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(1817 extend our settlements from the in. to these purchases, and to those habited parts of the state of Ohio, which have preceded, the security along Lake Erie, into the Michigan which may thereby be afforded to territory, and to connect our settle- our inland frontiers is peculiarly ments, by degrees, through the state important. With a strong barrier, of Indiana and the Illinois to that consisting of our own people, thus of Missouri. A similar and equally planted on the lakes, the Mississippi advantageous effect will soon be and the Mobile, with the protection produced to the south, through the to be derived from the regular force, whole extent of the states and ter. Indian hostilities, if they do not al. sitory which border on the waters together cease, will henceforth lose empyting into the Mississippi and their terror. Fortifications in those the Mobile. In this progress, which quarters, to any extent, will not be the rights of nature demand and necessary, and the expense attend. nothing can prevent, marking a ing them may be saved. A people growth rapid and gigantic, it is our accustomed to the use of fire-arms duty to make new efforts for the only, as the Indian tribes are, will preservation, improvement, and ci. shun even moderate works which vilization of the native inhabitants. are defended by cannon. Great for. The hunter state can exist only in tifications will, therefore, be requithe vast, uncultivated desert. It site only in future along the coast, yields to the more dense and com- and at some parts of the interior pact form, and greater force, of ci- connected with it. On these will vilized population; and of right it the safety of our towns, and the ought to yield, for the earth was commerce of our great rivers, from given to mankind to support the the bay of Fundy to the Mississippi, greatest number of which it is ca. depend. On these, therefore, should pable; and no tribe or people have the utmost attention, skill, and la. a right to withhold from the wants bour, be bestowed. of others more than is necessary for A considerable and rapid aug. their own support and comfort. It mentation in the value of all the is gratifying to know, that the re- public lands, proceeding from these servations of land made by the and other obvious causes, may treaties with the tribes on Lake henceforward be expected. The Erie were made with a view to in- difficulties attending early emigra. dividual ownership among them, tions will be dissipated even in the and to the cultivation of the soil by most remote parts. Several new all, and that an annual stipend has states have been admitted into our been pledged to supply their other union, to the west and south, and wants. It will merit the considera- territorial governments, happily ora tion of congress, whether other pro- ganized, established over every vision, not stipulated by the treaty, other portion in which there is va. ought to be made for these tribes, cant land for sale. In terminating and for the advancement of the li- Indian hostilities, as must soon be beral and humane policy of the done, in a formidable shape at least, United States towards all the tribes the emigration, which has heretowithin our limits, and more parti- fore been great, will probably in. cularly for their improvement in the crease, and the demand for land, arts of civilized life.

and the increase in its value, be in Among the advantages incident like proportion. The great increase

of

of our population throughout the the intercourse between them, by union, will alone produce an im- means of good roads and canals. portant effect ; and in no quarter Never did a country of such vast will it be so sensibly felt as in those extent offer equal inducements to in contemplation. The public lands improvements of this kind, nor ever are a public stock, which ought to were consequences of such magnis be disposed of to the best advan- tude involved in them. As this tage for the nation. The nation subject was acted on by congress at should, therefore, derive the profit the last session, and there may be proceeding from the continual rise a disposition to revive it at the prein their value. Every encourage- sent, I have brought it into view, ment should be given to the emi. for the purpose of communicating grants consistent with a fair com- my sentiments on a very important petition between them; but that circumstance connected with it, competition should operate, in the with that freedom and candour first sale, to the advantage of the which a regard for the public internation rather than of individuals. est, and a proper respect for conGreat capitalists will derive all the gress, require. A difference of benefit incident to their superior opinion has existed, from the first wealth, under any mode of sale formation of our constitution to which may be adopted. But if, the present time, among our most looking forward to the rise in the va- enlightened and virtuous citizens, lue of the public lands, they should respecting the right of congress to have the opportunity of amassing establish such a system of improve. at a low price vast bodies in their ment. Taking into view the trust hands, the profit will accrue to them with which I am now honoured, it and not to the public. They would would be improper, after what has also have the power, in that degree, passed, that this discussion should to control the emigration and settle- be revived with an uncertainty of ment in such manner as their opi. my opinion respecting the right. nion of their respective interests Disregarding early impressions, I might dictate. I submit this sub. have bestowed on the subject all the ject to the consideration of con- deliberation which its great imporgress, that such further provision tance and a just sense of my duty may be made in the sale of the required; and the result is a settled public lands, with a view to the conviction in my mind that conpnblic interest, should any, be gress do not possess the right. It deemed expedient, as in their judge is not contained in any of the spement may be best adapted to the cified powers granted to congress; object.

nor can I consider it incidental to, When we consider the vast ex- or a necessary means, viewed on the tent of territory within the United most liberal scale, for carrying into States, the great amount and value effect any of the powers which are of its productions, the connection specifically granted. In communiof its parts, and other circum- cating this result, I cannot resist stances on which their prosperity the obligation which I feel to sug. and happiness depend, we cannot gest to congress the propriety of fail to entertain a high sense of the recommending to the states the adadvantages to be derived from the option of an amendment to the facility which may be afforded in constitution, which shall give to

congress congress the right in question. In to have arrived when this subject cases of doubtful construction, espe- may be deemed worthy the atiencially of such vital interest, it com- tion of congress, on a scale adequate ports with the nature and origin of to national purposes. The comple. our constitutions, and will contri- tion of the middle building will be bute much to preserve them, to necessary to the convenient accom. apply to our instituents for an ex. modation of congress, of the complicit grant of the power. We may mittees, and various offices belong. confidently rely, that if it appears ing to it. It is evident that the to their satisfaction that the power other public buildings are altoge. is necessary, it will always be ther insufficient for the accommo. granted. In this case I am happy dation of the several executive de. io observe, that experience has af- partments, some of whom are much forded the most ample proof of its crowded, and even subjected to the utility; and that the benign spirit necessity of obtaining it in private of conciliation and harmony, which buildings, at some distance from now manifests itself throughout the head of the department, and our union, promises to such a re- with inconvenience to the managecommendation the most promptment of the public business. Most and favourable result. I think nations have taken an interest and proper to suggest also, in case this a pride in the improvement and measure is adopted, that it be re- ornament of their metropolis; and commended to the states to con- none were more conspicuous in that clude in the amendment sought, respect than the ancient republics. a right in congress to institute, The policy which dictated the estalikewise, seminaries of learıing, forblishment of a permanent residence the all-important purpose of dif- for the national government, and fusing knowledge among our fel. the spirit in which it was comlow-citizens throughout the United menced and has been prosecuted, States.

show that such improvement was Our manufactories will require thought worthy the attention of this the continued attention of con- nation. Its central position, begress. The capital employed in tween the northern and southern them is considerable; and the know- extremes of our union, and its aplegde acquired in the machinery proach to the west, at the head of and fabric of all the most useful a great navigable river which intermanufactures is of great value. locks with the western waters, prove Their preservation, which depends the wisdom of the councils which on due encouragement, is connected established it. Nothing appears to with the high interests of the nation. be more reasonable and proper,

Although the progress of the than that convenient accommoda. public buildings has been as favour- tions should be provided, on a wellable as circumstances have per. digested plan, for the heads of the mitted, it is to be regretted that the several departments, and for the capitol is not yet in a state to re. attorney.general ; and it is believed ceive you. There is good cause to that the public ground in the city, presume that the two wings, the applied to those objects, will be only parts as yet commenced, will found amply sufficient. I submit be prepared for that purpose at the this subject to the consideration of next session. The time seems now congress, that such further provisions may be made in it as to them extent provided for; to the paymay seem proper.

ment of the interests on the public In contemplating the happy situ- debt, and to the extinguishment ation of the United States, our at- of it at the times authorized, withtention is drawn, with peculiar in- out the aid of the internal taxes ; terest, to the surviving officers and I consider it my duty to recom. soldiers of our revolutionary army, mend to congress their repeal. who so eminently contributed, by To impose taxes, when the public their services, to lay its foundation. exigencies require them, is an obli. Most of those very meritorious ci- gation of the most sacred charactizens have paid the debt of nature, ter, especially with a free people. and gone to repose. It is believed The faithful fulfilment of it is that among the survivors there are among the highest proofs of their some not provided for by existing virtue, and capacity for self-golaws, who are reduced to indigence, vernment. To dispense with taxes, and even to real distress. These men when it may be done with perfect have a claim on the gratitude of safety, is equally the duty of their their country, and it will do honour representatives. In this instance to their country to provide for them. we have the satisfaction to know, The lapse of a few years more, and that they were imposed when the the opportunity will be for ever lost. demand was imperious, and have Indeed, so long already has been been sustained with exemplary fidethe interval, that the number to be lity. I have to add, that, however benefited by any provision which gratifying it may be to me, regardmay be made will not be great. ing the prosperous and happy con

It appearing in a satisfactory dition of our country, to recommanner that the revenue arising mend the repeal of these taxes at from imports and tonnage, and this time, I shall nevertheless be atfrom the sale of the public lands, tentive to events, and, should any will be fully adequate to the sup- future emergency occur, be not less port of the civil government, of the prompt to suggest such measures present military and naval esta. and burdens as may then be requiblishments, including the annual site and proper. augmentation of the latter, to the

James MONROE.
Washington,
Dec. 2. 1817.

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1.-PUBLIC INCOME OF GREAT BRITAIN,

FOR THE YEAR ENDING FIFTH JANUARY, 1817.

An Account of the ORDINARY REVENUES and EITRAORDINARY RESOURCES constituting the

PUBLIC INCOME of GREAT BRITAIN.

GROSS RECEIPT:
Total Suns to be accounted

HEADS OF REVENUE.

Drawbacks, Dik Oiints, Changes of Management, &c. paid out of the

Groes Revenue.

NET applicable to i Objec?, anu to pya.

into the Each

for.

S.

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s. d. £.

d. £. 11,154,879 3831 2,985,098 12 14 8,169,780 174 | 21,671,610 14 34 2,657,980 5 2 9,013,630 914 6,526,164 18 341,876 7 104 6,184,288 105 7,562,411 9 7 304,504 !257,257,906 17 14 2,207,788 4 10

547,933 8 6 1,659,854 16 4 23,029 18 5

453 11 7 22,576 6 10 14,323 14 5

663 10 4 13,660 41 31011 14 81 4,515 7 10 26,496 6 104 25,0:38 15 34)

3,002 5 3

22,036 10 04

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TOTAL Permanent and Annual Duties 19,216,268 13 64 6,846,0281

1 2,370,220 12 51

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Estraordinary Resources.

War Taxes,
CUSTOMS
EXCISE.
PROPERTY TAX
ARREARS OF INCOME DUTY, &c...

1,246,409 7 9 238,599 2 04 1,007,810 5 9 6,035,302 11 9 1,453,664 15 A 4,581,637 16 71 12,276,870 18 51 237,750 71112,039,120 10 4 36 18 0

18

96 0 0

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4

1

Lottery, Net Profit (of which one-third
part is for the Service of Ireland)...... 252,166 13

17,486 0 234,680 13 4 Monies paid on Account of the Interest of Loans raised for the Service of Ireland 4,558,558 8 1

4,558,558 81 On Account of Balance due by Ireland, on joint Fxpenditure of the United Kingdom 1,184,0098 5

1,184,009 85 On Account of the Commissioners, ap.

pointed by Act 95 Geo. 3, cap. 127, and 37 Geo. 3, cap. 27, for issuing Ex. chequer Bills for Grenada, &c.

5,091 17

5,091 17 1 Unclaimed Dividends paid into the Ex

chequer by the Chief Cashier of the Bank of England

309,506 18

303,506 18 6 Surplus Fees of Regulated Public Offices 28,619 10 8

6

28,619 10 $ Imprest Monies repaid by sundry Public Accountants, and other Monies paid 201,259 8 93

101,259 8 9 TOTAL (independent of Loans).... 75,976,885 99 8,797,465 08366,579,420 904 LOANS paid into the Exchequer (inclu

diog the amount of those raised for the service of Ireland. ....

8,999,802 16 8

8,939,802 16 % GRAND TOTAL.... 84,316,688 6 08,797,465 0 87/75,519,223 5 5

to the Public ....

1

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