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the after-birth was necessary. It the pia mater, were less distended was effected with little difficulty, with blood than was to be expected and was followed by a very trifling after so severe a labour. The vendischarge of either fluid or coagu- tricles or cavities of the brain conlated blood.

tained very little fluid. The plexus The princess now was as well choroides, a very vascular part and composed as ladies usually are within the ventricles, was of a pale immediately after delivery; and colour; and the substance of the continued so until a quarter before brain had its natural texture. twelve o'clock, taking frequently The pericardium, or envelope small supplies of nourishment; but of the heart, contained two ounces at this time she became restless and of red coloured Auid. The heart rather talkative, and complained of itself and the lungs were in a nabeing sick. She vomited, but no- tural state. The stomach con. thing was ejected, except a little tained nearly three pints of liquid. camphor julep, which she had The colon (the largest of the intaken ; and at this moment her testines) was distended with air. pulse was firm, steady, and under The kidneys and other abdominal á hundred. She again was com. viscera were in a natural state, posed. About half past twelve, The womb itself contained a however, the breathing became im- considerable quantity of blood, and peded; the respiratory organs were extended as high up in the abdo. evidently under the influence of men as the navel; and the hour. spasm, and continued in that state glass contraction was still very apuntil she breathed her last, at half. parent. half-past two o'clock; exactly five The foregoing narrative throws hours and a half after her delivery, very little light upon the immediate

In this afflicting state of the cause of the death of the princess. case, Dr. Baillie and Dr. Sims, who The fluid found in the pericardium had been called into the room when might have obstructed the due acthe breathing first became affected, tion of the heart; but it is not easy united their judgement and their to account for its presence there, skill with that of sir Richard Croft, nor to conceive that so large a but in vain, to avert the impending quantity could have been effused calamity. Art proved unavailing; during the short space of time that although every thing which it supervened to delivery, before the could devise, and which experience breathing became impeded. The could suggest, was attempted. quantity of blood which was found

On the 7th of November, the in the womb might have induced body was opened by sir Everard exhaustion; but this opinion can Home, assisted by sir David Dun- only be conjectural, as it is im. das, Mr. Brande, and the apothe possible to draw any certain infecary of prince Leopold's household; rence from the rather indefinite ex. and, we believe, the following is pression “considerable,"contained a pretty accurate statement of in the report of the surgeons. Con. the appearances these gentlemen jecture, indeed, has been busy, and observed:

a phalanx of casual circumstances The membranes of the brain have been arranged to account for presented their natural aspect. The the dissolution ; some of which are vessels of one of its envelopes, called ungenerously and unguardedly, not

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to say maliciously, calculated to at. tion; and to this hereditary predistach blame to the medical attend. position, and the increased excitaants; but we must consider such bility of the amiable sufferer, owing expositions as unjust to the indivi- to the tedious nature of the labour, duals concerned, and in no degree are we left to ascribe an event which honourable to the profession. We has destroyed the flattering hopes have been informed that the whole of the nation, and lopped off the of the royal family are liable to fairest branch from che stem of its the spasms of a violent descrip- monarchal succession.

CHAPTER XIII.

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State and Affairs of Foreign Kingdoms during the Year 1817.-France

Spain--Portugal - The Netherlands--Austria-PrussiuIVirtemberg, and the rest of Germany, Sweden, RussiaUnited States of America - South America-West Indies--East Indies. country, besides Great Brie of government have hecome more

sound and practical than they thing very interesting, or that will were. detain us long. Considerable anx. There are, however, some cir. iety and doubt, indeed, must still, cumstances connected with the state and for a considerable future pe- of France during the year 1817, riod, exist with regard to the pro- which may serve to guide us in our bability of France's settling into a inquiries in these most interesting regular and peaceably disposed go- and important points. In the first vernment; and the friends of free- place, the feelings and wishes of the dom and the real happiness of man- military part of the nation seem ad. kind must be equally anxious re- verse to repose,-as eager after specting the probability of her being war, and as unprincipled as ever. rendered qualified for it, by the dis- This is manifest, whenever and cipline she has undergone; and, if wherever they have an opportunity qualified, being able to obtain and of expressing their feelings and secure national liberty, and those wishes. It is surprising, therefore, political and civil rights without that the French government, which which the people of no country cannot possibly be ignorant of these can long be, at the same time, things, should have passed a conpowerful and happy. But it is scription law,--altered and modiextremely difficult to foresee what fied, indeed, in some respects, from will be the result; because it is im- the conscription law of Bonaparte, possible to learn, either from the but still of such a nature as must accounts of the French papers, or raise a much larger army than is from the reports of travellers, what necessary for the defence of France, are the actual feelings of the French and of course, in the present state of people towards the Bourbons, that army, dangerous to her repose, whether they have abandoned that and to the repose of the rest of Eu. love of glory, which in them is rope. It is worthy of remark too, always fatal both to principle and that this army, which will amount to repose, and whether their notions about 250,000 men, is to be raised at

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time when France declares herself the character and conduct of the incapable of paying those sums to French king and his ministers can the allies, which by the treaty she act on the future fate of France, the bound herself to do. This feature prospect is rather cheering. The in the picture of France, therefore, French princes, too, are not such is by no means favourable to her open and imprudent advocates for tranquillity, or to her preservation ultra-royalism as they were; and it of peace with the rest of Enrope. is said that the duc d'Angoulême, And if she does engage in war during a tour which he made in again, Britain will be the nation the western provinces of France, against whom, if possible, she will those provinces that are devoted direct her vengeance; for though to ultra-royalism, --recommended the British troops have all along be. forgetfulness, moderation, and achaved towards France with much quiescence. more moderation, and indeed for. The proceedings of the twocham. bearance, than any of the other fo. bers in the year 1817 have presented reign troops ; yet against Britain, nothing very interesting; nor do the hostile and rancorous feelings we perceive that the speeches of of nearly all classes of Frenchmen, the members abound, more than and especially of her military, are they did, in sound and practical openly and avowedly directed. views of the real interests of the

In the second place, the conduct nation, or in clear and able expoof the French king, and even of the sitions of those sober and genuine royal family, as well as the mea. principles of government and li. sures and character of the French berty, which alone can guide the ministry, are favourable to the re- counsels of a pation to the attainpose and happiness of that country. ment and preservation of liberty It is not our intention to staie all and happiness. the changes that have taken place The point in the political ther. in the French ministry ; but only to mometer (if the expression may be point out the character of those allowed) at which national freedom changes, and their probable inflı stands, may be ascertained pretty ence on the state of the country. accurately, by attending to two cirWhen Louis first returned to France, cumstances:--in the first place the he seems to have thrown himself trial by jury, and secondly the state completely into the arms of some of of the liberty of The press, the most distinguished, and at the The French are certainly becomsame ime most profligate actors in ing more and more impressed with the rev. lution. After he shook nim- the conviction that the crial by jury self loose from these, he gavebimself is a most important blessing; and too much to the ultra-royalists; as they understand its nature and to those men, whom twenty five benefits beiter, and manage it more years of calamity had not taught in accordance with that nature, and wisdom. At present, he has in a in such a manner as to secure those great measure avoided both ex- blessings in their most pure and es. tremes; and though some of his tended state, they will prize it still ministers do not see a wisely chosen, higher, and derive still greater adand some of their measures are not vantages from it. It is not merely so liberal or judicious as could be that a trial by jury secures the due wished, yet, on the whole, so far as and impartial administration of jus. rice, that it ought to be prized. It their having agreed to risque so is also highly valuable, hy acustom- very large a sum, must appear a ing and disposing the minds of men presumption that France will reLo think for themselves on questions main quiet and at peace. of law and politics, and to feel sen- On the whole, we are disposed sible of their own weight and value to be of opinion, that the great mass in the state. The French revolu. of the French nation are desirous of tion, in the midst of all the horrors tranquillity and repose. We do it gave birth to, produced one bless- not think they regard any of the ing: with it there sprang up in allies with friendly feelings; but France 'a middle class of men, we hardly imagine, that at present chiefly by the overgrown estates of they contemplate the period, when the noblesse having been broken they would wish to indulge their into small portions, and bought by hostile feelings, at the risque of men, who thus secured mental and plunging their country into war, bodily independence. If these men and probably again rendering her can be taught to know their own the footstool of the conquerors. So importance, they must have it far, therefore, as the great mass of greatly in their power to counter, the people are concerned, the proact on the one hand, any approaches bability of peace seems considerto despotism on the part of the go. able. But when we turn to the mi. vernment, and any attempt to break litary on the one hand, and the out into the military mania, on the ultra-royalists on the other hand, part of the soldiers.

we must confess that our fears preWhen it is recollected that the de- ponderate. There can be no doubt ranged state of the French finances that the military are eager for regave birth, or rather occasion, to venge, and to wipe off the stigma the revolution, considerable anx- cast on themselves: for we believe iety must be felt respecting the pre- them so selfish and egotistical, that sent state of their finances. They if the stigma on their country had certainly are not flourishing, though not touched themselves, or rather not less so than might be expected been inflicted through them, and by from the exhausted condition of the their discomfiture, they would not country, and the large sums which have disturbed themselves greatly they are bound to pay to the allies, about it : but now it boils in their directly or indirectly, by the sup- hearts,-it almost exclusively occuport of their troops. Capital being pies their thoughts, their hopes, and scarce, and credit very low in their plans. And when we consider France; while capital abounds how inflammable the French na. even to an overflow, and credit is tion are on the subject of military very high in England ; the French glory, we are afraid that if the sol. government have raised a large sum diers once applied the match, the of money by way of loan, in the Aame would spread far and wide: latter country. As the principal and the probability of this flame excontractor for the loan must have tending would be increased by the taken every mode of ascertaining conduct of the ultra-royalists; who the state of France, and the proba. . on the one hand exasperate the milibility of her rei aining quiet in her. tary, and on the other rouse the jea. self, and at peace with the rest of lous apprehension of all who have the world; the circumstance of benefited by the revolution, eitherin

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respect respect to property, or civil and po- liked, by those who freed their litical privileges, by their constant country from the tyranny of Boendeavours, as far as they are able, naparte. The finances of Spain to restore the government and in- are in a most deplorable state; and stitutions that existed previously to there do not existin the people inthe revolution.

dustry, talent, capital, or credit, the In consequence of the repeated only sources from which a country and strong representations that can draw revenue. No symptoms were made to the allies regarding of regeneration, or of a disposition the inadequate condition of the to free themselves from the abject French finances to defray the ex- and melancholy condition in which penses of the government, and at they vegetate, has broken out. the same time pay the contributions There was, indeed, a conspiracy and support the foreign troops, the in Valencia ; but whatever was its allies consented to withdraw part real character and object, it was of their forces : and it is generally ill planned and conducted, and supposed, that at the expiration of was soon crushed, and the heads the three years (which will take of it suffered the vengeance of the place in 1818) the whole of them Spanish government. will be withdrawn from France, In Portugal nothing occurred, though, probably, they may be during the year 1817, of the smallkept in the neighbouring states. est importance, except a conspi

With respect to the liberty of the racy, the object of which seems to press in France, it is certainly not have been to render that country placed on that footing which indi. an independent kingdom. The abcates at the same time, a people fit sence of the king of Portugal, to enjoy such liberty, and a go. his having raised Brazil to the vernment disposed to grant it. It rank of a separate kingdom, and must be observed, however, in jus. having seemingly fixed his pertice to the government, that a peo- manent residence there,—together ple who have been so long un- with some dislike to the constant settled in their political opinions interference of the English, and and conduct, are much more likely especially of marshal Beresford, to injure their own real interests, who still retains his command of by the abuse of as large a portion the Portuguese troops, were the of the liberty of the press, as in causes of this conspiracy ;-bue it England might safely be granted, terminated, like that in Spain, fathan by the proper use of it, to see tally to those engaged in it. cure and extend those interests. Some alarm was spread over Eu.

The affairs of Spain still ex- rope, that its repose might be broken hibit a melancholy picture. The by a dispute between Spain and excitement on the part of the peo. Portugal. The Brazilian govern. ple, caused by their hatred of the ment, rather unexpectedly, marched French, rather than by any under- troops into the territories of Buenos standing or relish for real liberty, Ayres, and took possession of Monseems to have given place to the te Video. This step they justimost benumbing and listless tor: fied on the ground that Spain had por; and the imbecility and ty. not fulfilled the treaty of 1815, ranny of Ferdinand's government by giving up all the places on the is patiently endured, if not really frontiers of Spain and Portugal,

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