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84. XXXII. From his dead friends he passes to the thought of his own death. If his friend survives he must not forget Shakespeare; he must read these Sonnets, though other poets may then write better. In line 3" by forre-survey" suggests that the poems were not to

be published.

85. XXXII. line 10: grown with THIS GROWING AGE.Cf. Son. lxxxii. 8:

Some fresher stamp of the time-bettering days; and xxxviii. 13: "these curious days."

86. XXXII. line 14: Theirs for their style I'll read, &c. -The line is not unsuggestive of Pope's couplet on Cowley.

87. XXXIII. line 3: Kissing with golden face. -For somewhat parallel passages cf. King John, iii. 1. 77-80; and Midsummer Night's Dream, iii. 2. 391–393. Milton speaks of "the arch-chemic sun" (Paradise Lost, iii. 609).

88. XXXIII. line 12: The REGION cloud.-Region is used in one other passage as an adjective, Hamlet, ii. 2. 606, "the region kites," where the Clarendon Press editors note that Shakespeare uses the word to denote the air generally.

89. XXXIII. line 14: Suns of the world may STAIN. —— Stain be eclipsed, or grow dim. Used transitively and intransitively; cf. Love's Labour's Lost, ii. 1. 48; and Venus and Adonis, note 7. The word occurs several times in Barnes' Parthenophil and Parthenophe; e.g. Son. i.: And stain in glorious loveliness the fairest;

and Son. lv.:

Nymphs, which in beauty mortal creatures stain. -Arber's English Garner, vol. v. pp. 339, 372. 90. XXXIV. line 4: in their ROTTEN smoke.-Rotten= damp, vapourish; cf. Lucrece, 778:

With rotten damps ravish the morning air. So Timon of Athens, iv. 3. 1, 2.

91. XXXIV. line 12: the strong offence's CROSS.-The Quarto has losse, a repetition, no doubt, of line 10. What the real word was could be easily conjectured from Son. xlii. 10-13. Moreover, bear no cross occurs (with a quibble) in As You Like It, ii. 4. 12.

92. XXXV. line 8: EXCUSING THY sins more than THY sins are.—The Quarto prints each thy as their. The sense of the line seems to me to be this: making thy sins more excusable than they really are; but excusing is curious. Dowden remarks: "Staunton proposes more than thy sins bear,' i e. I bear more sins than thine." Surely there is something wrong: bear would naturally mean, "more than thy sins allow."

93. XXXV. line 9: to thy sensual fault I BRING IN SENSE. -That is, I make the fault appear sensible, reasonable; in fact, I excuse it. Possibly by bring in he may mean,

"bring in as an advocate; sense, which should be your adversary ('thy adverse party'), pleads your cause." I certainly think that adverse party refers to sense in the previous line, the verse being introduced as a parenthesis, and not to Shakespeare. Malone made the stupid suggestion bring incense.

94. XXXVI.-Dwells on the social difference that separates Shakespeare and his friend. It is really a continuation of the previous sonnet, since here he explains and justifies his friend's falling away and absence.

95. XXXVI. lines 9, 10:

I may not EVERMORE acknowledge thee,

Lest my BEWAILED GUILT should do thee shame. Possibly evermore hints at the fact that as his friend grows older they will be more kept apart by the "separable (= separating) spite" of their lives. The reference in bewailed guilt is obscure: perhaps he alludes to the disgrace still attaching to him from his connection with the stage; perhaps the words refer to the incidents in his life of which he speaks in the "dark woman" series of Sonnets.

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112. XLV. line 1: The OTHER TWO.-That is, elements. It was an old theory that a man is composed of four elements-earth, water, fire, and air. Shakespeare alludes to it in Julius Cæsar, v. 5. 73, 74; Twelfth Night, ii. 3. 10, see note 83 to that play; Antony and Cleopatra, v. 2. 292; and Henry V. iii. 7. 22, 23, note 190. In the last-mentioned passage and in Antony and Cleopatra, as in this sonnet, air and fire are taken as the type of lightness; so Drayton said of Marlowe:

his raptures were

All air and fire, which made his verses clear. Outside Shakespeare many references might be given; e.g. The White Devil, v. 6:

Whether I resolve to fire, earth, water, air, Or all the elements.

-Webster and Tourneur, in Mermaid ed. p. 118; and Barnes' Parthenophil and Parthenophe, Son. xlv.:

How can I live in mind or body's health, When all four elements my grief conspire. -Arber's English Garner, v. p. 384. See Spenser, Son. lv. Globe ed. p. 581; and Heywood's Select Plays, Mermaid ed. p. 332.

113. XLVI.-Compare Son. xliv. and Son. xlvii. There is a long note on the legal aspect of this poem in Lord Campbell's Legal Acquirements, pp. 102, 103. As to the antithesis eye and heart, it appears to have been a favourite conceit with sonnet-writers. It would take too much space to illustrate this statement by quotation; see, however, Constable's Diana, Son. vii. of Sixth Decade, Arber's English Garner, vol. ii. p. 254; and Watson's Passionate Centurie, pp. 181, 182, and 188 in Arber's Reprint.

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115. XLVI. line 13: mine EYE'S DUE is thy OUTWARD part. Compare what he said in Son. xxiv. 13, 14.

116. XLVII. line 3: famish'd for a look.-So Son. lxxv. 10: "clean starved for a look." Dowden quotes Comedy of Errors, ii. 1. 88:

Whilst I at home starve for a merry look.

117. XLVII. line 6: And to the painted BANQUET bids my heart.-Properly banquet meant what we should call the dessert after a meal, and not the meal itself; cf. As You Like It, ii. 5. 65: "his banquet is prepar'd;" and see the Clarendon Press note on Macbeth, i. 4. 56. The strict use of the word is well illustrated by a passage in Thomas Lord Cromwell, iii. 3:

'T is strange, how that we and the Spaniard differ;
Their dinner is our banquet after dinner,

-Tauchnitz ed. of Doubtful Plays, p. 105. 118. XLVIII.-Written during travel; so Son. 1. li. 119. XLVIII. line 11: the gentle CLOSURE of my BREAST. — See note on Venus and Adonis, 782. With line 14 cf. Venus and Adonis, 724.

120. XLIX. line 4: by advis'd RESPECTS.-Respect often implies fear of making an error; deliberate calculation of consequences; cf. Lucrece, 275: "Respect and reason. The idea of the couplet is, that the time will come for closing the account of their friendship.

121. XLIX. line 12: the lawful reasons ON THY PART. — That is, on your side; cf. Son. lxxxviii. 6:

Upon thy part I can set down a story.

To make the rhyme with desert in line 10 less awkward the Quartos read desart.

122. L. lines 5, 6:

The BEAST that bears me, tired with my woe,
Plods DULLY on.

It is all a metaphor, says the ever-felicitous Mr. Fleay; any one can see that the "dull bearer" (next sonnet, line 2) is Pegasus. And on this theory who-Oh! who?-would have the heart to comment? For dully the Quarto has duly; the correction is certain; cf. "dull bearer," "dull flesh," in Son. li.

123. LI. line 7: MOUNTED ON the WIND.-Compare As You Like It, iii. 2. 95:

Her worth, being mounted on the wind;

and Cymbeline, iii. 4. 37, 38:

whose breath

Rides on the posting winds. So also II. Henry IV. Induction 4.

124. LI. line 11: Shall neigh, no dull flesh in his fiery race. I think this is preferable to the reading adopted by the Globe editors:

Shall neigh-no dull flesh-in his fiery race.

125. LII. line 4: FOR blunting the fine point of seldom pleasure.-For=for fear of. The sentiment is developed at greater length in Son. cii.; cf. especially line 12: And sweets grown common lose their dear delight. 126. LII. line 5: Therefore are FEASTS, &c.—The editors compare I. Henry IV. iii. 2. 57-59:

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where buttons buds, F. boutons.

133. LV. line 9: and ALL-OBLIVIOUS enmity.-Oblivious= which causes to be forg en; in Macbeth, v. 3. 43, it has the other sense, viz. causing to forget: "some sweet oblivious antidote.' Compare Milton's "oblivious pool," Paradise Lost, bk. i. 266. Milton probably remembered the Latin obliviosus, as in Horace's "oblivioso pocula Massico."

134. LVI. line 8: with a perpetual DULLNESS.-Dowden

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146. LX. Returning to the idea developed in Son. liv. and lv., and previously in Son. xvi. xvii. &c., that his verse will confer immortality on his friend-non omnis morietur.

147. LX. line 9: the FLOURISH set on youth.--For flourish ornament, cf. Hamlet, ii. 2. 91. In the next verse parallels-lines; so Troilus and Cressida, i. 3. 167, 168:

as near as the extremest ends

Of parallels.

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152. LXII. line 10: BEATED and CHOPP'D with tann'd antiquity.-Collier proposed beaten, though beated is a quite possible form; and Steevens, blasted. Malone suggested bated (cf. Merchant of Venice, iii. 3. 32), and Dowden remarks: "The word tann'd led me to turn to the article Leather' in Chambers' Encyclopædia, where I met the following passage: 'Hides or skins intended for dressing purposes have to be submitted to a process called bating.'" The coincidence is curious; but beated need not be changed. For chopp'd Dyce would read chapp'd; cf. Julius Cæsar, i. 2. 246, "clapp'd their chapp'd hands." In Macbeth, i. 3. 44, editors vary between chappy and choppy.

153. LXII. line 14: PAINTING my AGE with BEAUTY of thy days.-Compare Love's Labour's Lost, iv. 3. 244: Beauty doth varnish age, as if new-born.

154. LXIII. Son. Ixiii. takes up the last sonnet: there he was "Beated and chopp'd with tann'd antiquity:" here he contemplates the time when his friend will be "crush'd and o'erworn" (cf. Venus and Adonis, 135).

155. LXIII. line 9: For such a time do I now FORTIFY.That is, take measures. Compare Daniel's Delia, Son. 1.: These are the arks, the trophies I erect, That fortify thy name against old age.

-Arber's English Garner, iii. p. 616. 156. LXIII. line 13: His beauty shall in these BLACK lines be seen.-So Son. lxv. 14:

That in black ink my love may still shine bright.

Is there possibly a quibble on the idea of dark complexions?

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159. LXIV. line 5: When I have seen. - The editors compare II. Henry IV. iii. 1. 45-51.

160. LXV. line 10: Shall Time's best jewel from Time's CHEST lie hid?-That is, the best jewel ever brought forth from Time's chest. Theobald ingeniously proposed quest; but compare for the present image Son. lii. 8, 9, and Richard II. i. 1. 180.

161. LXVI. line 1: Tir'd with all THESE.-These refers to the ills which he proceeds to recount. It has been pointed out that the pessimism of the poem is strongly suggestive of Hamlet's soliloquies. Compare in particular Hamlet, iii. 1. 70-74; we may recollect also Lucrece, 904-910.

162. LXVI. line 9: And ART made tongue-tied by AUTHORITY. "Can this line refer to the censorship of the stage?" (Dowden). Tongue-tied, as in Son. lxxxv. Art in Shakespeare often the arts.

163. LXVII. line 4: And LACE itself with his society. Lace adorn, as in Cymbeline, ii. 2. 22, 23: white and azure, lac'd With blue of heaven's own tinct;

and Macbeth, ii. 3. 118:

His silver skin lac'd with his golden blood.

In Romeo and Juliet, iii. 5. 8, the sense is not so clear. 164. LXVII. line 6: And steal DEAD SEEING of his living hue.-Dead seeing the lifeless semblance of beauty. But might we not read:

And steal, dead-secing, of his living hue?

That is, itself dead seeing, i.e. looking dead; steal of would steal part of, or steal from. For seeing Capell conjectured seeming. In the next line indirectly wrongfully; so Henry V. ii. 4. 94; and indirection in Julius Cæsar, iv. 3. 75.

165. LXVIII. line 3: Before these bastard signs of fair were BORN.-Q. has borne, which Malone retained, in the sense of worn; but line 4 would then be a mere repetition of line 3. Moreover, as Dowden notes, bastard suggests the idea of birth.

166. LXVIII. line 5: Before the golden TRESSES of the DEAD.--We have the same reference in Timon of Athens, iv. 3. 144; Love's Labour's Lost, iv. 3. 259; and Merchant of Venice, iii. 2. 92–96.

167. LXVIII. lines 13, 14: And him as for a map, &c.— A variation on the last couplet of the preceding sonnet.

168. LXIX. In close connection with the last sonnet. There he spoke of his friend's beauty; here and in Son. lxx. he shows how that beauty was bound to arouse envy and scandal.

169. LXIX. line 3: All TONGUES, the VOICE of SOULS, give thee that DUE. So in Titus Andronicus, iii. 1. 82, and again in Venus and Adonis, 367, the tongue is described as "the engine of her thoughts." For due the Quarto has end; no doubt an accidental repetition of the end in mend, line 2.

170. LXIX. line 14: The SOIL is this.-Soil = blemish, as in Hamlet, i. 3. 15, the sense being: the fault which prevents your odour (keeping up the metaphor of last lines) from matching your show is the fact that you grow

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Sleep is the "ape of death" in Cymbeline, ii. 2. 31; the "brother to death" in Daniel's Delia, Son. xlix. (Arber's English Garner, vol. iii. p. 616); the "brother of quiet death" in Griffin's Fidessa, Son. xv. (Arber's English Garner, vol. v. p. 598); "death's twin-brother" in Tennyson's In Memoriam, canto lxviii.; and in Sir Thomas Browne's treatise on Dreams.

182. LXXIV. lines 1, 2:

when that FELL ARREST Without all BAIL.

Dowden aptly refers to Hamlet, v. 2. 347, 348: this fell sergeant, death,

Is strict in his arrest.

Without all bail is said in allusion to the legal phrase without bail and mainprize=a summary form of arrest. Cf. the English Traveller, iv. 4:

But speak, runs it Both without bail and main prize.

-Heywood's Plays in Mermaid Series, p. 215.

183. LXXIV. lines 10, 11:

The PREY of WORMS, my body being dead; The coward conquest of a WRETCH'S KNIFE. So Son. lxxi. 3, 4:


From this vile world, with vilest worms to dwell. On line 11 Dowden has a curious note: "Does Shakspere merely speak of the liability of the body to untimely or violent mischance? Or does he meditate suicide? Or think of Marlowe's death, and anticipate such a fate as possibly his own? Or has he, like Marlowe, been wounded? Or does he refer to the dissection of dead bodies? Or is it 'confounding age's cruel knife' of lxiii. 1. 10?" Surely the last alternative is the only feasible Cf. in addition to Son. Ixiii. Son. c. 13, 14: Give my love fame faster than Time wastes life; So thou prevent'st his scythe and crooked knife.


All through we have these purely conventional touches.

184. LXXIV. lines 13, 14: The worth of that, &c.-The good element in the body is that which it (the body) contains; what it contains is the spirit, and his verse is that spirit.

185. LXXV. line 13.-Thus do I PINE and SURFEIT day by day. So Venus and Adonis, 602:

Do surfeit by the eye and pine the maw; Where, however, pine is transitive.

186. LXXVI-If what I write is always the same the reason is clear: I always write about you. Compare Son. cv. and cviii.

187. LXXVI. line 4: To new-found methods, &c.-A refer

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