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nary duties of the battalion, or artillery, We shall give another quotation or even of light infantry, will be disap- from the introduction, on the compapointed, though in proper situations they rison between the musket and the will effect more than either. In close
rifle barrelled gun. combat, or where the bayonet is alone to be employed, they are useless ; for the 6 A musket will fire five shots to one meanest musket in numbers will be suf- from a rifle, as generally used. In an acficient. In storming parties, they will be tion of an hour, the musket then will also inefficient; since, as observed by the have fired perhaps 100 shots (the num. intelligent author already mentioned, in bers are indifferent, as they will always the agitation necessarily occasioned by be relative) and the rifle 20. Supposing the violence of such moments, they will 1 in 200 shots of the musket to tell be unequal to that cool and steady fire, (which many will not allow by half) it on which their whole purpose depends; must fire incessantly for more than two a circumstance, perhaps, proved by their hours before it can be certain of taking similar employment at Buenos Ayres and effect, and this too, reckoning the freMontevideo. For similar reasons the quent opportunity of firing at a whole line, confounding them with mere light infan. where deviation to the right or left would try, or attributing to them a character of be immaterial. Allowing to the rifle, with still greater celerity, as when they have less indulgence, a certainty of effect in been made to run by the side of the ca- but one shot of twenty, which none at all valry !* the real advantages of a rifle conversant with rifle shooting will admit corps will not be obtained. But nourish. to be sufficient, firing 20 shots in an ed and animated by an esprit du corps, hour, gives even then a balance in its faonly to be inspired by preserving them in vour of more than two to one in the their proper situation, they will never fail number of killed, wounded, or disabled, to furnish all that shall be required of against the objection of time lost in load. them. Let them then no longer receive ing: Thus, then, taking five to one against the censure of the battalions. Each man a rifle in the first instance, because we thus employed will feel, as the historian give to the musket five times the number says of Fabius-Non ignorabat se timidum, of shots, and adding the two to one in pro cauto ; imbellem, pro perito belli, ha- its favour from the number of killed and beri: at maluit ut se hostis metuerit, quam wounded, on striking the balance, it will stulti cives laudarent. Let them no longer be found to leave to the rifle a decided be supposed as giving to war new hor- advantage of seven to one. In this comTours; but rather as tending to shorten its putation, the average distance at which calamities, and to determine the conflicts the rifle is to be fired is from 250 to 400 of nations, by an efficiency in arms wor- yards. thy of the highly civilized state of Eu. “ The most superficial observer will narope, and of the world. Above all, let us
turally see, at the same time, the compararemember, that whatever shall promise tive saving in ammunition, and be enato enable us to maintain the independence bled to form an idea of its importance, of our own country--to preserve sacred by calculating the value of a load used those accumulated rights which have for a rifle and a musket, as charged by been created by the wisdom, or purcha- government; by conceiving the value of sed by the blood of our ancestors, ought a cartridge on its arrival in the East or to be well considered, and if proved West Indies; the different proportion of worthy of adoption, to be adopted with ammunition wagons; and the inconvenivigour. Let us never forget, that we live ence to an army of a numerous train of not alone for ourselves, but that we hold carriages ; and be thus enabled to perceive also the rights of posterity, which are not how far the advantages arising out of these to be committed by our act.”
circumstances, will set off against the dif. This is the language of a genuine ference of expense between the weapons. patriot. Here the principles which
An officer of undoubted veracity assured have ever distinguished the Literary under his command in Egypt, fired away
the writer, that a party of light infantry Panorama identify with those of our 60,000 rounds in driving in that of an spirited young author.
enemy, of which he really believed, that
not above four or five were killed or wound. * This was the duty of the 95th rifle ed on the part of the enemy. regiment, at the camp formed in the “Of the utility of corps armed with ri. summer of, I think, 1806, on Shorncliffe fed barrelled guns, or of riflemen, as heights.
they are generally, though not very defi.
nitively called, the proofs are innumera- engaging the columns of the enemy, ble. As a light, erratick force concealing as the brave patriots have done, they itself with facility, and forming an ambuscade at will, its effects are incalcula- had carried on war upon the other ble.
principle, does it not seem probable “By combining the solid column, or the
that the armies of Cuesta, Castanos, extended line, as now practised by the Blake and Romana, might yet have best tacticians, with considerable bodies remained nearly entire ; and that the of light troops, a mutual confidence is in- invading hordes, daily and hourly atspired; the former, aware that all the tacked in a hostile country, by invisiharassing duties of the petite guerre will be performed by the latter, and these in ble and destructive opponents, must turn knowing that they have troops ready have been reduced to insignificance ? formed en masse, behind which they may We are bold to say, that if the Sparetire when closely pressed. The origin niards even yet adopt this mode of of this idea is of no trifling date, being to fighting, suited in a peculiar manner be found in the relations of the Socii, the
to the Fabian system (for Buonaparte Velites, Sagittarii, and Funditores of the Romans, to the main body of their army,
is to Spain what Hannibal was to formed on a principle similar to that which Italy] they will finally triumph will ultimately be mentioned in this in. over their enemies. Burgoyne's artroduction; while its modern practice will my had never capitulated at Saratoga be recognised in the Hussars and Pan. if the Americans had been without dours of the Prussians and Austrians; the Croats of the Russians; the Albanians of
riflemen. the Turks, and the Arnauts serving with In the introduction to Scloppetaria, the Russians and British in Italy. Ever we have a very curious historical acskulking and roaming about the country, count of missile weapons in England. they compel the enemy to be constantly The glories of this island, while its on the watch and alert, in apprehension of an attack. With such troops, the enemy
might stood upon archers,” are duly cannot despatch a detachment or reen- characterized ; and the acts of parliaforcement, or effect any movement of con- ment, passed from time to time, to sequence, scarcely transmit a return, or
encourage archery, are pointed out. even send a messenger, without informa
We observe one small oversight in tion being conveyed by various means to the army employing them. They are dis- this detail, p. 12, where Fortescue's persed in every direction; their effects learned work “ De Laudibus Legum are felt at distant points at the same mo- Angliæ,"is represented as having been ment; and they tend to affect the mind of written after the 33d of Henry the an enemy by constantly presenting to him
VIII. . Fortescue was made unexpected obstacles, a circumstance chief justice of the king's bench in which will never be omitted in the consideration of a general.”
1442 Though he was certainly apThe passages already quoted may pointed chancellor to Henry VI. du. suffice to take off all objection to ring that prince's exile in Scotland, Scloppetaria, on the score of substi. it is not known that he ever exercised tuting the rifle for the musket. It is the functions of that high office in much to be wished, however, that England. What led our author into our volunteers, at least, were to a
this anacronism, in all probability, man masters of the rifle.
was this circumstance, that FortesIn the event of an invasion with an
cue's work was not published till overwhelming French army, we sup- the reign of Henry VIII. He died pose that our generals would decline in 1465. rather than seek an opportunity of The theory of the rifle barrelled fighting a pitched battle. All authors gun is very happily explained by anaof talent who have written on this logical reasoning; for the application subject, have recommended the ha of which, Quintilian is cited in a note rassing system of warfare, the petite analogiæ hoc vis est, ut id quod guerre. To this the rifle is peculiarly dubium est, ad aliquid simile de quo adapted ; and if in Spain, instead of non quæritur, referat ; ut incerta cer
tis probet.”—The angle of aberration composition from getting damp, by imbiin the case of bullets discharged from bing the moisture of the atmosphere ; for an ordinary musket is ever consider- it is not sufficient that the vessel in which
it is kept, be in a covered situation; as a able; but the deflection from the ori.
room or cupboard for example, but it ginal line of flight, is an inconveni- should be kept so closely stopped down ence which arrows shot from a bow
as to preclude the entrance of the air. If were not found so liable. The rea- a certain quantity be first of all well dried, son has been proved to be, that the
and the weight then nicely ascertained, feather on the arrow gives a spinning uncovered plate, on being reweighed it
if it be left for a few hours exposed in an motion to the shaft as it flies through will be found to have increased considerthe air, and causes it to revolve round ably in weight. The reason assigned is, its longitudinal axis. Turning quick- the quantity of moisture it has attracted ly round, as much as the arrow de- from the atmosphere; for if it be again viates to one side in its flight, the dried, the weight will be found reduced to
its former standard. aberration is corrected by the almost instantaneous pressure of the air on
“ Some have thought that a certain degree
of moisture enabled the powder to the other; and thus its vertiginous disengage, on combustion, a greater quanmotion leads it directly from the bow tity of gas than when dry; but this does to the mark. This theory is most in- not appear to be the fact. For surely, the geniously pursued, and, in our judg- more suddenly and rapidly the ignition
takes place, the more suddenly will the ment, demonstrated, by various experiments made on bodies passing entirely propelled by the suddenness of the
vapour be produced ; and as the ball is through resisting media; and it most generation of the vapour, it should follow, satisfactorily appears, that the preci- that every particle of moisture contained sion with which a leaden ball shot in the grains must retard the ignition, from a rifle barrelled gun hits the and consequently the effect of the powder. object at which it is discharged, arises
“ The effects of the atmosphere on pow. from the indentations which it re
der are well known to all practitioners and ceives in passing along the grooves for rifle shots to increase their charges in
sportsmen, and therefore it is very usual spirally worked within the barrel. damp weather, and at all events never to This theory is discussed in the three leave their loading horn on the damp first chapters; to which, and to the ground. Hence, then, the side pocket plates accompanying them, we refer used by riflemen for receiving the powder our readers. This book is illustrated horn has a greater advantage than mere
convenience, inasmuch as it, from its by nine plates, exclusive of the fronsituation, enables the powder to derive tic-piece, and several engravings of considerable warmth from the body, and periorated targets, showing the com- thus keeps it drier. This is confirmed by parative effects of different pieces the greater effect produced by powder, fired at various distances. These are
previously made quite hot, and then executed in a style of peculiar and lighted, than if ignited at the usual tem
perature. Again, we all know, that after expressive neatness; and the entire
a few rounds from a cannon, as the metal work is well worth the notice of eve- gets hotter, the cartridges used are filled ry man in the kingdom, capable of with smaller quantities of powder, not bearing arms. There is hardly a only to avoid unnecessary recoil, but also single point, however minute, rela
a needless waste of powder, as the smalltive to the rifle gun, which is not dis- the same effect when the gun is heated,
er quantities of it are found to produce cussed. On the subject of gunpow- as the larger, when the cannon was first der we shall give a passage, because fired and cold. It seems, then, not an it shows a safe and easy mode of dry- unfair conclusion, that the heat of the ing it, which, more generally known, der in the cartridge so much, as to put it,
metal raising the temperature of the powmay prevent dangerous accidents.
as it were, in a partial state of ignition, “ In preserving powder, the principal before the match is applied, the developdifficulty is to keep the saltpetre in its ment of gas is more instantaneous, and
therefore, the effect produced the great- It would be injustice to omit our
The thickness of metal in great and approbation of the superiour manner small arms, being somewhat proportional
, of arrangement adopted in this vowhen the powder is fired, a part of the heat is absorbed in raising the tempera- lume. Instead of a chaos of inforture of the cold barrel. To such as are
mation, which frequently defeats the fond of rifle shooting, we should recom- good effects of intrinsick inerit in mend the purchase of two, three, or half professional works, each article is are a dozen pounds of powder, always of the best quality, to be mixed well together ranged under its own proper head, with the hands, to prevent the contact of and an index presents a ready referany thing that might inflame it, till ren- ence to it, thus uniting the facilities dered as homogeneous as possible. of a dictionary to the interest of an
“ It should be laid on a large water-dish, able treatise. In addition to the sci. filled with boiling water, where after a entifick information which abounds few minutes stirring, it will be found con
in these pages, it contains a great siderably heated, and consequently dried. If then put into bottles well dried, and variety of very interesting reflections previously heated, for the purpose
of and observations, relative to military pelling every particle of moisture, and concerns in general--the organizaclosely corked, it may be kept for any tion of the army-of a battalion-the length of time, and in any situation, with. selection of light infantry men-of out being deteriorated as to strength or
riflemen. Some very valuable hints quality. The water plate is recommended on account of its safety, in preference to relative to the improvement of the other methods used, as passing a heated dress, accoutrements, and luggage fire shovel over it, and so on. If powder of troops—and similar topicks. To be well dried, it will not soil the hands, those whose rank gives weight to and therefore there is no difficulty in as- their opinions in military matters, certaining when it may be removed from
this work should form an object of the plate to the bottle, without fear of the operation being sufficiently completed."* study. All, who are any way inte
We did intend noticing several rested in the subject, should read it other interesting passages, but we attentively. And we hope that we have not room. We will venture to
shall not be deemed impertinent in say that no military library can be recommending to the able author, complete without' Mr. Beaufoy's to compile an abridgment of the book.
most prominent and useful arti
cles of the work, omitting, for ex* Powder should not, however, be fre. ample, all theoretick speculations, quently exposed to heat, in this way, as and thus, by producing a useful shilevery time, a certain portion of the sulphur ling pamphlet, enable every rifleman is carried off in the shape of vapour, and in the kingdom, whether regular or as the goodness depends chiefly on the volunteer, to profit by the experience three different ingredients, used in its manufacture, bearing a certain
proportion and the knowledge which the patriotto each other, one cannot be diminished, ick studies of the author have eliwithout deteriorating the quality of the cited. whole.
FROM THE QUARTERLY REVIEW. Periodical Accounts relative to the Baptist Missionary Society. Major Scott Waring,
-Twining, Vindication of the Hindoos, &c. &c. THE rapid progress of Christi- bered their common origin, and when anity during the first ages of the the interests of Christianity were in church, and its victory over the esta- question acted as one body, with one blished forms of classical supersti- heart and will. Before this struggle tion, the schools of ancient philoso. was over, the zeal of protestantism phy, and the barbarous mythologies had spent itself. All sects and comof the northern nations, were the uni- munities of religion settle and purify ted produce of the ardent piety and after their first effervescence. Then indefatigable zeal of the first preach- they become vapid. The protestant ers of the Gospel, and the blessing churches had reached this second and assistance of Heaven. But, it is stage, when they were securely and observable that, in later times, the peaceably established : their turbid faith has been spread more by colo- elements had cleared away, but the nization than conversion. How is it quickening spirit was gone also, that the latter has been so deplorably While they had zeal to attempt the checked? The Romanists accuse the work of converting heathen nations Protestants for their indifference; the they had no opportunity, and when Protestants retort upon the Romanists the opportunity came, the zeal had for their corruptions. There is but evaporated. The Dutch, indeed, did too much truth in the charge on either something in Ceylon-a poor atone. side; but the reproach is better found- ment for the irreparable evil which ed than the recrimination.
they occasioned in Japan. Quakerism This evil grew out of the reforma- sent forth a few apostles to the pope tion, and it is the only evil attendant and the great Turk, and the good upon that blessed event which has spirit which animated them was so continued to the present times. The far communicated to the personages schism between the Greeks and La- whom they addressed, that, little used lins was less mischievous. There the as they were to the benignant mood, parties were so little in contact, that they sent the gentle zealots safely their hatred was without exaspera- home again. A Danish mission was tion; and each talked its own non- established in India, where it has sense, without attempting to convert continued merely because it is an the other, except by the innocent and establishment. Assistance has, ininefficient formalities of a council. deed, been given to it by our own soSeparated from the whole Latin ciety, for promoting Christian knowchurch by their geographical situa- ledge; and some attempts have been tion, by the great boundary of lan- made among the North American guage, by their political relations, savages by the society for propagatheir pride of elder and superiour ting the Gospel in foreign parts. But civilisation, and their semi-oriental these efforts, however laudable, have manners, the Greeks were scarcely had no very extensive consequences; included in the idea of Christendom, and protestantism has rather attempt. and our crusaders sometimes founded than effected the work of converthem as hostile as the Saracens. sion. But the revolution which Luther ef- There is, however, in all religious fected produced a civil war between communities a vivacious and vivifick the members of that great Gothick principle not to be found in the same family, who, amid all their civil disc degree in political bodies ; their hold sensions, had ever till then remem. is
upon the heart of man, upon his