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terday you suffered from her anger; Lew. “Then they belong to the from this time hence you need not family of Lew.-How shall I into toil for your living."-Wife, trust the property of my house to whose tombs are these ?

one of the house of Chang?" Wife. They are the tombs of my family.

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Article III.—Memoirs relating to European and Asiatic TURKEY,

edited from Manuscript Journals, ly ROBERT WALPOLE, A.M.

THIS work consists of a variety the late Mr. Davison, Captain Light,

of papers principally relating the Earl of Aberdeen, Mr. Wilkios,
to the Antiquities and Natural His- and several other gentlemen equally
tory of European Turkey; and conversant with this interesting
when the reader is informed, that Country, have supplied the materials
in addition to the contributions of of this' Volume, he will naturally
the Editor himself, the late Dr. expect much instruction from it,
Sibthorp, Mr. Morritt, Dr. Hunt, nor will his expectation be disap-
Dr. Hume, Mr. Hawkins, Mr. pointed.
Raikes, the late Colonel Squire,


In the year subsequent to the descent near Marathon. Along the failure of Mardonius, a considerable whole extent of the Attic coast, force was assembled by order of from the frontiers of Bæotia to the the Persian monarch, and embarked bay of Phalerum, there was no from the province of Cilicia in Asia other spot bat Marathon, which at Minor. Thence the fleet coasted once united the advantages of safe along the shores of that country as far anchorage, and a plain sufficiently as Samos; and crossing the Ægæan large to contain great numbers, and sea, it passed through the islands to afford room for cavalry to act. between Ionia and Greece. After The shore in this part forms a fine the Persians had taken possession of bay of very gradual soundings, of a Eubcea, where they were delayed good anchoring ground, and proseven days by the opposition of the tected in some degree by the land inhabitants of Eretria, the army of Euboea from the sudden and was re-embarked, and a landing boisterous storms of the Archipeimmediately effected in the plain of lago. The extent of the shore is Marathon, on the opposite shores of upwards of seven miles, presenting Attica.

a shelving, sandy beach, free from Tbere was every reason to in- rocks and shoals, and well calcuduce the Persians 'to make their lated for debarkation. The land


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bordering on the bay is an uniotere difficult heights; on the south side rupted plain, about two miles and a it is separated from another small half in width, and bounded by valley, which however is itself en. rocky, difficult heights which en- closed with rocky eminences; and close it at either extremity; though appears as a bay connected with the to 'the south west, the mountains, plain; while the valley of Marawhich are a branch of Pentelicus, tbon may be compared to a creek and are higher than in any other or inlet into the interior. At the part, have a more gradual slope foot of the mountain, on the south towards the sea, and are covered side of the plain, is a small hamlet with low pine-trees and brush- called Vrana, supposed by some to wood. About the centre of the be on the site of the ancient Braubay a small stream, which flows ron; at the entrance of the valley from the upper part of the valley of Marathon from the plain are of Marathon, discharges itself into two small villages called Bey and the sea by three shallow channels. Sifeeri. The modern Marathon A' narrow rocky point, projecting contains a few Zevgaria, and is from the shore, forms the north peopled by about 200 inhabitants ; east part of the bay, close to which the houses of the peasants are in is a salt stream connected with a the midst of gardens, planted with shallow lake, and a great extent of apricot trees, vines, and olives. marsh land. About one mile and They are watered from a copious a half south of the river of Mara- fountain about a mile above the thon is another inconsiderable rivu village, surrounded by a circular let of fresh water, flowing also from foundation of ancient masonry; the a marsh by no means so extensive only remains of antiquity which we as the other. From the north east could discover near a place once point of the bay, on a low narrow distinguished as ¿UXTouévy Mapasandy ridge, extends a wood of the Ocūra. The stream derived from the Pinus Pinea for a space of two miles fountain, the Macaria of Pausanias, along the shore; in the rear of this, passes down the valley parallel to the plain is a continued marsh, the river, to the distance of three reaching as far as the modern village quarters of a mile; and is then Souli ; probably the ancient Tri- conducted across the river in a corythus, which formed with @noe, wooden trough, and continues its Probalinthus, and Marathon, the course to the village, where it is Tetrapolis of Attica.

employed in the gardens. Above The other part of the plain, the fountain is a small detached except the small marsh to the south- rocky height, at the summit of ward, consists of unenclosed and which is a cavern with a low enlevel corn land, with a few olive trance, and naturally divided into and wild pear trees. The village, several compartments; this, accordcalled Marathona, which is situated ing to Pausanias, may be the mounin a narrow valley of nearly uniform tain and grotto of Pan, though it breadth opening into the plain, is would be difficult to conceive the rather more than three miles from slightest resemblance in the rocks the sea. This valley is in general to goats or sheep, mentioned by three quarters of a mile in breadth, that author in his Grecian tour. and is bounded on either side by From Marathona to Athens is a march of about seven hours, in a been 9,000 men, besides 1,000 PlaS.W. direction, and the first part of tæans, who alone of the other the road is through an unequal, Grecian states bore a part in the rocky, and rather a difficult coun- engagement. Pausanias particularly try; over a ridge, which connects observes in Phoc.) that in this Pentelicus with the eastern extre- statement of the Athenian force mity of Parnes, and therefore cor- the slaves were also included. An responds with the situation of the army of 10,000 men was but an ancient Brilessus. Beyond is the inconsiderable force to oppose to extensive plain of Athens, which the Persians, unless this amazing reaches from Mount Pentelicus to inferiority was counterbalanced by the sea.

march dictated

some local advantages. The Greeks “ As soon as the Athenians re- therefore, when they arrived at Maceived intelligence that the Persians' rathon, would not descend into tbe bad actually landed in their country, plain to expose themselves to be they marched against them. Of surrounded hy numbers, and afterthe exact number on either side wards destroyed by the cavalry; Herodotus makes no mention ; ac- they would surely take a position, cording to Plutarch (in Parall.) and securing their flanks as much as Valerius Maximus, the forces of possible, while they presented but the enemy amounted to 300,000; à small front towards the enemy. Justin reckons them to be 600,000; The valley of Marathon offered and Cornelius Nepos (in vita Milt.) to the Athenians as favourable a makes them ten times the number spot for engaging as could be deof the Athenians, or about 100,000. sired. While they could fight the The amount of the Grecian force enemy on equal terms, a body so must have been of universal noto- well trained and disciplined, and riety ; the battle of Marathon was commanded by such able generals doubtless the most important event as the Athenians were, would have in the history of Athens; it was little hesitation to oppose themever afterwards the pride and boast selves to the most spirited efforts of of the Athenians; and might be the barbarians. The Athenians considered no less than the fight at also had powerful motives to aniArtemisium, as xpntiis neugepias, mate and encourage them; their (Pindar) " the foundation of their liberty, their existence were at stake; freedom;" surely then the recol- while the numerous hordes of the lection of every minute circum- enemy, unacquainted with their ofstance of that engagement would ficers, and prompted by different be fondly cherished to the last hour interests, would easily relax in the of the republic. Although there- fight, and be overpowered by the fore Herodotus does not relate the firm and daring courage of the numbers in the Grecian army, the Athenians. On the first view, inauthority of Plutarch, Cornelius deed, the conduct of the Greeks in Nepos, and Pausanias on this head marching out from the city, and may be accepted without hesitation; thus risking their country in this for though these authors differ with single engagement, appears wholly regard to the Persian army, they desperate ; though when their siuniformly agree in stating the tuation is considered, it must be Albenian force at Marathod to have allowed that their councils were

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dictated by prudence and reason. manner : Callimachus commanded
To have opposed the debarkation of the right wing, for by a law this
the Persians would have been ab- post was always confided to the
surd and fruitless: had they suf- Polemarch ; beginning from the
fered the enemy to advance into right flank the tribes were placed
the plain of Athens, their country in the line according to their order ;
would most probably have been the Platæans were on the left.
lost ; for no situation between the Miltiades formed his front equal to
city and the place of landing could that of the Medes, weakening in-
afford so many advantages for an deed his centre, in which were only
engagement as the valley of Mara. the tribes Leontis and Antiochis
thon. Had the Athenians shut (the first commanded by Themis-
themselves up in Athens, the Per- tocles, the second by Aristides),
sians in full possession of the open that he might strengthen the wings.
country, would soon have compelled “No other situation at Marathon,
them to surrender; so that, all but in the valley itself, could have
things considered, the Athenians afforded him the great advantage of
scem to have adopted the wisest making his line equal to that of the
measure by deciding resolutely to enemy.


which it is conoccupy the pass on the principal jectured was occupied by the Greeks, road towards the capital.

was about 1500 yards in length; “ The armies of the Athenians on computing that each soldier ocwere commmanded by ten generals, cupied three feet, there would conaccording to the number of their sequently be 1500 men in the first tribes, each of whom was in his line. From the weakness of their turn commander in chief of the day. numbers, and the extent of ground To these was added the Polemarch, they were obliged to occupy, they an officer who had the privilege of could not afford that great depth to giving a casting vote in the event their line which was always cusof a difference of opinion on the tomary, and would in this instance plan of operations. In the present have been very important. Milinstance the sentiments of the ten tiades therefore wisely took from generals were divided, five being his centre, that he might give greater averse to an engagement, which the strength to his flanks. remainder strongly recommended. “When the sacrifices appeared

. Miltiades, who was the youngest in favourable for commencing the en. rank, though highest in reputation, gagement, the Greeks rushed forzealous in the cause of his country, ward in full charge against the and convinced in his own mind that barbarians. Between the van of the wisest course was to engage, each army there was a space of not gained Callimachus, who was then less than eight stadia, about three Polemarch, over to his opinion, and quarters of a mile. The Persians it was resolved to attack the enemy. when they perceived the Greeks in Plutarch observes, that Aristides was motion, immediately prepared to of the same way of thinking with receive them, for they considered Miltiades, and was of great assist- such conduct as the height of folly, ance in persuading the rest. When and the certain cause of destruction the decisive moment arrived, he to the Greeks, who, without cavalry disposed his forces in the following or archers, pressed forward to the attack with such violent impetuosity. mentions the marsh at Marathon, The latter, however, when they and as connected with the sea by a came hand to hand with the bara small stream of salt water. This barians, fought in a manner most description corresponds most miworthy to be recorded; they were nutely with the ground in the north the first, says the historian, of all east extremities of the plain. Ibe the Greeks who advanced in full remainder of the Persian army emcharge (Le pas de charge, Larcher) barked as hastily as possible, and against their enemies; and none doubling Cape Sunium, sailed tobefore had ever sustained the Medes, wards Phalerum with the hopes of and the terrific appearance of their anticipating the Athenians, and of dress. In the representation of this taking the city before the army battle by Micon, the Persians were could return from Marathon. painted taller than the Athepians; “ The Athenians, however, harand the artist was fined thirty ing left the tribe Antiochis, comminæ ; but he was probably correct manded by Aristides, to guard the in his design, as the Oriental dress wounded and prisoners, and to colmust have given to the Asiatics the lect the spoil, marched instantly for appearance of greater height. Athens, so that the Persians being


“In the early part of the en- disappointed of their object, regagement, the centre of the Greeks turned with their fleet to the coast was obliged to fall back, and was of Asia. pursued up the country by the Per- According to the historian, sians and the Sacæ ; but on either there fell of the Athenians one wing fortune favoured the Greeks; hundred and ninety-two; while and here they overcame, routed the the loss on the part of the Barbabarbarians, and compelled them to rians amounted to six thousand four fily. Those who bad turned their hundred; seven of the ships were backs they at first allowed to retire also burnt or destroyed by the unmolested ; so that the Greeks Greeks. Callimachus, the Poleuniting their victorious wings, at- march, was among the slain, as tacked and defeated those of the was also the commander Cynægirus, enemy who had been successful in the brother of the poet Æschylus. the centre. The rout now became " It was a custom with the general; the Persians retreated in Athenians to bury those who were confusion towards the beach, to re- slain in battle, or to erect columns gain, if possible, their shipping; to their memory, in a place called and vast numbers were slain by the Ceramicus, “ the most beautiful the Greeks who constantly pursued suburb of their city," to use the them. Pausanias (lib. i. cap. 15.) words of Thucydides ; but as a describes a painting at Athens, in particular mark of distinction, three the Peisanactean portico, by Panæ- monuments were erected at Maranus, the brother of Phidias, repre- thon, in honour of the event of senting the battle of Marathon, and the battle; one was raised to the in which are observed the Persians memory of the Athenians, who fell flying in every direction across the in it; another recorded the valour plain, and driving one another into of the Platæans, and the slaves who the marsh. In a second passage of fought: a third was the monument the Attics, Pausanias particularly of Miltiades.-(Paus.) At this day


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