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Ewv, Rv. These words make a complete sentence, and are thus translated into French : "Napoléon étant le lion des peuples, al lait détruisant les cités."


From Read's Weekly Journal or British Gazetteer, Saturday, April 27, 1734:

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The following are some specimens of this curious class of motto:

Deo paget.PAGET.
Του αριστευειν ένεκα.-HENNIKER.
Forte scutum salus ducum. -FORTESCUE.
Hoc in loco dens---HOCKIN.
Fides montium Deo.--HILL.
Et juste et vrai.—WRAY.
Fari fac.-FAIRFAX.
Recipiunt foemina sustentacula a nobis.-PATTENMAKERS' COMPANY.
God the only Founder.-FOUNDERS' COMPANY.
Omnia subjecisti sub pedibus, oves et boves.—BUTCHERS'.


It may not be altogether uninteresting to ascertain the date when the knowledge of Guano and its fertilising properties was first introduced to the English public. There is a mention of this substance in 1670, in a little work then printed, called the Art of Metalls, translated from the Spanish. Although the title-page of that edition does not mention the name of the translator, he is known to have been Edward Montagu, Earl of Sandwich. The title was thus:

The First Book of the Art of Metalls; written in Spanish by Albano Alonzo Baxba, Master of Art, born in the Town of Lepe in Andalusia, Curate of St. Bernard's Parish in the Imperial City of Potosi, in the Kingdom of Peru in the W. I., in the Year 1640. Translated into English in the Year 1669: Lond., sm. 8vo., 1670.

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At p. 16 is the

16 is the passage alluded to, viz. Cardanus, amongst his curiosities, makes mention of another kinde of earth, anciently called Britannica (from the country where it is found); they were fain to dig very deep mines to come at it. It was white; and after they had separated the plate it contained, they manured their tilth-fields with the earth, which were put in heart thereby for 100 years after. Out of islands in the South Sea, not far from the city of Arica, they fetch earth that doth the same effect as the last afore-mentioned. It is called Guano (i. e. dung); not because it is the dung of sea-fowls (as many would have it), but because of its admirable virtue in making ploughed ground fertile. And that which is brought from the island of Iqueyque is of a dark gray colour, like unto tobacco ground small. Although from other islands near Arica they get a white earth, inclining to sallow, of the same virtue. It instantly colours water whereinto it is put, as if it was the best ley, and smells very strong. The qualities and virtues of this, and of many other simples of the new world, are a large field for ingenious persons to discourse philosophically upon, when they shall bend their minds to the searching out of truth, rather than riches.

Another and earlier mention of guano occurs in the translation of the Spanish Jesuit, Joseph de Acosta's Historia natural y moral de las Indias, published in the year 1604, by E. G., the initials, it is supposed, of Edward Grimestone, under the title of the Naturall and Morall Historie of the East and West Indies.

Acosta had resided seventeen years in Peru, and his work was first printed at Seville in 1590. The extract (at p. 311) is as follows:

There are other birdes at the Indies, contrarie to these, of so rich feathers,

the which (besides that they are ill-favoured) serve to no other use but for dung; and yet perchance they are of no lesse profite. I have considered this, wondering at the providence of the Creator, who hath so appointed that all creatures should serve man. In some islands or phares, which are joyning to the coast of Peru, wee see the toppes of the mountaines all white, and to sight you would take it for snow, or for some white land; but they are heapes of dung of sea fowle, which go continually thither; and there is so great abundance as it riseth many elles, yea, many launces in height, which seemes but a fable. They go with boates to these ilands, onely for the dung, for there is no other profit in them. And this dung is so commodious and profitable, as it makes the earth yeelde great aboundance of fruite. They cal this dung guano, whereof the valley hath taken the name, which they call Timaguana,* in the valleys of Peru, where they use this dung, and it is the most fertile of all that countre. The quinces, poungranets, and other fruites there, exceede all other in bountie and greatnes : and they say the reason is, for that the water wherewith they water it passeth by a land compassed with this dung, which causeth the beautie of this fruite. So as these birds have not only the flesh to serve for meate, their singing for recreation, their feathers for ornament and beautie, but also their dung serves to fatten the ground. The which hath bin so appointed by the soveraigne Creator for the service of man, that he might remember to acknowledge and be loyall to Him from whom all good proceedes.


In Howell's Familiar Letters, on what would be, if it were paged, p. 256 (edit. 8vo. London, 1650), is an address "To the Intelligent Reader," from which we learn that an attempt to introduce a phonetic spelling of the English language was then made by the author. He did not, however, project so great a change as the more recent professors of the phonetic art, the editor of The Phonetic News for example, the first number of which paper, published 6th January, 1849, is now before me. In this paper the phonetic alphabet is made to consist of forty letters and two auxiliary signs," with several additional letters to express “foreign sounds which do not occur in English.” Howell, however, is content to remove such letters as appear to him redundant. He speaks on this wise :

* Lunaguana in the original.

Amongst other reasons which make the English Language of so small extent, and put strangers out of conceit to learn it, one is, that we do not pronounce as we write, which proceeds from divers superfluous letters, that occur in many of our words, which adds to the difficulty of the language : Therefore the Author hath taken pains to retrench such redundant, unnecessary letters in this work (though the Printer hath not bin so carefull as he should have bin), as amongst multitudes of other words may appear in these few, done, some, come ; which though wee, to whom the speech is connaturall, pronounce as monosyllables, yet when strangers com to read them, they are apt to make them dissillabls, as do-ne, so-me, co

me, therefore such an e is superfluous. Amongst the changes which the author advocates, many agree with our present orthography, as physic, favor, war, pity, not physique, favour, warre, pitie ; but in others he differs greatly from the received mode, as he proposes peeple, tresure, toung, parlement, &c., for people, treasure, tongue, parliament, &c. He adds :

The new Academy of Wits call'd L'Académie de beaux esprits, which the late Cardinal de Richelieu founded in Paris, is now in hand to reform the French language in this particular, and to weed it of all superfluous Letters, which makes the Toung differ so much from the Pen that they have expos'd themselves to this contumelious Proverb, The Frenchman doth neither pronounce as he writes, nor speak as he thinks, nor sing as he pricks. And he quotes a “ topic axiom” of Aristotle as applicable to phonetics, “Frustra fit per plura, quod fieri potest per pauciora.”


Hogarth and Garrick sitting together after dinner, Hogarth was lamenting there was no portrait of Fielding, when Garrick said, “I think I can make his face." “Pray, try, my dear Davy," said the other. Garrick then made the attempt, and so well did he succeed, that Hogarth immediately caught the likeness, and exclaimed with exultation, “Now I have him : keep still, my dear Davy!" To work he went with pen and ink, and the likeness was finished by their mutual recollections. This sketch has been engraved from the original drawing, and is preserved among several original drawings and prints in the illustrated copy of Lyson's Environs, vol. i. p. 544, in the King's Library, British Museum.


EDINBURGH, 11th April, 1774. DEAR SIR:

When Mr. Johnson and I arrived at Inveraray after our expedition to the Hebrides, and there for the first time after many days renewed our enjoyment of the luxuries of civilized life, one of the most elegant that I could wish to find was lying for me, a letter from Mr. Garrick. It was a pineapple of the finest flavor, which had a high zest indeed amongst the heathcovered mountains of Scotia. That I have not thanked

That I have not thanked you for it long ere now, is one of those strange facts for which it is so difficult to account, that I shall not attempt it. The Idler has strongly expressed many of the wonderful effects of the vis inertiæ of the human mind. But it is hardly credible that a man should have the warmest regard for his friend, a constant desire to show it, and a keen ambition for a frequent epistolary intercourse with him, and yet should let months roll on without having resolution, or activity, or power, or whatever it be, to write a few lines. А. man in such a situation is somewhat like Tantalus reversed. He recedes, he knows not how, from what he loves, which is full as provoking as when what he loves recedes from him. That my complaint is not a peculiar fancy, but deep in human nature, I appeal to the authority of St. Paul, who, though he had not been exalted to the dignity of an apostle, would have stood high in fame as a philosopher and orator, “What I would that do I not.You need be under no concern as to your debt to me for the

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