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colours: they wear a great many southward, and then to the westornaments of gold, and beads, and ward, where they should come to shells, hanging to their ears and the great water, and sell them to noses, necks, arms, ancles, and all pale people who came there in over their hair ; but the poorer sort great boats, and brought muskets are only covered about their loins and powder, and tobacco, and blue by a cloth which grows on the tree cloth, and knives, &c.—He said it that bears the big fruit I have told was a great way, and would take you about before.” This fruit, I him three moons to get there, and imagine, must be the cocoa-nut, he should be gone twenty moons and I have often in the West Indies, before he could get back by land, and elsewhere, observed the outer but should be very rich." I then bark of this singular palm-tree: it asked him how many boats he supis woven by nature like cloth, each posed there were in the river at thread being placed exactly over Wassanah ? he said :-"A great and under the others. It appears many, three or four hundred, I like regular wove coarse bagging, should think ; but some of them are and is quite strong: it loosens and very small.” We saw a great many drops from the trunk of the tree of of these people who had been down its own accord, as the tree increases the river to see the great water, in size and age. I had long before with slaves and teeth, and came considered that this most singular back again: they said, the pale bark must have suggested to man people lived in great boats, and the first idea of cloth, and taught had guns as big as their bodies, him how to spin, and place the that made a noise like thunder, and threads so as to form it of other would kill all the people in a hunmaterials that have since been used dred negro boats, if they went too for that purpose, and this first hint near them: we saw in the river from nature has been in proved into and on the bank a great number of our present methods of spinning and fish, with legs and large mouths, weaving

and these would run into the water • The male slaves go entirely in a minute, if any man went near naked, but the women are allowed them, but they told us they would a piece of this cloth to cover their catch children, and sometimes men, nakedness with: they are very nu

when in the boats: [these are, no merous, and many of them kept doubt, crocodiles or hippopotachained: they are obliged to work muses:) the negroes are very kind, the earth round about the city. and would always give us barley, The inhabitants catch a great many corn, or rice, milk or meat, if we fish : they have boats made of great were hungry, tbough we could not trees, cut off and hollowed out, that speak a language they understood, will hold ten, fifteen, or twenty While we stopped at Wassanah, it negroes, and the brother of the king rained almost every day. Having told one of my Moslemin com traded away all the goods we carried panions who could understand him, there, Shelbaa took three hundred (for I could not,) that he was going slaves and a great many teeth, 10 set out in a few days with sixty dazzling stones, and shells, and boats, and to carry five hundred gold; with these we set off again, slaves down the river, first to the and went the same way back to

Tombuctoo,

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Tombuctoo, which took us three ing to promise, and a few days afmoons, and we we gone from the terwards a caravan arrived there time we left it, to the time we re- from Tunis, which we joined to turned, eight moons. On my ar- return by that way to our own rival at Tombuctoo, we were paid country.' by the chief of the caravan accord

ARTICLE ll.-FRANCE. By Lady Morgan.

.

2 Vols.

NHIS work is evidently made work as might be expected from an

up for the Booksellers, and it Irish woman, who had engrafted is acknowledged, that in order to on the bad taste, rapid and unconmeet the market, it was written in nected movements of thought, a very hurried manner. It has all impetuous and warm feelings, and the marks of such a work; but at excursive imagination, that distinthe same time it contains several guish her Country, a large porvery lively and characteristic traits tion of French levity, fondoess of France and the French people, for show and effect, and laxity of of all classes particularly the old principle. noblesse It is in fact such

PEASANTRY OF FRANCE.

The agricultural surface of quantity of land which the size of France is divided into what is called, their establishment demands. in the language of the country, “ The pays de petite culture is

le pays de grande, et de petite composed of small farms, for the culture. In the former, the size of cultivation of which the landlord the farms has been little affected by finds the tenant in horses and the revolution : the only difference ploughs, and divides with hin the that has occurred is, that several profits. Upon the large farms the farms belonging to one landlord condition of the tenant is very may have been purchased by the much like that of our own English farmers who formerly cultivated farmers; and in the pays de petite them, or by a small proprietor, culture there exists a race, long diswhose exertions are confined to the appeared from England, of poor but ground he has bought. The pos- independent yeomen, who rear their session of small plots of ground by families in a degree of comfort as the day-labourers has become very , perfect, as it is remote from luxury. frequent; and it is sometimes usual The dwelling of a French farmer in these countries to let them to presents the same scene of rural the great farmers who are desirous bustle, activity, and industry, as is of baving them, to complete the usually found in the English farm

house.

house. The women always appear than the fresh and snowy counfull of occupation and energy, and terpane which accompanied them. share, in common with their hus- An armoire, antecedent (by its bands, fathers, and brothers, the structure) to the days of Boule, toil and anxiety of their condition. held the bridal wardrobe, or rustic

" While we were on a visit in trousseau. Madelaine drew our at. the canton of La Beauce, at the tention also to the high chimneychateau D'Orsonville, the seat of piece, where ticked a handsome the marquis and marquise de Col. pendule, in order to point out to bert Chabanais (and it is a delight- us her taste and her piety, exhibited ful link in the chain of association, in a piece of ornamental wax-work, wbich leads me back to days so representing two young lovers burnhappily passed), we accompanied ing in red worsted Aames, fond and la belle châtelaine, the lady of the devoted as the death-enamoured castle, on a visit to a rural bride, martyrs of M.Chateaubriand;“ Ah, the wife of one of their farmer-te- qu'elle est gentile! n'est-ce pas, Mesnants. We found her already deeply dames? -c'est vraiement une cöefengaged in all the bustle of house- fure charmante !" There was in wifery, standing in the midst of a this dwelling of the farmer every pile of brown loaves, which she was appearance of competency and compreparing for the labourers.

fort ; and though it wanted those Vous voilà déjà occupée dil mé- finishing toucbes of neatness to be nage, ma bonne Madelainesaid found in an English farm- house, marquise de Colbert, as we entered. there was no absence of accommo

" Eh ! mais, mon Dieu, oui, Ma- dation. Good beds, stout furniture, dame, pourquoi pas ?" replied Ma- well-sashed windows, and spacious delaine, sbaking the flour from what hearths, secured to its inhabitants Madame de C- called

all the prime necessaries of an haluxe de jupe,"—the superfluous bitual dwelling, which was never

'quantity of her well-plaited cloth to be exchanged for the chilling petticoat well meriting the epithet. misery of a parish poor-house ; exMadelaine then, with evident pride cept, indeed, a new order of things in her newly acquired opulence, did should provide such an asylum the honours of her house, by re- against tbat indigence, which the questing us to walk into the grande increased taxation, and contribuchambre, or best parlour, and to tions levied on the savings of inleave la maison, as she called dustry, for the maintenance of fothe kitchen, or place of general reign troops, may draw dowo upon reception ; where an immense mar- the prosperous peasantry of the land mite, bubbling over the wood fire, at some future day. seut forth the fume of the savoury “ In the course of a morning's ragout preparing for the family walk in the neighbourhood of the supper.

chateau D'Orsonville, sudden La grande chambre exhibited shower of rain obliged us to take one of those excessively high and shelter in the cottage of a fermier, excellent beds, which it is the am- We found two young women busied bition of every French peasant to in folding up linen of an excellent possess; and its old brocaded hang- quality and colour; and when we ings seemed to boast a nobler origin, had reckoned twelve pair of sheets,

we

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we could not help observing they château of one of our hospitable were rich in house-linen. « Mais French friends, when an accident, ce n'est rien, cela," replied one of which happened to our carriage, the girls, and took some pains to obliged us to stop for an hour in the convince us that what we saw would little village, which stands at the

very
short

way in providing entrance of the valley Dorsai. We beds for the labourers in harvest resolved to turn our misadventure time. Mentioning this circum- to account, by visiting the chateau stance to Monsieur de Cat of the celebrated Madame Cottin, dinner that day, he assured me that which, we understood, was but at a it was not unusual for a fermier to walking distance. She, indeed, have one hundred and fifty pair of was no more!

But the dwelling sheets for the use of his family; for which has once been consecrated by that, in general, the French farmers the residence of Genius (be it pawere sufficiently opulent to indulge lace or hovel), is a shrine to which in a luxury, indispensable in France the mind and imagination naturally among all classes, good linen and turn with pilgrim devotion ; and

Among his own te- the valley of Ďorsai, amidst whose nantry, he added, there were some shades the character of Malek Adel who were supposed to be worth two was created, will long preserve an or three thousand pounds, English interest independent of its own money; and that a few days before, loveliness and romantic beauty. one of his fermiers had given a Having ordered « une petite portion of a thousand Napoleons collation" (as the aubergiste called a with his daughter in marriage. fillet of veal roasting at the fire for

“ Such is the condition of these the breakfast of accidental travellers), small proprietors of lands, of which we walked down towards the valley. their fathers were considered the Our steps were soon arrested by the live stock, whennulle terre, sans appearance of a very handsome chaseigneur," was the maxim of the teau, which hung over a pretty times.

river, and which, as a large placard “ There is something exquisitely informed us, was en vente.We gracious in the contemplation of asked a young peasant (who was that state of things, that true golden eating his gouté of raw artichokes age of a country,

and bread and butter at the gates) rood of ground maintains its man,' who had been its late owner. He and “ les petits propriétairesof answered « Le Marechal Arrighi, France enjoyed by the most nume- the cousin of the Emperor, now an rous class of the peasantry, whether exile," and the chateau and grounds purchased by the savings of the were to be sold immediately. He fermier or vigneron, or whether ob- could give us no further informatained in the early part of the tion, and we proceeded on our Revolution from the sale of the ramble. The sultriness of the national domains, present a state of weather had produced an insup: rural independence, extremely fa- portable thirst, which trees bowed yourable to the views, and highly down with fruit on every side gratifying to the feelings of philan- tempted us to allay : but as this is a

a thropy.

depredation rarely committed in " We were travelling to the France, and as property of this de

scription

" where every

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scription is held sacred, in propor- (threepence), exhorting us to fill tion as it lies exposed, we thought our bandkerchiefs, with repeated it wisest to offer ourselves as pur- prenez-en donc, ne vous génez chasers of the “ golden produce" pas!"

' verger, which nearly surrounded “ We observed that the little a very neat cottage by the pathway. domain of which she was inistress side we bad accidentally pursued. was composed of a potagerie, a vine

" To the threshold of a French yard, and a quantity of fruit trees cottage there is no barrier : it is and Aowers. It was a delicious entered not, indeed, without cere. spot, and placed in a most delicious mony, for there are certain forms of situation. We asked her, by what courtesy never dispensed with in tenure her husband held it. Sbe France by any rank; but it is en- replied with vivacity, mais c'est tered by the stranger, as by the à nous ; c'est un petit propriétaire ; neighbour, without hesitation, in tenez, voici notre mari-il vous rathe certainty of a civil, if not of a contera tout ca." cordial reception.

Notre mari" was a tall robust “ We found the interior of the well-looking man. He approached cottage infinitely superior to its ex- us with a low voice, and a spade ternal appearance : a clean and over his shoulder.

To our ques. lofty bed occupied a little alcove in tions, repeated by his wife, he rethe outside room; some articles of plied with the intelligence and old china ornamented one shelf, frankness peculiar to the lower and a few books another : while the classes of France. pot au feuwas bubbling over a “ This little estate of a few clear fire under the special superin

arpens de terre" had been obtendance of an aged dame, who re- tained by his father on the sale of ceived us very good humouredly. the national domains. He had himTo our question, whether we could self served in all the wars of the get any fruit to purchase, she replied republic, and under the Emperor; mais trés volontiers-enez ;" and but on the death of his father he she hobbled to a little door which had left the army, and took possesopened into a very small farm-yard, sion of his little patrimony, for he where a cow, a mule, and a pig, had no brothers or sisters to divide were lying amicably together under it with, according to the new law a sort of shed, on which some flax of succession. He said their chief lay drying in the sun—"tenez, means of subsistence arose from the Monsieur, et Madame !" “ You cultivation of their vines, which will have the goodness to cross that enabled thein to have “un morceau little lasse cour, you will then find de cochonnerie, dans le pot, et un yourselves in the verger, where my peu de vin dans le petit caveau ;" son-in-law and my daughter will but he added, it required great inhave the honour to receive your dustry to render their vines produccommands: they are both at work tive, during a six months' constant there." We found the daughter cultivation, and that he had little (a middle-aged woman) at her dis- hopes of deriving much profit from taff, under a tree laden with green- this year, on account of the unpa: gages, of which she gave us the ralleled humidity of the season. plunder for the sum of six sous “But what was a bad season,” he 1817.

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