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of one colour : they have no pro: rings and ear.rings, all ber neck perty of consequence, except a few chains, with their ornaments, and asses : their gate is shut and fastened the bracelets from her wrists and every night at dark, and very ancles, and gave them to me in strongly guarded both in the night exchange for it: these ornaments and in the day-time. The Shegar would weigh more than a pound, or king is always guarded by one and were made of solid gold at hundred men on mules, armed with Tombuctoo, and I kept them through good guns, and one hundred men my whole journey afterwards, and on foot, with guns and long knives. carried them to my wife, who now He would not go into the Millah, wears a part of them. Tombuctoo and we only saw him four or five carries on a great trade with all the times in the two moons we stayed caravans that come from Morocco at Tombuctoo, waiting for the and the shores of the Mediterranean caravan : but it had perished on sea. From Algiers, Tunis, Tripoli, the Desert-neither did the yearly &c. are brought all kinds of cloths, caravan from Tunis and Tripoli iron, salt, muskets, powder, and arrive, for it had also been destroyed, lead, swords or sciaitars, tobacco, The city of Tombuctoo is very rich opium, spices, and perfumes, amber as well as very large ; it has four beads and other trinkets, with a gates to it; all of them are opened few other articles; they carry back in the day-time, but very strongly in return elephants' teeth, gold dust, guarded and shut at night. The and wrought gold, gum senegal, negro women are very fat and ostrich feathers, very curiously handsome, and wear large round worked turbans, and slaves ; a great gold rings in their noses, and flat many of the latter, and many other ones in their ears, and gold chains articles of less importance: the and amber beads about their necks, slaves are brought in from the south with images and white fish-bones, west, all strongly ironed, and are bent round, and the ends fastened sold very cheap; so that a good together, hanging down between stout man may be bought for a their breasts : they have bracelets on haick, which costs in the e.npire of their wrists and on their ancles, and Morocco about two dollars. The go barefoot. I had bought a small caravans stop and encamp about snuff-box filled with snuff in Mo- two miles from the city in a deep rocco, and showed to the women valley, and the negroes do not moin the principal street of Tombuctoo, lest them : they bring their merwhich is very wide : there were a chandise near the walls of the city, great many about me in a few where the inhabitants purchase all minutes, and they insisted on buying their goods in exchange for the my snuff and box;---one made me above-mentioned articles; not more one offer, and another made me than fifty men from any one caravan another, until one, who wore richer being allowed to enter the city at a ornaments than the rest, told me, time, and they must go out before in broken Arabic, that she would others are permitted to enter. This take off all she had about her and city also carries on a great trade give them to me for the box and with Wassanah, (a city far to the its contents. I agreed to accept south-east,) iu all the articles that them, and she pulled off her nose. are brought to it by caravans, and


get returns in slaves, elephants’ thousand Moors and six thousand teeth, gold, &c. The principal Jews: this may be a high estima. male inhabitants are clothed with tion for Tombuctoo ; making it blue cloth shirts, that reach from two hundred and sixteen thousand their shoulders down to their knees, inhabitants; yet considering the and are very wide, and girt about commercial importance of the place, their loins with a red and brown and the fertility of the country cotton sash or girdle: they also around it, there can be no doubt hang about their bodies pieces of but it contains a vast number of in. different coloured cloth and silk habitants; and I must also observe, handkerchiefs : the king is dressed that if it was a small town, and in a white robe of a similar fashion, contained the riches attributed to but covered with white and yellow it, they would require a very strong gold and silver plates, that glitter force to prevent the Arabs from the in the sun ;-he also has many Desert, together with the caravans, other shining ornaments of shells from taking it by surprize or by and stones hanging about him, and storm.] wears a pair of breeches like the “ The women are clothed in a Moors and Barbary Jews, and bas light shirt or under-dress, and over a kind of white turban on his it a green, red, or blue covering, head, pointing up, and strung with from their breasis to below their different kinds of ornaments ; his knees the whole girt about their feet are covered with red Morocco waists with a red girdle; they stain shoes; he has no other weapon their cheeks and foreheads red or about him than a large white staff yellow on some occasions, and the or sceptre, with a golden lion on married women a kind of the head of it, which he carries in lood on their heads, made of blue his hand : his whole countenance cloth, or silk, and cotton handkeris mild, and he seems to govern his chiefs of different kinds and colours, subjects more like a father than a and go barefoot. The king and king. The whole of his officers people of Tombuctoo do not fear and guards wear breeches that are and worship God, like the Moslegenerally died red, but sometimes inins, but like the people of Soudan, they are white or blue : all but the they only pray one time in twentyking go bareheaded. The poor four hours, when they see the people have only a single piece of moon, and when she is not seen blue or other about them, and they do not pray at all: they the slaves a breech cloth. The in- cannot read or write, but are honest, habitants in Tombuctoo are very and they circumcise their children numerous; I think six times as like the Arabs: they have many as in Swearah, besides the mosques, but dance every night, as Arabs and other Moslemin or Mo- the Moors and Arabs pray. The hammedans, in their Millah, Shegar or king had collected about separate town; which must con- one thousand slaves, some gums, tain nearly as many people as there elephants' teeth, gold dust, &c. to are altogether in Swearah." be ready for the yearly caravans;

[Note by the Author.-SWEARAH but as three moons had passed away or Mogadore contains about thirty since the time they ought to have six thousand souls ; that is, thirty arrived, he gave them up for lost,





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and concluded to send a caravan we travelled, and our course was a with part of his goods that came little to the south of east; when we across the Desert ; viz. some salt, came to a small town, called Bibiron, cloths, &c. to a large city at a binah, walled in with canes and great distance from Tombuctoo: thorn-bushes, and stopped two days and having formed a body of about near it, to get provisions and rest three thousand men, well armed our beasts : here the river turned with muskets, long knives, and more to the south-eastward, because spears, and three thousand asses, there was a very high mountain in and about two hundred camels, sight to the eastward: we then went which were all loaded with heavy from the river side, and pursued our goods, such as iron, salt, tobacco, journey more southwardly, througb &c., he hired my brother Seid and a hilly and woody country, for inyself (with ten more of our com- fifteen days, when we came to the panions) to carry loads on our two same river again. Every night we camels to Wassanah, for which he were obliged to make up large was to give us, when we came back, fires all around the caravan to keep two haicks each and some gold. off the wild beasts, such as lions, As we were completely in his tigers, and others, which made a power, we did not dare to refuse to dreadful howling.

Here was a go, and he put us under the care of small town of black people belonghis brother, whose name was ing to another nation, who were Shelbaa, who had command of the enemies to the King of Tombucto), whole caravan. It was in the but were friendly to the king of month of Shual ( - ) when we Wassanah ; and not being strong, departed from Tombuctoo for a they did not molest us, but furnished place we had never before heard us with what worn we wanted, and of. We had in company about twenty oxen. We saw a large two hundred Moslemins, but the number of armed black men, nearly master of the caravan would not naked, on the other side of the permit us Moslemins to keep our river, who seemed to be hostile, guns, for fear we should turn against but they could not get across to him, if he was obliged to fight." attack us : we also saw two very

“ All being prepared, we went large towns, but walled in like the from Tombuctoo, about two hours others we had passed : we stopped ride, towards the south, to the bank here, and rested our camels and of the river, which is called at that asses five days, and then went place Zolibib, and was wider than onward again in about a S. E. difrom Mogadore to the island; (i. e. rection, winding, as the river ran, about five hundred yards ;) here for three days; and then bad 10 was a miserable village, built with climb over a very high ridge of canes, and mudded over : it had mountains, which took up six days, about two hundred small houses in and when we were on the top of it, but no walls: we then set off them, we could see a large chain of near the side of the river, and tra- high inountains to the westward : velled on in a plain even country those we passed were thickly cofor six days, every day within sigbt vered with very large trees, and it of the river, which was on our right was extremely difficult to get up hand, and running the same way and down them; but we could not




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go any other way, for the river ran hardly see a man across it on the against the steep side of the moun- other side : the people of Tomtain; so having gotten over them, buctoo call it Zolibib, and those of we came to the river's bank again, Wassanah call it Zadi. The walls where it was very narrow and full of the city are very large, and made of rocks, that dashed the water of great stones, laid up like the dreadfully : then finding a good stone fences in the province of Hah path, we kept on to the S. E. wind- Hah, in Morocco, but without any ing a little every day, sometimes clay or mud amongst them : they more to the east, then to the south are very thick and strong, and much again : we kept travelling this way bigher than the walls of Tombuctoo. for twelve days after leaving the I was permitted to walk round them mountains, during which time we in company with six negroes, and had seen the river nearly every day it took me one whole day : the on our right hand, and had passed walls are built square, and have one a great many small streams that large gate on each side. The coun. empty into it: it was now very wide, try all around the city is dug up, and looked deep-here we and has barley, corn, and other vemany trees dug out hollow, like the getables planted on it; and close by boats at Tombuctoo, and they were the side of the river, all the land is used to carry negroes across the covered with rice, and there are a river, and

pushed along great many oxen, and cows, and with Aat pieces of wood : we also asses, belonging to the city, but no

the high mountains on the camels, nor horses, mules, sheep, west side of the great river, very nor goats, but all about and in the plainly. Having rested seven days city, speckled fowls abound, and at the ferrying-place, we then there are plenty of eggs. The travelled on for fifteen days, most people of the caravan were allowed of the time in sight of the river. io enter the city, but only twenty When we came close to the walls at a time, and they were all obliged of the city of Wassanah, the king to go out again before night. came out with a great army, con

We had been there more than sisting of all his soldiers, to meet a mioon, when it came to my turn us, but finding we had only come to go in. I found almost the whole to trade by the orders of, and with of the ground inside of the walls the goods of, his friend Shegar of covered with huts made of Tombuctoo, he invited the chief, stones piled up without clay, and and the whole of the caravan, to some reeds, laid across the tops, abide within a square enclosure, covered over with the large leaves near the walls of the city : here we of the date or palm tree, or of remained two moons, exchanging another tree which looks very much our goods for slaves, gold, ele- like a date tree, and bears a fruit as phants' teeth, &c.

large as my head, which has a white “ The city of Wassanah is built juice in it sweeter than milk; the near the bank of the river, which inside is hard, and very good to eat: runs past it nearly south, between the trees that bear this big fruit high mountains on both sides, grow in abundance in this country, though not very close to the river, and their fruit is very plenty: their which is so wide there that we could huts have narrow passages between


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them: the king or chief is called saw, but they told me these crea. Oleeboo, which means, in the negro tures were very plenty down the talk, good sultan: he is a very tall, river from Wassanah." This anand quite a young man ; his house swers to the description of, and no is very large, square, and bigh, doubt is, the elephant. made of stone, and the chinks filled “ The king of Wassanah has a up with something white like lime, guard of two hundred negroes on but not so hard : they would not foot, one hundred of them armed let me go into his house, and told with muskets, fifty with long spears, me he had one hundred and fifty and fifty with great bows and wives, or more, and ten thousand arrows, with long knives by their slaves : he dresses in a white shirt, sides : they always attend him when that looks like the one worn by Mr. he goes out on his beast; be has Willshire, and long trowsers made also a very large army: they fight like them you have on, and coloured with guns, spears, and bows and like an orange.

Those I then bad arrows. The city has twice as many on were common wide sailor's trow- inhabitants in it as Tombuctoo, sers. " He has over his shirt a and we saw a great many towns caftan or robe with sleeves to it, near it on the other side of the made of red cloth, tied about with river, as well as several small seta girdle that goes from his breast to tlements on the same side below. his hips, made of silk handkerchiefs The king nor the people do not of all colours, and has slips of fine pray like the Moslemins, but they coloured silk tied round his arm and jump about, fall down, tear their legs : his hair is also tied in small faces as if they were mad when any bunches, and he wears on his head of their friends die, and every time a very high hat made of canes, they see the new moon, they make coloured very handsomely, and a great feast, and dance all night to adorned with fine feathers : be has music made by singing and beating sandals on his feet, bound up with on skins tied across a hollow stick, gold chains, and a great gold chain and shaking little stones in a bag or over his shoulder, with a bunch of shell, but they do not read nor ornaments made of bright stones write, and are heathens. Though and shells, that dazzle the eyes, the free people in this place do pet hanging on his breast, and wears al steal, and are very hospitable, yet I large dagger by his side in a gold hope the time is near when the

He rides on the back of a faithful, and they that fear God and huge beast, called Ifemnent, three his prophet, will turn them to the times as thick as any great camel. true belief, or drive them away from and a great deal higher, with a very this goodly land. long nose and great teeth, and The principal inhabitants of almost as black as the negroes : he Wassanah are dressed in shirts of is so strong, that he can kill an white or blue cloth, with shore hundred men in a minute when he trowsers, and some with a long robe is mad--this is the animal that the over the whole, tied about with a teeih grow in which we bring from girdle of different colours : the free Tombuctoo to Widnoon, which you females are generally very fat, and call elephant's teeth, and this was dress in blue or white coverings tied the only one of the animals I ever about their waists with girdles of all

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