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PENNY WISE AND POUND FOOLISH. But Nelly thought it far too dear;

Indeed it cost her many a tear,

She used (for saving was her boast) POOR John had bought him half a hog, But half a pound of salt at most. And thought it would be glorious prog,

But see how Nelly was mistaken; To eat with cabbage, peas, and beans,

She saved her salt-but lost her bacon. Or with a dish of winter greens :

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SOCIETY OF ARTS.

PHILOSOPHICAL AND ECONOMICAL INTELLIGENCE.

it. When the heat is proper, it must be Method of preserving Fruit without Sugar, hour longer, which will always be long

kept at the same degree for about half an for Home L'se, or Sea Stores.

enough, as a longer time, or greater heat, THIS is the discovery of Mr. Thomas will crack the fruit. While the bottles Saddington, of Lower Thames street, are thus getting in heat, a tea-kettle full who, with his communication to the so- of water must be got ready, boiling, by ciety, enclosed a box containing the fol- the time the fruit is done. If one fire only lowing fruits in bottles, preserved without is used, the kettle containing the bottles sugar : viz. apricots, gooseberries, cur- must be removed half off the fire, when it pants, raspberries, cherries, Orleans is at the full heat required, to make room plums, green gages, damsons, and Sibe- for boiling the water in the tea-kettle. As rian crabs; but the same mode is applica- soon as the fruit is properly scalded, and ble to all English fruits. Mr. S. describes the water boiling, take the bottles out of the process which he uses, to the follow- the water, one at a time, and fill them ing effect:

within an inch of the cork, with the boilThe bottles for this purpose are select- ing water out of the tea-kettle. Cork. ed from the widest necked of those which them down immediately, doing it gently, are used for wine or porter, these being but very tight, but you must not shake the cheapest. Being properly cleaned, them by driving the cork, as that will enand the fruit, which should not be too danger the bursting of the bottles. When ripe, ready picked, the bottles are to be corked, the bottles must be laid down on filled as full as they will hold, to admit the their sides, as by that means the cork cork going in. The fruit while they are keeps swelled, and prevents the air escafilling, is to be frequently shook down. ping out. When cold, the bottles may be The corks afterwards must be so lightly removed to any convenient place of keepstuck into the bottles as to be taken out ing. During the first month or two, it easily when the fruit is lightly scalded, will be necessary to turn them a little which may be done in a copper, a kettle, round, once or twice a week, to prevent or sauce-pan, over the fire, first putting a the fermentation that will arise from some ooarse cloth of any kind at the bottom, to fruits, from forming into a crust. By thus prevent the heat from cracking the bottles. properly attending to the fruit, and keepThen the copper, the kettle, &c. is to be ing it moist with the water, no mould will filled with cold water sufficiently high for ever take place. Afterwards it may be the bottles to be nearly up to the top of it. necessary to turn the bottles round once They are to be put in sideways, to expel or twice a month, only. the air contained in the cavity, under the In order to diversify the degree of heat, bottom of the bottle. If the copper is Mr. S. states, that he has done some fruits used, care must be taken that the bottles in 190 degrees of it, and continued them do not touch the bottom or sides of the in it for three quarters of an hour ; but copper, which would endanger their this heat be found too powerful, and the bursting. Then the heat must be increas- time too long, as the fruit by these means ed gradually, till it comes to about 170 de- was reduced to a pulp. In 1807, he pregrees, by a brewing thermometer, which served 95 bottles of fruit, the expense of generally requires about three quarters of which, exclusive of bottles and corks, was an hour. Those who have not such a thing, 11. 98. 5 1-2d. or, upon an average, about may judge of the proper degree of heat 4 1-2d. a bottle. "In winter, they may when the water feels very hot, but not hot amount to 1s. per bottle. The vessel for enough to scald the fingers. If too hot, a scalding the fruit in, should be a long little cold water may be added to temper wooden trough of six, eight, or ten feet

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in length; two or three in breadth; and Next to the white of eggs M. Parmenone in depth ; fitted with laths across, to tier places isinglass; because, as he justkeep the bottles upright. This trough of ly observes, it does not alter the true co. water is to have the heat communicated to lour of the wine, or communicate a disa. it by steam, through a pipe from a closed greeable flavour to it. boiler at a distance ; or if the boiling water Experience has proved that white wines wanted to fill the bottles with, is convey. in particular, which have been clarified ed through a pipe and a cock over the through the medium of isinglass, are more trough, many hundreds of bottles might transparent, and preserve their limpidness be done this way in a short time. Five much longer than those to which the guineas were voted by the society to Mr. whites of eggs have been applied, the latSaddington for his communication. ter being invariably injured by a contact

with the atmospherick air. As to red Mr. E. Thomason (Birmingham] has taken will clear them, and consequently a spe

wines, a very small portion of isinglass out a Patent for a new Method of manu

cies of economy is added to the other adfacturing Umbrellas, Parasols, &c.

vantages derived from the use of it, as The hearth brush is made upon this thereby an immense quantity of eggs is principle, and at present much used. The saved. patentee's object has been to conceal the M. Parmentier contributed a paper to brush part, by means of a convenient ap- the Annales de Chimie, in 1792, by which paratus, excepting during the time of its he undertook to prove, that, in many cases, using. The same principle being applied a sort of jelly, prepared from the raspings to the parasol and umbrella, the spreading of bones, might be substituted for isin. part of the latter, when not used as a de- glass. But might we not with greater fence against the weather, is concealed in facility procure a much better substitute a walking stick. Though the head of the for isinglass, than that which he makes cane, stick, &c. containing this apparatus, mention of, from our indigenous producis rather larger than those of common tions, from our fisheries of every descripwalking sticks.

tion ?-Most of the fish which are but

thinly covered with scales, and which live The French Mode of Fining, or Clarifying in our lakes, ponds, and rivers, furnish Wine.

great abundance of gelatinous substance, The complaint among the wine trade both wholesome and pleasing to the smell with respect to the difficulty of clearing and taste, which might be prepared for wine is so general, that we conceive the the purpose already mentioned with very following extract from valuable work little trouble. In adopting this mode we lately published at Paris, will prove not

should confer a benefit upon the nation at unacceptable to many of our readers. large, by curtailing the importation of “ Of all materials used in clarifying wines isinglass, for which such immense sums and other liquids,” says M. Parmentier,

are paid to the merchants of the northern “I think that the whites of eggs are best parts of Europe. calculated to bring them to that degree

This paper may give rise to more than of perfection, and confer upon them that one philosophical question. First, what limpidness which they can acquire neither is that principle in an egg become stale by rest nor by filtration.” When, how

and tainted, though but little, which is so ever, the whites of eggs are made use of powerful in its nature and properties as to for the purpose of clarifying wines, &c. it taint a whole pipe of wine? Consider the is necessary to be particularly careful in smallness of an egg itself in proportion to using the freshest eggs only; and in the quantity of liquor : Consider the exbreaking and examining them, great cau. pression “ however slightly this small tion and circumspection are to be observ. quantity be tainted;" and when the prined, since it has often happened that a sin- ciple, or portion tainted is limited, in fact, gle egg, however slightly tainted, has given to a small portion of this small a disagreeable flavour" to a wvhole pipe of is the power of the tainting principle! the zine, an evil which, when once incurred, principle of corruption! Is there any beis irreinediable. It is best, adds the au

neficent principle that is equally capable thor already named, to employ such eggs

of meliorating its subject when only so only as are laid by hens which do not asso

slightly diffused throughout its parts ?ciate with cocks, because the intercourse Secondly: It is remarkable, that an exof the male renders the eggs more liable 'tract from fish, a commodity sufficiently to putrescence, and gives them a very bad remote, it should appear, from the nature

of any production of the grape, or its

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egg. Such

taste.

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juice, should clarify the liquor innocently, beautiful violet colour, which resists the while an egg slightly tainted, injures it. acids and alkalis, from the juice of the Isinglass is a kind of glue, prepared from fresh leaves of the aloe exposed to the air a fish. Whether any other glue, prepared by degrees. The liquid first becomes red, from any other kind of fish, might answer and at the end of a certain period turns the purpose as well; and if not, why not? to a beautiful purple violet, which adheres is also a matter of curious inquiry. The to silk by simple immersion, without the other query which a naturalist will dis. aid of acids. cern in this communication may deserve * discussion, but rather in a learned lan

Richard Walker, esq. of Oxford, has guage, and in a direct dissertation, than proposed an alteration in the scale of the in a popular and widely circulating pe. thermometer, which suggested itself to riodical publication. Why are red wines him during a long course of experiments, more easily and effectually clarified by and which has been adopted by himself isinglass than white wines; and whence and his friends from the persuasion of its is the sediment that subsides from them being founded on the truest principles. more easily acted on by this apparently “ The two fixed points, the freezing and feeble agent?

boiling points of water as they have hither

to been, will,” he observes, “probably neFew persons in this country know any ver fail to be continued, as being perfectly other use of the aloe than the medicine sufficient for the accurate adjustment of which it affords; but it serves for a num.

thermometers. The commencement of ber of other beneficial purposes in the

the scale, and the number of divisions countries where it grows." In the East In. only appear to claim attention. With redies, aloes are employed as a varnish to spect to the first, since neither the ex. preserve wood from worms and other in- tremes of heat or cold are likely to be asgects; and skins and even living animals certained, the hope of fixing o at either are anointed with it for the same reason.

of these may be entirely relinquished, and The havock committed by the white ants

it remains to fix it at the fittest interme. in India first suggested the trial of aloe diate point. Here I propose the following juice, to protect wood from them; for mode of graduation. Having ascertained which purpose the juice is either used as that the temperature of 620 of Fahrenheit extracted, or in solution by some solvent is the temperature at which the human Aloes have also been found effectual in body in health is conscious of no inconve. preserving ships from the ravages of the nience from heat or cold, and that a de. worm, and the adhesion of barnacles. viation from that point of only one or two The ship's bottom, for this purpose, is degrees, above or below, actually produ. smeared with a composition of hepatick ces that effect under ordinary circumstanaloes, turpentine, tallow, and white lead. ces, I fixed my zero or 0 there. I adopted In proof of the efficacy of this method, the divisions of Fahrenheit, considering two planks of equal thickness, and cut those of Reaumur, the centigrades, &c. as from the same tree, were placed under too few, and decimal divisions unneceswater, one in its natural state and the sary. Hence it will follow that 0 being other smeared with the composition; placed at 62° of Fahrenheit, 150° will be when, on taking them up after being in the boiling, and minus 30° the freezing mersed eight months, the latter was found point of water; and all other points on to be as perfect as at first, while the for. Fahrenheit's scale may be reduced to this, mer was entirely penetrated by insects, by subtracting 62 for any degree above 0 and in a state of absolute rottenness. An of Fahrenheit, and adding 62 for any de aquatick solution of hepatick aloes pre- gree below 0. For ordinary meteorologiserves young plants from destruction by cal purposes, a scale of this kind extend. insects, and also dead animals and vege- ing to 650 above, and as many below 0% tables from putrefaction; which renders it

will be sufficient." of great use in the cabinets of naturalists. The spirituous extract is best for this pur. To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. pose, though in this respect it is inferiour

SIR, to that of cantharides, prepared by infu. I am informed that, in consequence of sing two grains in one ounce of spirits, an alteration (lately made) in the process which has been found to be so effectual of drying white lead, the health of the la. in the extirpation of bugs. Pærner as. bourers, in an extensive manufactory in serts, that a simple decoction of aloes the neighbourhood of London, has been communicates a fine brown colour to wool. very materially benefitted--the fatal conFabroni, of Florence, has extracted a stipation of the bowels, so common amongst them, having much decreased, which is to be ; this dust entering the mouth was attributed in a great measure, if not en- one principal cause of the diseases to tirely, to this alteration. The different which the workmen were liable. Ву mode of drying the lead adopted is (if I means of your miscellany, I wish to give understand the matter right) that instead publicity to the above circumstance; and of laying it on chalk it is now poured into should any of your readers be able and earthen-ware pans, and left to dry in willing to give me any further particulars them. The lead does not undergo nearly respecting this manufacture, which may 90 much handling as before, and the fine be conducive to the health of those em. particles of it, which used to float in great ployed in it, they will much oblige abundance about the room, are not per

A CONSTANT READBR. ceived in such dense clouds as they used

LITERARY INTELLIGENCE.

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Proposes to republish-Bacon's Abridg. The American Register, or General

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SELECT REVIEWS.

FOR SEPTEMBER, 1809.

FROM THE LITERARY PANORAMA.

Scloppetaria; or Considerations on the Nature and Use of Rifle Barrel Guns; with

Reference to their forming the Basis of a permanent System of national Defence, agreeable to the Genius of the Country. By a Corporal of Riflemen. 8vo. pp. 251. Price 98. London, 1808.

WE understand that this book is proportion, with regular troops arm. written by Henry Beaufoy, Esq. son ed with our English muskets; and, of Mark Beaufoy, Esq. of Hackney above all, our English bayonet; a weaWick, F. R. S. and colonel of the 1st pon irresistible, when urged home royal regiment of Tower Hamlets' by the muscular arm of our gallant militia. The earl of Moira has been countrymen-witness Maida;-witproperly selected as the patron of ness Vimeira ;-witness Corunna !this work, both as an eminent mili. Mr. Beaufoy says, it is not intended tary character, and as being consta- to urge the indiscriminate use of rifle. ble of the tower of London, and lord barrelled guns, “but to render troops lieutenant of that portion of the coun- armed with them, as a distinct and ty of Middlesex which comprehends cooperative force, more general and the Tower Hamlets.

important; where the musket ends The perusal of this volume has or begins, the rifle commencing or given us great pleasure. Its contents leaving off. For the fact is, that in are truly interesting. They are the any other view they become a nullity. result of science combined with prac. The moment a rifleman suffers him. tice; and bear honourable testimony self to be closed, his weapon becomes to the ingenuity and perseverance of of less use than the common musket; Mr. Beaufoy ; to the judicious selec- since the delay in loading would now tion of experiments, and to the acute- be injurious, and the exactness unneness with which conclusions have cessary.” Again, in another place, he been drawn, and corollaries deduced. observes : l'he author by no means runs riot theless, it is not necessary, with the ordi

“ To conceive their excellence, neverwith his subject. He does not ascribe to the rifle barrelled gun, properties attribute to them more than their own

nary spirit of enthusiastick theorists, to which it does not possess; nor does certain qualities; to render the extensive he wish to substitute it for all other of. use of rifle corps, here recommended, fensive weapons. He certainly wishes

effectual, it must be unfailingly kept in to make expert riflemen of all our

view, that they are to be regarded as a volunteers ; but then he would not species of troops entirely distinct from

every other, though acting with, and perrely upon riflemen cnly in a pitched haps mutually dependent on all of them. battle. He would mix them, in due He who shall expect from them the ordi.

VOL. II.

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