of which it is comvery different with his rich neighbour. The posed, and as the number of a family, when work of the poor man is well done; the rich employed, are its riches, in the same manner man's is not. And why? Because the la- as the number of subjects when employed bourer has no interest in the produce of the are the riches of a nation; it must at all times field he cultivates.
be of the very utmost importance to an emBut whether the produce of a two acre lot pire such as ours, to see the great body of would or would not, be equal to the support the people employed, all the children proof a family of five persons, one thing is cer- perly educated, instructed in the Christian tain, that in a year or two from the date of religion, and brought up under the eye of entry, the poor man's two acre lot would their parents and neighbours in the fear of yield twenty or thirty times more than the the almighty Author of their being, and early rich man's two acre lot of the uncultivated accustomed to a generous emulation in virtue land does at the present time.
and industry. But borne to the dust with The reason why so much land is still in its penury, and a large family, this the poor natural state is, not that it would not yield artisan cannot accomplish, without powerful produce sufficient to pay for its cultivation, pecuniary or other aid. but that the richer description of land yields As the accomplishment of this most dea larger return at less trouble and expense sirable object, however, must ever be viewed to the cultivator.
in the light of a great national good, and it From a knowledge of the capabilities of being, moreover, the duty of those to whom waste land, under a good system of husband- the destinies of a nation are intrusted, to ry, it is not too much to state, that a great watch over the morals of the people, and part of the 14,000,000 of acres now in an to contribute to the public weal, according to unproductive state, would, under the manage- the power and influence they severally or ment of an intelligent farmer, produce forty jointly possess, who can for a moment doubt, bushels of oats, barley, or bere, and six tons but that the present powerful administration of potatoes. But, supposing that each tenant will deem it to be their duty to take under were to raise one acre of grain, and one acre their especial care and protection the labourof potatoes ; and from the former receive ing classes, and to assist and encourage the thirty-six bushels, and the latter five tons honest and industrious portion of them to only ; that the grain was sold at 3s. 6d. the raise themselves in the scale of society, and bushel, and the potatoes at 50s. the ton, each if possible above want ? An act of humantenant, in that case, would receive for the ity, which a very large majority of the opeproduce of his lot, 181.78.—a sum consider- rative classes would ultimately repay fiftyably larger than thousands are at this mo- fold. ment receiving for one full year of hard and The annual increase in the population of incessant toil. What a happy transition this country being about 400,000 souls, the would not this be to all such parents! To be price of bread never can be very low, unless raised from the lowest depths of human mi- some means could be devised to check that sery, from being houseless, penniless wan- increase, or to make the land yield an adderers, to comfortable househoulders, with a ditional supply of corn corresponding to comfortable house, and an annual income of the annual increase in the population of the
United Kingdom. That the tenants, on perceiving the poor lands being parcelled out in the manner proposed, would, through fear of losing their farms, open up a considerable portion of their lands, presently in an unproductive state, there can be no doubt whatever. From this source alone, therefore, an annual addition to the home supplies of grain equal to the support of 400,000 persons, may for many future years be fully relied upon. To this increase in the home supplies, must be added the produce of the waste lands, 20,000 acres to be annually brought into cultivation by dividing it in the way already pointed out. For as the sum which government will yearly have at its command, for the purpose of improving waste lands, building houses, &c., is estimated at 500,0001., it follows that the estates of 2000 acres each, or 20,000 altogether, could annually be made so far productive, as to furnish food for the whole of the people located on each estate, viz., 5000, or, on all the ten estates, 50,000.
By thus providing for so large a portion of the operative population yearly, pauperism would rapidly decrease, and with it the tax for the poor.
By bringing so large a portion of the waste lands into cultivation annually, the home supplies of corn would in a few years be so much increased, as to render Great Britain much less dependent upon foreign nations for a supply of bread, than she is at present. Fifty thousand individuals being every year raised from poverty to comfort, would in a short time naturally cause a very considerable improvement in the home trade, and consequent increase in various branches of the public revenue.
But the most important advantage which the country would derive from the proposed alterations in the corn duties, &c., have yet to be noticed. Six hundred thousand pounds being the sum which the corn duties are estimated to produce under the new system, it has been proposed to expend 100,000l. of that sum yearly in transporting emigrants to the colonies, and the remaining portion, viz., 500,0001. in providing comfortable residences and small portions of land for the most necessitous of the working classes.
As regards the sum of 100,0001., it is
feared that but a very inconsiderable portion of it would ever find its way back to this country. But as the whole of the 500,0001. would year after year be expended at home - not in charitable donations, from which no future benefit can be derived ; but in the purchase of real property, yielding interest at the rate of 5 per cent. per annum; and as the whole of the interest would be annually added to the sum of 500,000l. of principal received from the corn duties' fund, and immediately invested in land, as already pointed out; it follows, that by pursuing a similar system of investment for ninety years, the government would, at the expiration of that period, have at its disposal, houses and land, equal in value to the whole of the present funded debt of the country.
But notwithstanding the splendid result to which a perseverance in the system detailed in the preceding pages, would necessarily lead the monetary affairs of this great empire, it might be objected to by some individuals, on the ground, that it would divert 600,000l. of the public revenue from its legitimate channel. None, however, could start an objection of this sort but such as have allowed this important fact to escape their memory, viz., that the money proposed to be applied to the ameliorating the condition of the working classes, forms no part of any tax legitimately imposed to meet the annual expenditure of the country. Indeed, from the very great fluctuation in the amount of the duties yearly received for foreign corn, no minister of the crown could prudently propose a tax on that article, as a part of the permanent revenue of the country. But suppose it were a permanent tax : to what more legitimate object could the produce of that tax be appropriated than the amelioration of the poorer portion of the middle and operative classes ? by whom three-fourths of the tax is actually paid, particularly, as all the various changes and improvements, recommended for the favourable consideration of her Majesty's ministers, can be fully accomplished by them, without dipping their fingers into the pockets of their countrymen for the smallest coin in the realm, in the shape of a tax, and not only without injury to, but, as has already been shown, with manifest advantage to the credit of the country.
PUBLICOLA AND THE WEEKLY “ DISPATCH."
Is it not somewhat enigmatical, that in this Christian country, no
one has yet dared to take up the gage so fearlessly thrown down by Publicola, the notori
ous champion of infidelity ? To what cause are we to attribute this total absence of moral courage on the part of our countrymen ?
Is it that Christianity will not bear haters of Christianity. And by way of winding up on those occasions, he seldom fails, under the deceptive flag of liberty, to denounce the clergy as tyrants, and to represent their church system, and religious doctrines, as founded on the grossest delusion, as mere priestly tools to enslave the minds and bodies of the people. It is by means such as these, that Publicola works on the passions of the masses : aware, that, when people of either sex totally disregard the sacred duties which the day of rest imposes upon them as CHRISTIANS, they are easily led from one crime to another, until they are so involved in the vortex of vice, that all pleasures save the most sinful and detestable, are perfectly abhorrent to their nature ; aware that when religion loses its hold on the mind, no check remains to curb the unruly passions of man, save the dread of a capital punishment on earth, for he who knows not the great Author of his being, cannot possibly dread the power of his almighty arm. Yet, in the perfect knowledge of all this, and that by repeated and virulent attacks on the Christian church, and the venerable of the land, he produces violent discontent in the breasts of the working classes, even to the uplifting of the murderous arm against their superiors; still, in order to turn the eye of the illiterate and unthinking portion of the crowd from himself, he points to all this with fiend-like joy, as the work of priests and Christianity. To prove this we have only to refer to a recent letter of his, published in the “ Dispatch,” in which he says, “ In the just and powerful manner in which you applied the scourge to the impudent, unprincipled, and low-bred proprietor of the “Times,' on Sunday last,
'born in a garret, in a kitchen bred,' I was glad to see that you exposed the impostor's treachery respecting religion. The subject of religion ought never to find its way into a newspaper, unless it is connected with measures of government, legislation, or public proceedings; but there are a sort of hirelings, who, in editing public papers, will, under its name, perpetually introduce it from the worst of motives, and for the worst of objects. Whenever this is the case, it behoves a high-spirited paper like the Dispatch,' to expose the villany, and protect the public.
It is immaterial for our pur. pose whether the proprietor of the “ Times" was born in a garret, or bred in a kitchen. Leaving this point, therefore, to be settled by the “ Times” and the “ Dispatch they best may, we turn to the other portion of the paragraph just quoted, according to which, religious discussion should never find a place in the columns of a newspaper but when it is connected with measures of go
comparison with infidelity-truth with falsehood- the sublimest morality with the most disgusting licentiousness ? No; but to the unaccountable apathy of the Christian world; for, instead of Christians doing all that in them lies to counteract the machinations of the enemies of the cross, who are everywhere united, vigilant, and active, the believers in the death and glorious resurrection and ascension of our blessed Lord and Saviour, appear every where disunited and inactive, wasting their precious time in petty, unseemly squabbles, on points of religion altogether unworthy of being made a bone of contention by any class of Christians. The whole country, in fact, appears panic struck with the bold bearing of the infidel chief. Even the press have been awed into submission, for, with one exception, “ The Times,” not one champion has it furnished to break a lance with this wholesale trader in blasphemy. This has been denominated the age of wonders, but the greatest of all wonders we have yet witnessed, is the Christian press of this country, quailing before the pen of a scribe, whose sole employment seems to be, to sap by every means within the compass of his power, the religious and other institutions of the country. Feeling for the situation of our literary brethren, and believing the doctrines promulgated weekly by Publicola, to be fraught with the most ruinous consequences to a very large portion of our countrymen, we have been induced to accept the challenge, and to combat, to the utmost of our power, those opinions which he is, week after week, instilling into the minds of the supporters of the “ London Weekly Dispatch ” with that cunning and plausibility so conspicuous, in the writings of those whose religious creed is infidelity, and political one republicanism.
We have observed, with more than ordi. nary attention and interest, the manner in which Publicola invariably attempts to poison the minds of the working classes with his most pestiferous notions of religion. In some of his epistles he appeals to truth, but apparently, as we shall show, without knowing what truth really is. In none of his letters does he once appeal to the finer sensibilities of our nature, nor has he deemed charity or liberty worthy of a place in any of them, although he would fain be considered the champion of the latter. True it is, that preparatory to some grand attack
upon the Christian church, Publicola occasionally gives a flowery description of liberty, merely by way of a hint to the readers of
Dispatch," as to the extent of the benefits which might be expected to accrue to them, if to the will, they could secure the active services of men like himself
vernment, &c. At each succeeding line of tion to the succumbing of what the Times' this sentence the cloven foot of infidelity calls religion, to the progress of civilization. becomes more and more perceptible. In The worst periods as to atrocities in the committing that sentence to paper, well did history of every nation, have been those of he know that into the measures of the British which the Times,' in its piety, calls religovernment religion was seldom introduced, gion.” It is curious to observe, to what consequently, that if he could banish all re
disreputable shifts men will at times have ligious discussion from the columns of the recourse to gain an object.
To extirpate newspapers, he would be at liberty to urge the religion of the cross from his native land, upon the people his infidel notions with the Publicola here shows himself prepared to call certain prospect of converting a large pro- deception to his aid, for in point of historical portion of them to infidelity, and who would fact and living experience, the greatest atroyearly thereafter, send into the world legions cities have been perpetrated under the name of young infidels, to become, in due time, of what Publicola, in his infidelity, calls the inmates of that place “ where the worm liberty. Witness the proceedings of the never dies, nor the fire quenched.”
French people half a century ago. But the remark respecting religion falls In the early part of the French revolution, with a peculiarly bad grace from the pen of the demons who, in the form of men, then Publicola, who, more than any writer of the governed that country, encouraged infidelity present day, has made it the subject of news- and every other vice for which a name could paper discussion.
But infidelity is blind to be found in their vocabulary, that in time the its own defects. With a maliciousness in- republican portion of their countrymen might cident to its nature, it never for a moment become so immoral and debased, as to render ceases its attacks upon Christianity, and them fit and willing instruments in the hands losing sight altogether of the magnitude of of the tyrants, to carry into effect their hellish its own absurdities, holds up to view every designs against the 'loyal portion of the thing which, in the ignorance of its nature, people. Yes, the first step towards a revoit believes to be blemishes in the Christian lution in France, was to banish from the faith. The “ Times " lately, and most justly, country all traces of Christianity ; and what, ascribed the evils with which this country is we ask, is the object of Publicola, and other at present afflicted to the want of a religious people of his creed, in advocating infidelity education, and the never-ceasing efforts of in this country? We do not say that the Publicola, through the medium of the “Dis- object which they have in view is the same patch,” to make the people believe that which the leaders in the bloody French Christianity is the bane of their happiness. tragedy had, but we tell them their conduct This, as was to be expected, produced a may produce similar results, and what were virulent tirade against the Christian church. these results ? Publicola may attempt to exonerate himself On the 8th of November, 1793, Gobet, from the charge, by asserting that his letters the Archbishop of Paris, attended by his cannot be said to come under the head of vicar, and followed by several priests, abreligious discussion, the whole being directed jured his episcopal functions, and the religion against, not in favour of religion. Be it so ; of Christ, in the hall of the National Conhis real object would, in that case, stand un- vention. They were received with applause masked, which, from the articles already and with the civic kiss on the part of the published, evidently, is to secure a wide cir- President. culation for a paper, teeming with articles of On the same day, and in the same place, an infidel complexion ; 'to gag the mouths of David proposed that a colossal monument all true believers, that none may even utter should be raised in the hall of the commoa word in defence of their church, or, if
any nalty of Paris to manifest the suppression should possess the moral courage to attempt of all religious worship. to stem the flood of infidelity issuing weekly Three days afterwards a numerous profrom the Publicola fountain, they are to cession, accompanied by national music, be assailed with the derisive epithets of filed off in the hall of the Convention, having “ Dolts,” “Jack-asses,” “ Numskulls,” &c., in its centre a young woman arrayed in robes and finally run down by volleys of the vilest of liberty, and seated in a chair, ornamented slang known at Billingsgate.
with leaves in festoons. On the latter being The “ Times” having lately ascribed the placed opposite to the president, Chaumette numerous attempts made on the life of the rose and said, “ Fanaticism has abandoned King of the French to the fact of the peo- the place of truth ; squint-eyed, it could not ple of France being supplied with useful bear the brilliant light; you see it, we have knowledge without religion, Publicola re- not taken for our festivals inanimate idols ; plied to that paper as follows : “ In point of it is a chef-d'ouvre of nature whom we have historical fact and living experience, all arrayed in the habit of liberty. The people atrocious crimes have disappeared in propor- have but one cry, no more altars--no more
priests—no other god but the god of nature. come ? the applause bestowed by the ConvenWe, their magistrates, accompany them from tion on the various deputations alluded to, the temple of truth to the temple of laws, to must be held as an entire approval of the new celebrate a new liberty, and to request that doctrines of the latter ; consequently, as the the ci-devant church of Notre Dame be members of that Convention were elected by changed into a temple consecrated to reason the people, it is but natural to conclude, that and truth."
the religious opinions of the members were The proposal being converted into a mo- in unison with those of their constituents ; tion and immediately carried, the goddess and as the former openly denounced all reseated herself close to the president, who ligious worship, they pronounced themselves gave her a fraternal embrace. The secre- atheists; therefore, the latter, as a matter taries pressed forward to share the same of course, must be held to have been atheists bliss, each being more anxious than his also. neighbour to sacrifice to the new divinity, In a late number of the “ Dispatch," who appeared not the least disconcerted by Publicola says, “ No fact in history is more so many salutations. The members, with certain than that of nations and individuals the goddess at their head, then quitted the being sanguinary, in proportion to their being hall, followed by a number of girls dressed drugged with what the Times' calls reliin white, with music playing, and with great gion.” Now, so far from this being the case, pomp converted the church of Notre Dame no fact in history is more certain than that of into the temple of truth.
nations and individuals being sanguinary, in In December, 1793, the pupils of a new proportion to their being drugged with infirepublican school, of the section of des-Aries, delity. Has Publicola already forgotten the appeared at the bar of the Convention. On horrifying atrocities, and disgusting immobeing introduced, one of them in a speech, ralities which were sanctioned, or perpetrated which was much applauded, stated that all by the French rulers for several years immereligious worship had been suppressed in his diately succeeding that, in which, they bansection, even to the very idea of religion. ished all religion from the soil of France ?
A citizen, sent by a popular society at Has he already forgotten the horrible butMoulins, announced at the bar of the Con- cheries perpetrated in France during the vention, that reason had triumphed over reign of terror ? Has he forgotten how fanaticism throughout the whole department the ministers of religion were stowed away of Allier. That over the gate of the burying- in boats, the boats scuttled, and hundreds ground the following inscription had been of the holy men at a time hurried into eterplaced, viz., death is only eternal sleep. nity without one moment's warning ? Is it The speech being loudly applauded by the possible that Publicola can so soon have Convention, it was instantly decreed that that forgotten the frightful debaucheries, and uninscription should be placed at the entrance bridled licentiousness, in which the infidel of every burying-ground.
population of France wallowed for years Simon, a representative of the people, in after religion was banished from that couna letter to the Convention, said, “I pull try? or the hellish orgies practised in utter down the church bells every where, and have contempt and defiance of both God and man? already extracted from them sufficient brass No! but he has kept carefully concealed to make 700 or 800 cannon of all sizes." from the eye of the readers of the “Dis
A few days after the Archbishop abjured patch,” that such enormities were committed his religion, the parishioners of St. Roch in France, because they were perpetrated by filed through the hall of the Convention, car- infidels—by a people who had openly reviled rying with them the gold and silver ornaments and defied the living God; by a people living of their church, and intimated that they had without the pale of the Christian church, shut their ci-devant church against priests, and consequently under a system of governand would open it only to republicans—the ment founded on infidelity; a system which friends of reason, and the defenders of the Publicola is weekly attempting to make the republic.
labouring classes believe, is the one best Hundreds of similar instances of infidelity calculated to render man comfortable and on the part of the French people, might be happy. He has kept from the view of the adduced to prove the assertion of the “Times,” working classes, that the cry of liberty raised but those now given will more than suffice; in France by a few designing men, in 1791, for to the breast of every other person in was never intended to have any other effect these realms, save the great champion of than the opening of the floodgates of vice infidelity alone, they must carry the convic- and villany all over the country. He has tion, that, at the period alluded to, the whole hitherto kept from their view the important population of France, from the peer to the fact that, day after day, and night after night, peasant, were either deists or absolute atheists. the air of France was for years chilled with To what other conclusion can we possibly the horrific shrieks of liberty's victims-or