Obrázky na stránke
PDF
ePub

Corsica declared against him; and evacuated, Bastia and Calvi, also, Saliceti, Arena, Gentili, Casa Bianca, yielded to the victors. together with many of those who had Immediately after this, a general sworn fidelity to the new constitu- consulta was assembled at Corte; and tion, and like himself subscribed the Paoli having been elected president, civick oath, publickly declared, that the representatives of the nation unathey could not assist in subverting nimously voted the union of Corsica those regulations, in favour of which with the British crown. This propothey had taken so solemn a vow, in sition having been readily accepted, the face of Heaven and of mankind. on the part of sir Gilbert Elliot (now

On the other hand, the whole body lord Minto) then his majesty's comof the clergy, disgusted at the late missioner, he was immediately inreforms, which had deprived them of vested with the dignity of viceroy. a large portion of their revenues, A new constitution was soon after sided with their ancient chief; and formed, which, if not exactly suitable to these adhered all such as were to the genius of the nation, must be eminently devoted to the church of allowed to have been exceedingly faRome, a numerous and powerful vourable to liberty ; for these subjects class of men, who assumed to them. now received as a boon, many of selves the appellation of the sacred those very privileges which the inhaband. But as Paoli knew from long bitants of England had long demand. experience, that it was impossible to ed in vain as a right, particularly resist the power of France, alone and short parliaments, and an equal reunsupported, he determined to call in presentation of the people. the assistance of England, which at It might have been supposed, that this period occupied Toulon, and the triumph of Paoli was complete, waged war, with a degree of vigour and his happiness placed on such a and of bitterness, hitherto unexam- permanent basis, as never to be either pled in the annals of that kingdom. ruffled or disturbed during the reHe accordingly invited the British mainder of his life. Bui the fact, admiral,* who had been recently foil. which proved directly the reverse, ed in an expedition against his native tends not a little to demonstrate the country, to invade it anew, with a mutability of human happiness. A fleet, accompanied by a body of jealousy, how justly founded we are troops, to whom he was prepared to unable to determine, soon after took give every possible succour, having place between the British viceroy, been once more elected generalissimo, and the Corsican chief, the result of in a grand council of the nation. which was undoubtedly connected That officer, having first despatched with the future fate of the island. colonel, now general sir John Moore. Paoli, however, on this occasion, together with the late major Kohler, cheerfully yielded to the force of to examine into the prospects and circumstances, and generous resources of the insurgents, an expe- enough before his departure, to addition sailed from the bay of Hieras, dress a valedictory letter to his counJanuary 24, 1795, for the express trymen, in which he exhorted them purpose of driving the French out of to cultivate the friendship of the Enthe island. A body of troops having glish, and remain firm in their alle. been landed under lieutenant general giance to his majesty George III. Dundas, the tower of Mortella was These loyal effusions, however, taken with some difficulty ; after during his absence, were attended which, Fornelli was attacked with with but little effect ; for the natives, success, and St. Fiorenzo having been naturally inconstant, soon became

disgusted with their new allies and * Lord Hood.

protectors. Dazzled, also, at the same + Lately killed at the battle of Corunna. time, perhaps, with the splendous

was

of the victories of their countryman might have been said of him, as had Buonaparte, in Italy, and determined, been formerly uttered by the cardinal above all things, on a reunion with de Retz, in respect to the famous France, it was at length deemed ne- Montrose, " that he was one of those cessary, on the part of the English men who are no longer to be found troops, to evacuate an island which any where, but in the lives of Pluhas always proved destructive to tarch." every nation connected with it, either That the Corsican chief was a by friendship or by enmity.

great man, cannot well be denied ; Meartwhile, a sad reverse of fortune but it is the opinion of those, who attended on Paoli; for, by the failure have enjoyed an opportunity of stuof a commercial house at Leghorn, dying his character, that he was a he lost the sum of five thousand politician rather than a soldier; that pounds, which was all that he pos- he shone in council more than in sessed in the world. In addition to arms ; and that the leading feature this, the payments of his pension had of his publick conduct, was a certain been suspended ; and on his arrival degree of Italian policy, which tauglit in England, he was not received at him to refine and speculate on every court with so much attention, as event. heretofore.

Among his countrymen he was About this period, he was visited adored ; and to support his superioriby the author of this article, who ly, he made use of those arts which found him in an obscure lodging, have usually passed under the name above a shop in Oxford road, whence of pious frauds. These, perhaps, he at length removed into a small appeared indispensably necessary for house in Edgeware road, on the right the government of barbarians ! Achand side, a little beyond the turn- cordingly, like Numa, he pretended pike. The remainder of his life is to a direct communication with the one entire blank, totally devoid of Deity,* and also affected, on all occaincicients, until his death, which had sions, after the manner of the heroes been preceeded by a lingering ill- of old, to be surrounded by dogs of ness, on Thursday, February 5, 1807, a particular breed, which were inin the 81st year of bis age.

deed necessary to preserve him from Few foreigners, however distin- assassination. guished, have been so much caressed It is not a little remarkable, that in England, as the late general Pas- Corsica, an island which seems to quale Paoli. By living in habits of fa- have been equally despised, both by miliarity with men of letters, his name the ancients and moderns, should and exploits acquired fresh celebri. have produced two men, one of whom ty ; and Boswell, Goldsmith, John- engaged the attention of all Europe, son, Macaulay, Barbauld, and lord towards the middle of the last centuLittleton, although differing in almost ry, while another seems, unhappily every thing else, most cordially united for the repose of mankind, destined in his praise Abroad, too, his repu. to regulate its fate, at the beginning tation was greatly respected; and the of the present. eulogiums of such a man as Rousseau,

* That this amiable chief should have then

in the zenith of his reputation, persuaded an uncivilized nation, that he was alone sufficient to ensure reputa- received intimations of future events from tion throughout the rest of Europe. above, is but little surprising ; but that

While his laurels were still green, he should have also persuaded one of the it was usual to compare Paoli to Ti- inhabitants of an enlightened country, is moleon and Epaminondas: and it absolutely unaccountable. Let it be recol. was apposicely remarked by an En lected, however, that some of the coun

trymen of Mr. Boswell, at that very pe. glish minister, that the same thing riod, actually believed in second sight.

A brief Account of the Earliest Discovery of Diamonds in Brasil, together with some

Particulars Relative to the Quality, &c. of those Precious Stones, the Laws respecting them, &c. &c.

THERE was a time when dia- they were not the produce of the monds were found only in the Fast places wherein they were found, but Indies, principally in the lower part were brought thither by the current of of Hindoostan; and during the period the river. Nevertheless, their source when the Portuguese were powerful has not hitherto been discovered. San. in the east, the whole of the Euro- guine hopes are, however, entertainpean commerce in diamonds was car. ed on this subject; as in mining severied on through Lisbon. These pre- ral mountains adjacent to the town, cious stones were brought from Goa, innumerable particles of a hard and which is adjacent to Golconda, where beautiful species of crystal have latethe famous diamond mines of the ly been met with. east are situated. The Dutch, having The weight of the Brasil diamonds obtained the ascendency in India, de- is, ordinarily, from a grain to six caprived the Portuguese of a source of rats. There are some, however, of wealth which chance, however, soon greater size, and one has been found restored to them. In 1729, the co- which weighs no less than forty-six lonists of Brasil discovered those carats. diamond mines, which at present According to the author above nasupply the chief demand of Europe. med, in hue, solidity, and every other

Near the town of Serro do Frio, property, the Brasil diamonds are says Don Sarmento, in the govern- equal to those of the east; but there ment of the gold mines, there is a are few jewellers who hold this opi. place called by the natives Cay-The- nion. It is observable, he adds, that Meria, where, as well as in the little the diamonds found nearest to the river named do Milho Verde, they surface of the earth, being conse. have found gold for several years quently exposed to the action of the back. The miners who dig the gold air and the sun, are more strongly in. in these parts, sift the earth, and the crusted than the others, and, of sand on the river's bank, for the pur- course, lose more in the polishing. pose of separating the ore. In per- It is not absolutely certain, says Sarforming this operation, it frequently mento, that the diamonds of Brasil happened, that they found several are brought down by the torrents; stones, of which, at first, they made and such too, is the decided opinion no account; and it was not till 1728, of the author of “ L'Histoire des deux that a miner bethought himself of Indes." working or grinding the stones, the From the moment that the Porturesult of which was, that he found guese discovered diamonds in Brasil, them to be diamonds. He thence- they pursued their researches, and forward took care not to let one of with such success, that one fleet from them escape his attention, and the Rio Janiero brought home 1146 other miners, following his example, ounces. This abundant supply loweagerly sought after these valuable ered the price of the article by three gems. After having carefully search- fourths; but the Portuguese minised the earth, they had recourse to ter adopted measures which quickly the river, where they not only found restored it to its original standard. the diamonds in greater abundance, A company, with

an exclusive pribut procured them with the utmost vilege to seek for, and to vend, the facility. Experience and a little re- diamonds of Brasil, was instituted. flection led them to imagine, that the And in order to limit its cupidity, it diamonds came from a distance; that was allowed to employ no more than

sum.

600 slaves. Afterwards, however, this These promises are likewise
restriction was annulled, and the held forth to such slave or freeman
company was permitted to employ as shall discover those who conceal
as many slaves as it should think pro- diamonds. If a slave discover his
per, on paying 600 crusadas (about master, the king grants him 200,000
75l. sterling) for every miner. By reis, besides his liberty. Those who
the two contracts, the court reserves act contrary to this law, not only lose
for its own use every diamond which the diamonds which they purloin,
shall be found to exceed a certain and their slaves, but often are put to
weight. A law, which forbad, under death. The punishments inflicted on
pain of death, any infringement on the slaves are, commonly, whipping,
this privilege, did not appear suffi- condemnation to the gallies for life,
cient to ensure compliance with it, or immediate death.
but rather tended to depopulate the The diamond seekers are obliged
places adjacent to the spot, and to to render an exact account to the
turn the surrounding country into a king's commissary of all such dia-
vast desart. Within the space of 100 monds as they or their slaves disco-
leagues, there is only one village to ver. The commissary deposits the
be seen, and this is inhabited by the diamonds in a case covered with iron,
agents and slaves of the company ! and secured by three locks. He has

The agent of this privileged body possession of one of the keys, the
in Europe, was no other than the go- viceroy has another, and the Prova-
vernment itself. Prior to the emido de Hazienda Real, has the third,
gration of the court of Portugal to This case is put into a second, on
the Brasils, whatever the produce of which are placed the seals of the
the mines might be, government three personages already mentioned;
delivered to one contractor, dia- the three keys being closed within it.
monds to the amount of 5,000,000 The viceroy is not permitted to view
crusadas or 1,125,0001. sterling, and the contents of the cases, but merely
no more, annually, in virtue of an consigns the whole to the third strong
express agreement to that effect, box, upon the lock of which he places
which has ever been held sacred. his seal. The opening of the treasure
The price of the diamond was rated takes place in the presence of the
advantageously to the contractor. king, who makes choice of such dia-
These precious stones are bought in monds as he approves of, paying to
a raw state by us, or by the Dutch, the finders a price which is regulated
and after being cut, are dissemina. by the law already mentioned.
ted throughout Europe, but especial- 6 There never has been found a
ly France, where this gem was most diamond," says the abbé Raynal,
eagerly bought up. They are less which could be put in competition
hard, pellucid, and brilliant, than with that sent from Brasil to the
those of the East Indies ; but they king of Portugal; its weight being
are far whiter. Their value is about 1680 carats or 12 oz. Although
101. per cent. under that of the for- there is no mode of ascertaining its
mer. The law, which ensures to the value, yet an English writer has been
king of Portugal, the exclusive pos- bold enough to compute it at the
session of the largest diamonds found enormous sum of 224,000,0001, ster-
in Brasil, ordains that the slaves who ling!!-If, however, as some lapida.
find them shall be granted their free assert, this reputed diamond be
dom, and that the king shall pay thèir a topaz, the above computation must
master 400,000 reis. If a freeman be egregiously erroneous.”
be the finder, he is to have a similar

[ocr errors]

A very extraordinary incident is related in the history of Sweden, written in Swedish,

by Dalin. It took place at the representation of a mystery of the Passion, under John II. in 1513.

THE actor who performed the leaped on the stage and struck off part of Longinus, the soldier who his head. The spectators who had was to pierce the Christ on the cross, been delighted with the too violent in the side, was so far transported actor, became infuriated against their by the spirit of his action, that he king, fell upon him in a throng and really killed the man who personated massacred him. This may stand as the Christ; who falling suddenly, an example of the power of dramatick and with great violence, overthrew representation ; but it argues lille in the actress who represented the holy favour of the moderation and solemnimother. King John who was present ty inspired by such sacred subjects. at this spectacle, was so exceedingly They much more certainly gratified enraged against Longinus, that he curiosity than devotion.

Remain of Druidical Practices. THE southern part of Devonhirse This done they return to the house, is remarkable for its cider. In order the doors of which they are sure to to ensure a good fruit harvest, the fol. find bolted by the females, who, be lowing custom is generally kept up in the weather what it may, are inexothat quarter. On the eve of the Epi- rable to all entreaties to open them, phany, the farmer, attended by his till some one among them has guessworkmen, with a large pitcher of cider ed what is upon the spit, which is goes to the orchard, and then, encir- generally some nice little thing difficling one of the best trees, they drink cụlt to be hit on, and is the reward the following toast three several times. of him who first names it.

The Here's to thee, old apple tree ;

doors are then thrown open, and the · When thou may’st bud, and when thou lucky clodpole receives the tidbit as may'st blow!

his recompense. Some are so superAnd when thou may'st bear apple enow?

stitious as to believe, that if they neHats full! caps full ! Bushel-bushel-sacks full !

glect this custom, the trees will bear And my pockets full too !

no apples that year. Nuzza ! Huzza! Huzza!

JERUSALEM.
The Church of the Holy Sepulchre at Jerusalem destroyed by fire.

Jerusalem, 24 Oct. 1808. cause. From thence the flames deIN the night between the 11th scended upon the choir of the Greeks, and 12th instant, after the Francis. and from thence to the floor of the can monks, who reside in the Holy church. The fire now assumed a Sepulchre, had retired to rest, they most awful appearance, and threatenheard an uncommon noise in the ed the elevated wooden cupola of the church. They immediately hastened Temple with immediate destruction. to the spot, and, upon their entering The Franciscans used their utmost it, they discovered the wooden altar, exertions to stop the progress of the together with the wooden cells of the flames; but they were too few in Armenian ecclesiasticks situated over number. They also wanted the necesthe columns of the gallery, in flames, sary implements for that purpose ; without their being able to divide the and when they at last succeeded in

« PredošláPokračovať »