« PredošláPokračovať »
Mire opifex numeris veterum primordia vocum
Hic ego securus vulgi et quid praeparet Auster to satires of Bassus. But they have nothing nifies . wise.' So Horace has sententia dia to do with satire. He wrote verses on Catonis' for 'Cato divine sentiens '(S. i. 2. young men's love-sports and old men's wis- 32), and other like phrases. See note on dom, perhaps, or whatever it may have been. Juv. iv. 34, and Index (Genitive).
6. Mihi nunc Ligus ora] He had gone postquam destertuit esse] This verb down to the Ligurian coast to pass the win- is not used elsewhere, and the construction ter. Horace tells his friend he shall go to is Greek and elliptical. •He ceased to the sea side when the winter comes on (Epp. snore' is 'he ceased to dream,' that he was i. 7. 10 sqq.):
Maeonides (Homer), and had become
Quintus Ennius after passing through a “Quod si bruma nives Albanis illinet agris peacock, in which the soul of Pythagoras Ad mare descendet vates tuus, et sibi parcet, had lived. Heinrich joins Quintus with Contractusque leget.”
Maeonides, as it might be Q. Ennius. I do Horace has “defendens pisces hiemat mare not see why, if that be the connexion, the (S. ii. 2. 17, see note). Persius only says praenomen should not have been put in
meum mare ' because he was staying on the its proper place. Horace, alluding to this coast, not because he was born there, as some dream, which was recorded at the begin. suppose. (See Life.). "Ligus' is the Greek ning of Ennius' Annales (as the Scholiasts form. The Scholiast has the Latin, ' Ligur.' here and on Horace tell us) says: The bay to which Persius had retreated for
“Ennius et sapiens et fortis et alter Homerus, the winter the Romans called Lunae Por.
Ut critici dicunt, leviter curare videtur tus. It is now well known as the Gulf of Spezia, and one of the finest harbours in
Quo promissa cadant et somnia PythaEurope. It is surrounded by high moun.
gorea." tains, and the valleys run down to the
(Epp. ii. 1. 50 sqq., see note.) shore, as Persius describes, and two or three The Scholiast and others give five steps by other bays indented the coast of this bay. which he became Quintus Ennius, and from Enpius appears to have visited it near two which his name was given him. Pythacenturies before Persius wrote, and the line goras, says the Scholiast, passed into a peahe quotes is from the Annales of that cock, and thence to the body of Euphorwriter. The name of the town, if any, at bus (Hor. C. i. 28. 10, n.), thence to which Persius was staying is not mentioned. Homer, and from Homer to Ennius. Ter. It was not Luna (Luni), which, though it tullian (De Resurr. Carnis, c. 1) makes the gave its name to the bay, was separated order different: Euphorbus, Pythagoras, from it by a range of bills and the river Homer, the peacock, Ennius. This dream Macra.
is referred to in the Prologus, v. 2. PerThe reading of most MSS. in 9 is . est sius means Ennius gave his countrymen operae cognoscere,' which Heinrich rejects this good advice after he had left off dream. for the reading of the text, because of jubet' ing, and got back to his good sense, his in the next line. I have followed his judg- .cor.' Juv. vii. 159. Pers. i. 12, n. ment without being sure he is right. • Pre- 12. et quid praeparet Auster] So Virgil tium' would usually follow operae.' says, quid cogitet humidus Auster
10. Cor jubet hoc Enni,] Cor Enni'. (Georg. i. 462). See note on Hor. S. ii. 6. is equivalent to · Ennius cordatus,' as 18, " Nec mala me ambitio perdit nec plumTurnebus observes (Adv. 30. 7). •Corbeus Auster Auctumnusque gravis." datus’ is a word Ennius used, and it sig- gulus ille' is like “O si angulus ille Proxi
Infelix pecori securus, et angulus ille
mus accedat qui nunc denormat agellum " distortis cruribus.” “Varo Genio,' there(Hor. S. ï. 6. 8). Adeo omnes' is abso. fore, is Geniuses that go in different direclutely all.' • Pejoribus orti' is copied from tions. Horace (Epp. i. 6. 22), “indignum quod 19. solis natalibus est qui] 'Est qui' sit, pejoribus ortus, Hic tibi sit potius quam is opposed to hic' (21). On the governtu mirabilis illi." Persius was an .eques.' ment see Hor. C. i. 1. 3, n. One moistens * Senium,' for sourness, is used as' canities? his dry cabbage in ‘muria,' which he goes in S. i. 9, where see note. • Curvus' and out to buy for the occasion, and sprinkles minui' explain each other. “Usque recu- the pepper with his own hand; the other sem 'is copied insensibly from Horace, S. runs through a large property in good ii. 7. 24, • Si quis ad illa deus subito te living while he is still a lad. In both cases agat usque recuses. • Coenare sine uncto' early vice is meant. Like the sons of is to dine without delicacies, for which Horace's Canusian, Servius Oppidius (S.
unctus’ is a constant epithet. See S. iii. ii. 3. 168 sqq.), the one is a cunning young 102; iv. 17, and Horace, A. P. 422, “Si vero miser, the other a magnanimous young est unctum qui recte ponere possit.” Some spendthrift. Muria’ was a sauce made take 'sine uncto' to mean' without oiling,' of the 'thunnus,' and less delicate than but that is not the sense. • Vapida lagena' 'garum,' which was made of the scomber.' is like " Exhalet vapida laesum pice sessilis The one was used by the poor, and the other obba” (S. v. J48), where' vapida ' properly by the rich. Martial has an epigram on refers to the obba,' or rather to its con- 'muria' (xiii. 103) : tents. "Signum' is the seal with which
Antipolitani, fateor, sum filia thunni ; the • lagena,' or 'amphora,' was sealed. • Naso tetigisse' is to put his nose down so
Essem si scombri, non tibi missa forem." close as to touch it, which he would do in But this distinction was not always obexamining the seal to see if the servants had served, for Horace speaks of Catius' choice been after bis nasty stuff.
sauce being made of sweet olive oil mixed 18. Geminos, horoscope, varo] • Horo. with good rich wine and muria' ($. ii. 4. scopus' is the star of one's nativity. He 65). The stingy lad will let no one else says others may not think and feel as he pepper his mess, like Horace's miser, does, for the star that waits on the birth Avidienus (S. ii. 2. 61), “ cornu ipse even of twins sometimes brings them into bilibri Caulibus instillat veteris non parcus the world with different Genii. This is aceti.” The pepper is called 'sacred' for the one of the many ways of putting the same respect with which he spares it, as the greedy thing. Varro (quoted in my note on man spares his money bags, “congestis unHor. Epp. i. 7. 94) says the Genius is dique saccis Indormis inhians et tanquam "Dens qui praepositus est, ac vim habet parcere sacris Cogeris” (Hor. S. i. 1. 70 sqq. omnium rerum gignendarum,” and Horace note). "Tingat' means that he only moistens reverses Persius' order and speaks of a the cabbage. He is sparing even of his man's Genius as that “natale comes qui cheap sauce. “Irrorat' has the same sort of temperat astrum, Naturae deus humanae." force. He sprinkles his pepper but lightly. See above, S. v. 45 sqq.; ii. 8, n. ; iv. 27. •Empta' means that he has none in his • Producere,' 'to bring into life,' is used of closet, but must go out and buy a small the father or mother. See Juv. viii. 271, cup of the sauce when he requires it. “Magand Forcellini, who gives no other instance nanimus' is the same sort of irony as in of varus' in this sense. But it corresponds Horace's “ Maenius ut, rebus maternis atque very nearly to S. iv. 12, "vel cum fallit paternis Fortiter absumptis, urbanus coepit pede regula varo." It is properly applied haberi” (Epp. i. 15. 26 sqq.).
• Bona to legs that diverge from the knees down. dente peragit' is like Juv. xi. 39 sqq., wards, and is opposed to‘valgus,' bow-legged. “aere paterno Ac rebus mersis in ventrem." See note on Hor. S. i. 3. 47, "hunc varum Peragere' is here used as it is not exactly
Tingat olus siccum muria vafer in calice empta, 20
Prendit amicus inops, remque omnem surdaque vota used elsewhere. It is to run through,' as ground, and you get another crop.' 'In we say, to come to the end of his property. herba' is ' in the blade.' Horace, Epp. ii. * Puer,' at the end of the sentence, is em- 2. 161, has “Cum segetes occat tibi mox phatic, as in Horace (C. i. 9. 15), “nec frumenta daturas," where see note on "ocdulces amores Sperne puer, neque tu cho- care.' • Quid metuas' is better than 'mereas," i. e., while you are young (Epp. i. 2. tuis,' which Jahn adopts, and it has more 67), “ Nunc adbibe puro Pectore verba, MSS. authority. “Quid metuas' occurs in puer.”
iii. 26. 22. Utar ego, utar,] This is imitated 27. Ast vocat officium ;] This is by from Horace, Epp. ii. 2. 190:
some taken to be an objection of the man, “ Utar, et ex modico quantum res poscet So Halliday translates it,
who does not like parting with his grain. Tollam, nec metuam quid de me judicet “Why, I should thus spend, heres."
But duty hinders me: for my poor friend,
His ship being split," &c. The verb is put absolutely, but the meaning is easily seen. The pronoun though em
Dryden and Gifford give the same sense, phatic is omitted, whatever others may
which is not that of Persius. He supposes do.' He says he will enjoy his fortune,
a case in which a particular duty calls for which was ample, and yet he is not on greater generosity. A friend is wrecked, that account so extravagant as to feed his his property and the vows he offered for its ' liberti' upon turbot, or such an epicure safety all buried alike in the waves; he is as to distinguish the delicate taste of a hen cast on shore, and lies grasping the rocks thrush or fieldfare. The difference of taste with the ship's gods lying by him, and the between a cock and a hen was imaginary gulls flying over the scattered timbers as perhaps, but the masculine here would have they float on the waters. In this case, he no force. Though the MSS. differ there. adds, you may go further, and give the poor fore, and the masculine is the vulgar read.
man a piece of your land to save him from ing, there is no doubt the feminine is right. begging. • Trabe' is used for a ship, as in This the Scholiast recognizes and explains : S. v. 141, and Horace, C. i. 1. 13, " trabe “turdarum'abusive posuit cum ‘turdorum'
Cypria." By way of giving reality to the dicere debuerit." Nearly all the MSS. picture, he fixes the place of the wreck on have ‘tenues salivas,' which no editor has the south coast of Italy, where he lies like adopted that I am aware of, except Duebner, Palinurus in the Æneid. vi. 360, “ Prensan. who has introduced it into Casaubon's test. temque uncis manibus capita aspera montis." • Saliva' is equivalent to 'sapor,' as in Pro
• Surdus' is not used elsewhere in this sense pertius (v. 8. 38, Paley), “ Et Mithymnaei exactly. It means vows to which the gods Graeca saliva meri,” where it seems Hertz- are deaf. Where it means ' silent,' as in Juv. berg disputes this meaning. There is no
vii. 71; xiii. 194, it is as being unheard, doubt about it here. •Lautus ponere,' sol. which is an analogous use. As to Ionio, lers nosse,' is a construction noticed on Prol. see Juv. vi. 93, n. Images of gods 11. This sense of lautus' is common.
were carried in the stern of a ship. Ovid, Forcellini gives examples. See Juv. xi. 1, describing a storm he encountered on his “Atticus eximie si coenat lautus habetur." voyage from Rome, says,
25. Messe tenus propria vive,] We should “ Monte nec inferior prorae puppique recall this . living up to one's income.' He adds, • don't hoard but grind all your grain. Insilit, et pictos verberat unda Deos." What have you to fear? only harrow your
(Trist. i. 4. 7 sq.)
Condidit Ionio ; jacet ipse in litore et una
'De cespite vivo frange aliquid' is only tract from the cherry-tree is no where else a way of expressing 'give the man a piece of mentioned. Nescire paratus,' he is preland.' Vivus cespes' is used by Horace pared not to know,' is a sarcastic way of twice for a turf altar, C. i. 19. 13; iji. 8. 4. speaking. As to the sailor and his picture, see Juv. 37. Tunc bona incolumis minuas?] These xiv. 301, sq. Pers. i. 89.
words are usually attributed to the heres,' 33. Sed coenam funeris heres] He sup- abusing the man after his death. In that poses the man to be afraid of the revenge case the reading supposed is 'tune.' Heinhis . heres' will take if he curtails his pro- rich with a few MSS. reads tunc,' and perty for such a purpose. Coena funeris' says they are the words of the poet. He is a dinner given to the friends of the de- takes no notice of the metrical difficulty, ceased after the funeral. It has nothing to but I think the hiatus may be got over, as do with the silicernium,' concerning which in “male ominatis" (Horace, C. ii. 14. 11). see Juv. v. 85, “ feralis coena." The friends If this is right, as I incline to think it is, met and speeches were commonly made on the poet asks ironically, “and then would you such occasions as at wedding breakfasts with not be mad to curtail your estate?' that is, us, the chief subject being the merits of the with such a terrible prospect after your principal person concerned. The dinner death ? Incolumis' is used in this sense was sometimes mentioned in the will. See of 'sanus' by Horace, S. ii. 3. 132, “InHor. S. ii. 3. 86, n. “ epulum arbitrio Arri.” columi capite es?". He also has “male
34. urnae Ossa inodora dabit,] There is tutae mentis” in the same satire (137). a variant inhonora,' but the other is the 37. Et Bestius urget) • And then with true word. It was usual to sprinkle odours the airs of a Bestius he (the heres') will go on the ashes when they were put into the on to attack the Greek doctors. Persius urn. Tibullus, giving directions for his has obviously borrowed this name from burial (iii. 2), hegs, that when his bones are Horace (Epp. i. 15. 37), placed in the urn, all manner of perfumes “ Scilicet ut ventres lamna candente nepomay be brought, Illuc quas
mittit dives Panchaia merces, Diceret urendos, corrector Bestius." Eoique Arabes pinguis et Assyria.”
Nothing is known of this man, whose name Ovid also says (Trist. iii. 3. 65. 69), was proverbial for severe censure either in a “Ossa tamen facito parva referantur in urna,
public or private character. (See note on
Hor. l. c.) For 'et' most MSS. have Atque ea cum foliis et amomi pulvere misce."
sed,' which does not give any good • Surdus,' like rūpos, has reference properly 38. Ita fit, postquam sapere urbi] “This to the failure of hearing either actively or is always the way, ever since this taste of passively. (See note on 28.) But it came ours was imported with pepper and palms.' to be applied more generally to anything Sapere hoc' is like ‘nostrum vivere,' &c. dulland spiritless. (See Forcellini.) 'Spirent (s. i. 9, n.) Pepper and palms came from surdum' means "they give no scent at all,' the coast of Syria (v. 136), from whence or a flat one: “ acutum odorem non red- Juvenal's man Umbricius complains that dunt” (Schol.). The adulteration of the the Romans got so much vice (iii. 62 sqq.), olive oil with oil of casia is referred to “Jam pridem Syrus in Tiberim defluxit above (ii. 64). That of casia with an ex- Orontes." (See note.) The commentators
Cum pipere et palmis venit nostrum hoc maris expers,
are much troubled by maris expers.' Ca- thong. Unguine' here is like “uncto' in saubon was the first who thought of maris' 16. Horace has crassum unguentum being the genitive of .mas,' and the sense (A. P. 375); but he means perfumes. being emasculated.' Weber approves this Here coarse oil is meant for mixing with interpretation, and compares i. 103, “si the porridge; as to which see Juv. xiv. 171, testiculi vena ulla paterni Viveret in nobis ?” grandes fumabant pultibus ollae." Our translators Halliday and Gifford so 41. Haec cinere ulterior meluas?] The render the words. But it is manifest that poet drops his irony and asks in scorn, Are Persius, in whose mind the words of you to fear such stuff as this when you are Horace were continually running, thought dead ?' We say beyond the grave;' Persius of “Chium maris expers.” (S. ii. 8. 15), and says " beyond the burning.' He then by way whatever he may have taken the meaning to of shewing his own mind in this matter, be there he meant here. One of the inter. turns and addresses his .heres,' and asks pretations of maris expers' in the passage for a word in his ear. By.meus heres' he of Horace is without salt water,' which was means his heres legitimus,' who would mixed with some Greek wines; and Hein- succeed to his property in the event of his rich supposes that Persius means “salis dying intestate, and who might probably expers,' 'insulsum.' This is an ingenious expect to be named 'heres' if he made a will, solution of the difficulty. So it would be Persius so far identifies himself with his this witless, silly taste of ours.' The ex- subject that he assumes the speaker to have pression would be far-fetched; but I think no 'sui heredes' (Juv. x. 237), Persius though it would not have occurred to the having no children or wife himself. writer himself, it is not improbable he may 43. O bone, num ignoras ?] My good have thus applied it. Jahn, taking Horace's friend, haven't you heard?' as the doctor meaning in the same sense, follows close says, “ Heus, bone, tu palles” (iii. 94). upon Heinrich's interpretation. But he He goes on to say that Caesar has sent takes the sense to be corrupt,' that is, tidings of a great victory over the Germans, wanting in that salt which preserves all and arrangements are being made for a things from corruption. The other inter- grand celebration : he therefore intends to pretation of Horace's meaning is, that the offer a hundred pairs of gladiators, and asks wine had never crossed the seas, and so who shall prevent him. The Caesar he some interpreters take this place as a taste means is Caligula, whose ridiculous preof home growth. This is the interpretation tence of an expedition against the Germans, of Turnebus (Adv. 30. 7), and of Meister, B.C. 40, is related by Suetonius (Caligula, who has written a treatise on this passage. 43, 999.). Tacitus speaks of it and a pre(Ueber A. Persii S. vi. 37–40. Leipzig, tended expedition against Britain as “ Caia1810.) The words as they stand in the narum expeditionum ludibrium” (Hist. iv. text will not bear this meaning, and to sus 15). His object was plunder, of which he was tain it they separate ‘nostrum hoc maris insatiate. The son of a British chief came expers' from what goes before. When I to Caligula in North Gallia and ceded the wrote my note on Horace (1. c.) I thought whole is and to him, whereupon he sent a this was the meaning of Persius and of flaming letter to announce the fact to the Horace. But on farther reflection I do not Senate. Afterwards he got up a sham engagethink it is, but that maris expers' here ment in a wood by the Rhine, sending some means without salt' (wit), as there it is German prisoners across the river to reprewithout salt water.'
sent the enemy, who were then reported as 40. Foenisecae crasso] “Foenisices' is coming down in great force. He marched his the more common form. It means. mowers.' army down to the sea-shore, and when they He uses it generally for country labourers, got there ordered them to pick up shells as as he uses fossor' (v. 122). Heinrich spoils of the ocean, to be dedicated in the and Jahn have 'ae' in the first syllable on Capitol and Palatium, and built a lightthe authority of the MSS. Orelli has' oe,' house to commemorate this victory. He and Forcellini says that is the right diph- then made arrangements for a triumph on