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and both were usually taken from some remarkable event which distin guished the chief of a division, or subdivision. Scipio (a walking-stick) was the agnomen of the conqueror of Carthage, and became that of his descendants, which were thus distinguished from those of his brother, who had the surname Asiaticus."
From the chapter on Proper Names among the Moderns, it appears, that the noble families in France had no surnamics before the close of the tenth century, when they began to adopt those of their possessions, or lands. Duchesne, Mathieu, and Mezeray, state this fact, and add," that the rich merchants took the names of the towns in which they resided." We apprehend, however, that this statement is not quite correct; as we find, that not only the usual Christian names, or appellatives, were in use among the saints of the fourth and fifth centuries, but also surnames taken from places, or events; and if such names were in use, it is difficult to suppose that at least some of the nobles did not adopt them. About 450, when the Greek church claimed the superiority over the Romish, several of these local surnames occur among the champions of Popery. "But," says M. Noël, "it was not till the thirteenth century that surnames became general in France, although in the North they were common in the ninth. These surnames, however, were not transformed into family names, in a fixed manner, till the institution of coats of arms." The author, indeed, has so grossly misconceived the nature and use of names in the British isles, that it is certainly sufficient to invalidate his opinions respecting their use in other countries. As a literary historian, we see that he is frequently inaccurate, and even erroneous, in what relates to his own country, and consequently, still more so in regard to others. Many families," he asserts, "in Holstein, and other countries, have still no family name; and they are distinguished only by their Christian name, and by that of their father, son of John, son of Peter, Johnson, Peterson, &c. This latter is familiar to the Scots!" It is strange that our author should be so far misled by his love of etymology, as to consider these names still merely appellatives instead of surnames. He has not perceived that Mac is Irish, Fitz is Norman, and that son is Anglo-Saxon, all of similar import, which were first used as a title of honour and endearment in consequence of some noble act, and hence became cognomens of noble distinction for several ages, some of which have continued to the present day,
"In Poland, about the end of the seventeenth century," observes M. Noël," the peasants had no name; the nobles only were known by their names. In Hungary, surnames have been used since 1120. Their use in Dalmatia, Croatia, and Sclavonia, is much more modern. In Transyl vania, the name is placed after the surname; and instead of saying Ga. briel Bethlehem, they say Bethlehem Gabor. In Denmark, names were not fixed till after Frederick I.; in Norway, it was still later. In Swe den, since 1514, some took the proper names of their fathers, but no one surnames till a much more recent date. Family names were common in
Germany in the twelfth century, in Spain in the eleventh, and in Italy and France in the tenth. In Guinea, on the Coast of Africa, the mo. thers name their children in imitation of the first sound which they urter, as Corankin, &c."
This account, considered as a history, is extremely imperfect, and in every respect contemptible from such a writer. The author has not determined, in any definite terms, the particular era of one fact relative to the imposition of appellations and surnames. In Portugal, even at the present day, many of the lower classes have no family name. It may be remarked, indeed, that whilst the peasants never think of more than the common appellation of Senhor Joao, José, Manoel, Antonio, Francisco, Joaquim, Simao, Pedro, &c. those of distinction seldom have less than two or three appellatives, or christian names, independent of their titles and surnames; as Antonio Manoel Francisco do Pinheiro. Many of the friars who distinguish themselves as preachers, and who have no surname, assume that of their order, or of the convent to which they belong.
The chapter on Patronymic Names is still more incoherent and uninteresting. M. Noël, in a style excessively heavy and confused, only tells us, that the Spaniards adopt the surnames of both father and mother, and that the Italians have introduced a refinement in the art of patronymics. "Instead of turning the appellative of their father into a surname, they make his surname both an appellative and a surname for themselves; as Galileo Galilei, Sperone Speroni, &c. The Flemings have done the same. Others have revived the Greek termination of Stephanides for Fitz-Stephen." Under the head of Nicknames, the author gravely tells us, that some "are ironical, like that of poet-laureat, which the English give to bad poets!" This, indeed, is worthy of Buonaparte's "Inspector of Public Instruction." M, Noël is better qualified to collect anedotes, than to write an historical dissertation; accordingly, we have a very copious collection under the title of Superstition of Names," whence omens, presages, &c. have been drawn. Such a melange is well adapted to the superstitious sentiments of the French people of modern days. In treating of Anagrams and Acrostics, the author boasts, that "good sense has made these laborious bagatelles disappear, and their inaginary merit has not been able to maintain itself against the empire of reason." Unluckily for M. Noël's "good sense," however, these "laborious bagatelles" still occupy a conspicuous place in the most popular periodical and other publications of Paris.
A preliminary dissertation so vague, verbose, and vapid, as what we have found the preceding to be, is not a very favourable presage of a good etymological dictionary of proper names, in which a sound judgment and great philological powers are necessary to the proper illustration of every word. An exple will suffice to convey an idea of the author's style and manner.
"CHRISTOPHER, a saint, usually represented of a colossal stature; a
custom, it is said, which originated from the superstitious opinion, that after having seen his image, one would not be subject to sudden death. Etym. xporos (christos), Christ. Prim. xpia (chrió), to anoint; perm. (pherein), to bear. Pret. m. Pópa (pephora)."
"CHRYSOSTOME, golden-mouthed, a father of the Church renowned for his eloquence. Etym. xpuoòs (chrusos), gold; cróμa (stoma), mouth."
In the latter explanation, no notice is taken of Dio, who was surnamed Chrysostome, which some good scholars have rendered honeymouthed, in allusion to the sweetness and mellifluence of his eloquence. The name Dio, indeed, from Años, divine, does not appear in this Dictionary; neither do we find Ascanius, and a multitude of other names which are necessary to the classical student. The author has endeavoured to flatter and deceive the vulgar, by accompanying the Greek terms with Roman characters, as above; but independent of the general inadequacy of these characters, they are particularly defective in the subscriptum vowels, and ought not to be given as faithfully representing the Greek. Upon the whole, we consider this Etymological Dictionary rather as a proof of the decline of learning in France, than a happy prognostic of its restoration. We shall only add, that M. Noël has confined himself to proper names in Greek and Latin only, without introducing the Hebrew and other languages, which were necessary to form a complete work.
VINDICATION OF THE RIGHT HON. JOHN SULLIVAN, AGAINST THE ATTACKS OF VALERIUS PUBLICOLA, IN THE ANTIJACOBIN REVIEW FOR DECEMBER, 1806.
Being a Narrative of attested Facts relating to the Ship Elizabeth, &c. &c. Printed 1788; Reprinted 1807.
A CORRESPONDENT, in possession of a copy of the above tract, containing the Narrative, together with Mr. Sullivan's Letter to the Court of Directors, explaining the documents with which that Narrative was accompanied, has communicated to us the following summary of its contents, which, in justice to Mr. Sullivan, we insert, presuming it to be correct.
In the year 1772, the embarrassed state of the Company's affairs in England having made them judge it expedient to limit the remittance through their treasury to a very small amount, and at a very reduced exchange, the necessities of their numerous servants abroad compelled a very general recourse to foreigners; and the French governors of Pondicherry and Chandenagore became the medium of British remittance between India and Europe; and continued to be so until 1775, when they failed in debt to British subjects, nearly one million sterling,
Such was the situation of things, when the impaired state of Mr. Selli van's health obliged him, with the permission of Government, to take his passage for Europe on board of a French ship in March, 1776; and in the month of August following he landed at L'Orient.
Upon his arrival at that place, through the attentions paid by the caprain and supercargo of the ship to his imperfect health, he became the guest of the owners of the ship, Messrs. Admyrauld; and having, in his intercourse with them, found that a secure channel was open, through them, for drawing his property from India, he agreed to give them orders upon his agents in India.
It is in evidence upon the Records of the Company, that Mr. Sullivan's negotiation with the Fr.nch house of Admyrauld, relative to the ship Eliza. beth, in which he ultimately became interested, was concluded in September, 1776; that it was undertaken solely with a view to the remittance of property from India; and that the mode of remitting through foreigners had originated in a necessity, which the exigency of the Company's affairs had imposed upon all their servants.
It is in evidence, that the ship Elizabeth, which the house of Admy. rauld sent to India in consequence of the negotiation of September, 1776, sailed from France in March, 1777; that is to say, at a period of profound peace, and fifteen months before the war broke out between Eng. land and France; that she was destined for, the most limited voyage, namely, to the Coast of Coromandel only; and, that express orders were given for her being dispatched, at the latest, in the spring of 1778.
It is further in evidence, that, by an unforeseen delay in the provision of the goods for the returning cargo (by which the remittances were to have been made), the period for the dispatch of the ship was protracted; that in August, 1778, hostilities having unexpectedly commenced in India, within one month of the time when the rupture between England and France took place in Europe, the Governor of Pondicherry did, by an act of coercive authority, under date the 18th August, 1778, impress this ship, the Elizabeth, into the service of the French Government; in which service she was held by two succeeding acts of similar coercion, dated the 3d September, and 29th December, 1778; which acts, placing her under the immediate controul of the commander of the Pourvoyante frigate, unhappily occasioned her to be assisting to that frigate in the capture of the Osterley Indiaman.
It is also in evidence, that Mr. Sullivan continued in Europe from August 1776, until February 1781, that is to say, nearly two years subsequent to the unfortunate capture of the Osterley; and, that when he was informed, by a letter of the 5th of June, 1780, that the house of Admyrauld had made a claim, in favour of the ship Elizabeth, to a share in the prizes, he did, instantly upon the receipt of the said letter, utterly disclaim and renounce all participation therein, and withdrew himself altogether from every concern with Messrs. Admyrauld*.
*Notarial Attestation of Mons. Admyrauld, dated 18th October, 1788.
"Aujourd'hui est comparu devant les Conseillers du Roi, Notaires au Châtelet de Paris sous signés, S. François Gabriel Admyrauld, negocian
In 1781 Mr. Sullivan returned to India, having been appointed unanimously, by the Court of Directors, to represent the Company at the Court of the Soubahdar of the Deccan. The state of public affairs upon his arrival occasioned his services to be required in another direction; and the most honourable testimonies are borne by the Governor and Council of Madras to those services, from which we shall extract the following:
de la Rochelle, etant de présent à Paris, logé Rue St. Joseph, St. Eustache, No. 14. Lequel, désirant de rendre hommage à la vérité, et satisfaire au désir que lui a témoigné M. Jean Sulivan, a, par ces présentes, déclaré et certifié, Que M. Jean Sulivan, originellement intéressé (avec lui le com parant et feu M. Pierre Gabriel Admyrauld son père) dans l'armement du navire l'Elizabeth, Capitaine Crozet, destiné pour le commerce de l'Inde, n'a nullement profité de la prise du navire Anglois l'Osterley, faite par la Frégate du Roy, La Pourvoyante, et par le navire l'Elizabeth. Qu'aussitôt que M. Sulivan fut instruit de cette prise, et du droit que les interéssés de l'Elizabeth y avoient, il fit témoigner au S. Comparant et a son père, armateurs de l'Elizabeth, par une lettre du vingt Juillet, mil sept cent quatre-vingt,
"Que quelque considérable que peut être sa part dans cette prise, comme elle etoit faite sur sa nation, il ne pouvoit se résoudre à en profiter; que plutôt que s'enrichir du malheur de ses compatriotes il céderoit sa part aux autres interéssés; qu'il dêsiroit en même temp n'etre plus regardé comme ayant intérêt au navire; et nous prioit de se décharger de l'interêt, ne demandant pour cela que le remboursement de ses fonds, avec l'intérêt de ceux, sur le pied de cinq pour cent l'an, seulement.
Que cette proposition ayant été acceptée, effectuée, purement et simplement, sans autre avantage pour M. Jean Sulivan, il est dès lors de venu ètranger au dit navire l'Elizabeth; n'y a plus de droits, et réellement n'a eu aucune part, directement ni indirectement, dans les partitions faites entre les interéssés du produit de ce navire, ni de ceux résultans de la prise du navire l'Osterley.
"En témoignage de quoi, le dit comparant a fait la présente déclaration.
"D'un acte fait et passé à Paris dans l'etude de M. Margantin, l'un des dits Notaires, le seize Octobre mil sept cent quatre-vingt huit, "Et signé, Farmin.
"We, His Britannic Majesty's Ambassador Extraordinary at the Court of Versailles, do certify to all whom it may concern, that Mr. Margantin, and Mr. Farmin, who have signed and delivered the above Certificate, are Conseillers du Roi, Notaires at the Châtelet de Paris; and that to acts so signed, delivered by them, full and undoubted faith is given, in and out of court. In witness whereof we have hereunto set our
hand and seal.
"Done at our Hotel, in Paris, the seventeenth day of October, one thousand seven hundred and eighty-eight.