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in the city of London, and entitled, the times ; his mind is wholly set ** God's Plea for Nineveh, or Lon- upon cuts and slashes, knots and don's Precedent for Mercy. Printed roses, patchings and pinkings, jagby William Wilson, for Thomas gins, taggins, borderings, brimmings, Reeve, B. in Divinity, living at the half-shirts, half-arms, yawning brests, Bunch of Grapes in Chancery Lane, gaping knees, arithmeticall midnear Lincolnes-Inne. 1657.” dles, geometricall sides, mathematiThe Drudge.

call waste, musicall heels, and logiIf thou beest for profit, thy ranges call toes. I wonder he is not for the are known; after thou hast called Indians branded skin, and ringed up thy servants to hunt for gain at snowts. His phantastick dotages are home, thou thyself, as one in full so many, that he hath a free-school, quest for lucre abroad, art visiting bookish about inventions for him; other men's storehouses, searching nay, an academy of wits studying their warehouses, ransacking their cel- deeply to devise fashions according lers; thou goest to the customhouse to his humour: know ye not the multo try what exporting and importing titude of students, artists, graduates there hath been, thou repairest to that are subliming their notions to the exchange to examine what mer. please this one light head? Then chant thou canst meet with, with hear them by their names, perfuwhom thou maist truck in minivers, mers, complexioners, feather-makers, and tissues, musks, and civets, the stitchers, snippers, drawers, yea who teeth of elephants, the bones of not? yet amongst these doth the nited whales, the stones of bezars, the claws spark spend out his time : this is the of crabs, the oyles of swallows, the Gallant's day. skins of vipers, yea, be it but in black

The Epicure. coal, black pitch, white chalk, white If thou beest for dainties, how art sope, rústy iron, or abominable mum. thou then for spread-tables and plemy, it will serve the turn; or if thy nished fagons ? thou art but a panmerchandising fail there, thou turn- try-worm, and a pastry-fly. Thou art est thy trading another way, to seek all for inlandish meat, and outlandish about for a license, or a patent, or sawces, thou art the dapifer to thy perhaps to pry out some decayed palate or the cup-barer to thy appeheir, or foundered gallant, that thy tite, the creature of the swallow, or ferret might be sent forth into that the slave of the wesand. The land burrow, or thy setting dog let loose hath scars flesh, the sea fish, or the to drive that covey, to hook in some air fowl curious enough for thy licomortgage, or to prey upon some rous throat; by thy good will thou forfeiture, and if all these devices will wouldst eat nothing but kids and not take place, then thou stirrest thy fawns, carps and mullets, snipes and legs to go suck venome from a petty• quailes ; and drink nothing but Fronfogger, or magick from some con- tiniack, white muskadines, leathick jurer. And thus doth the Drudge wine, and Vin de Pary. Thy olies, of the World spend his day.

and hogoes, creepers and peepers, The Gallant.

Italian cippets and French broths, do If thou beest for bravery, I can- shew what a bondman to the paunch not follow thee by the track, nor find thou art ; even the idolatour of the out thy various motions. The gallant banquetting house. Thy belly is thy is counted a wild creature ; no wild god. Thus doth the glutton waste colt, wild ostrich, wild cat of the out his pilgrimage : this is the Enie mountain, comparable to him; he cure's day. is, indeed, the buffoon, and baboon of

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VOL. II.

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HISTORY OF ALI, PACHA OF JANINA:

His Origin, Character, Power, Subjects, and Resources. IN a regular government, as un- Or when two or three of these acderstood among ourselves, we admit quire influence over their fellows, as an incontrovertible maxim, that the and become leaders of a party, the exercise of power should flow from head of the government is not safe one source. That source is the para. in his castle. mount officer of the sovereignty : in It has lately been our duty to reBritain, the crown. We know no cord revolutions and re-revolutions divided, or parallel authority: no by which the Turkish court and capi. principle on which an individual tal have been convulsed. We saw holds an office, or governs a district, Mustapha Bairactar expel the drones in contradiction to the will of the who formed the Ottoman ministry. king, as advised by his council. We In a few weeks we saw Mustapha know of no army paid from any other overwhelmed by an insurgent multipurse than that of the nation. Even tude, and his enemies prevail against the king himself dare not show a him. The means employed to acsingle troop clothed and accoutred complish this are known to few: and from his private purse; still less most of our countrymen who have dare a poble to raise a regiment, or taken up the persuasion that the train a bat'alion without a commis- Grand Seignior is a despotick prince sion from the chief of the realm. (as in truth he is) are at a loss to When our sovereign thinks proper conceive by what means his deputies too, he can withdraw his commission, can organize insurrections against and the party who held it is no longer him, and imprison or destroy their competent to perform acts of governo master, almost at their pleasure.

No governour considers his Among the adherents of Mustapha provir ce as his property, and there. Bairactar, Ali, pacha of Janina, holds fore refuses to relinquish the appoint- a conspicuous place. The army and ment: no governour presumes to en- the publick have directed much of large bis province by acquiring in their attention to his conduct, and fluence in another, or by carrying have watched his proceedings with his arms into neighbouring districts, anxiety. We have thought, that the and forcing the inhabitants to acknow. history of this chief might contri. ledge his supremacy. No govern- bute to throw light on the cause of our considers the duties on com- this publick attention, while at the merce as the revenue of himself, or same time it would show what sandy of his province, exclusively, further materials are combined in the serthan may contribute to, or at least vice of the Sublime Porte. On this than consists with, the general welsandy nature of these materials Buofare of the state, as one body. But naparte places his reliance, for the every dominion is not so happily accomplishment of his projects aconstituted. The connexion be gainst the Turkish empire. He tween the supreme power and the conceives, that this subdivided godelegate is, in some constitutions, vernment, when invaded by his conbut feeble : and a man of intrepidity centrated forces, will yield with little shall sometimes cause the sovereign, resistance, and that he may

substitute whose subject and servant he profess- himself as the centre of allegiance, es to be, to tremble. The cause of instead of a descendant of Ottoman, this is despotism. A despot must be at a word speaking. On the other served by other despots: they indi- hand, we suspect that the approach vidually tremble before him: he of extreme danger would induce trembles before them, collectively, these now disunited pachas to com

ment.

bine for their mutual protection. bourhood of Tebeleni, or Tebdélem, That they would have discretion a town of the ancient Thesprotia, enough to perceive that the destruc- now a part of Albania, distant about tion of the Ottoman authority would 60 miles from Janina, north. His not fail to issue in the ruin of their father was, it is said, a pacha of two own houses, and the formation of tails, who commanded there; and his dukedoms, and marquisates, &c. for mother, who possessed the courage the generals of the emperour and of the Amazons of that country, imking. He will meet with a resistance parted it to him with his existence. in detail. The nature of the country When his father died, Ali was too favours his adversaries ; and there is young to defend his dominions, and a possibility, that some desperate would have been despoiled of them, genius of a Turk may teach him to had not his mother seized the reins think less of his own abilities, and not of administration, put herself at the to sell the bear's skin till he has con- head of the Albanese, and by her quered and flayed the bear. The undaunted courage, aided by the sapresent war with Austria has Turkey crifice of her property, successfully for its object, on the part of France. repelled the repeated attacks of his If Turkey is wise, her troops will numerous enemies. take a position that will not permit In the midst of battles, by which Russia to direct a great force at her the peace of Thesprotia was frequente pleasure. Turkey, in short, may ly disturbed, Ali, in rising to manhold a kind of check on her neigh- hood, imbibed the first principles of bours, if not properly speaking, the war, and the habit of command. As balance of her neis hbourhood; and soon as he was able to carry a musket, Buonaparte may f that the road he took his place in the ranks. Bravest to Persia and India, his ultimate ob- among the brave, he successively ject, is blocked up too strongly to went through all the steps of military admit of his passage.

promotion, and did not presume to But waving all further reference command his companions, till he had to the politicks of Napoleon le grand! proved himself worthy of preemiwe wish to introduce our readers to nence, by military achievements a Turkish chief, who, in spite of which secured their friendship. He adversity, has raised himself to 'dis- then succeeded his mother. He was tinction; who studies the newspapers not indeed always successful; and of Europe, and foresees that one day Fortune, more than once, betrayed these cursed Europeans may give his courage without daunting it. Ali, him uneasiness; a chief who wants expelled from Tebeleni, having lost nothing but skill in the discipline almost all his villages, was at one of the unbelievers to make them time reduced to a few parats with tremble in their turn, and dread the which to pay his troops. Undismayvery name of the pacha of Janina. ed by adversity, he knew how to create The attachment of a semi-barbarian other resources, and the consequent to his savage independence, may pre- revolution decided his fate. sent greater obstacles to the progress From that moment his power was of infuriate ambition, than all which on the rise ; men of courage from all have affected to oppose the triumph parts flocked to his standard ; and of the insolent victor, throughout the his dominions were gradually extendregions of civilized but infatuated ed. He soon carried his thoughts Furope.

beyond the narrow limits by which

his youth had been circumscribed. Ali, the present pacha of Janina, The late pacha of Janina, from want was born in a village, in the neigh- of energy, had left the whole of

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Albania a prey to anarchy, and on his harshly censured, has no other mobeing beheaded, Ali was named to tive; and it may be considered as the vacant pachalick, and took pos- his means of self-preservation. He session of Janina, the present seat of delights in saying that he is a modern his power.

Pyrrhus (or Bourrhous, as he proPrudent in prosperity, Ali lost no nounces it) but a Pyrrhus, however, time in taking the necessary steps to who shows a due regard for his sovestrengthen his precarious and blood- reign. Unlike most other pachas, stained authority. He accordingly by his general knowledge, his eyes increased his dominions, by reducing are always fixed on what is passing the rebels in arms against the Porte; in Europe. He gets newspapers transthese he afterwards took under his lated; eagerly seeks for information; protection as subjects; and above all and is no stranger to the various oshe sheltered and favoured the Greek cillations of the political system. religion. He also contracted alliances Equally attentive to the frequent with the Agas of Thessalia ; and as.. commotions which take place in the sociated his two sons into his power, Turkish empire, he uniformly avails by obtaining for them the titles of himself of the weakness of that gopachas. Lastly, after a series of vernment, to extend his dominions, successes, which surpassed even his and to seize advantageous posts. He most sanguine expectations, Ali re- trusts for his justification in his nuceived the three tails, on his return merous creatures, in the powerful from the Widin expedition against friends whom he pays, even in the Passwan Oglu, in 1798.

divan; and the Porte, knowing his He is now (1809] 52 years of age ; resources, feels deeply interested in and no signs of premature old age are keeping on fair terms with him. discernible in him ; his noble and Not satisfied, however, with an pen countenance, marked by strong ephemeral power, Ali has looked features, pourtrays all the violent e- forward to futurity, with a determi. motions of his soul. He knows, howo nation not to leave his pachalick to a ever, how to command it, when ne

stranger. We have already said, cessary; and his looks become en- that he has obtained for his two sons, gaging. Yet even at such times, his the titles of pachas; and the Porte, but half-constrained laughter, denotes which generally waits for the death that his tongue is at variance with his of its officers, to reassume its rights, heart. On the other hand, when he seems to have lost Albania for ever. punishes, he is unable to conceal his Mouctar, the eldest son of Ali, folwrath ; and the convulsive distortion lowing his father's example, has of his features manifests without re- given proofs of the greatest energy ; serve his violence of temper. In he may even be accused of ferocity. figure he is tall and athletick : brave Veli, of a more gentle disposition, to the extreme : and his arms and seems engrossed by the cares of adbosom are graced by numerous ministration. United, however, by honourable scars.

the firmest friendship, no motives of Steady in his plans, he has adopted interest have hitherto divided these a line of conduct, from which he has brothers. Ali has governed Orta, sometimes deviated through circum- and Negropont, with the title of stances, but which he has kept con- pacha. Veli fills the place of Derstantly in view. Convinced that by vendgi Pacha, or “ inspector of the money he can always preserve favour highways." By this union of offices, with the Porte, he regularly pays his the sensible Ali has secured supports tributes to the Sultan, though he has in his two sons, whose strict union made hiniself independent in fact. strengthens his authority more and His avarice, for which he has been more. Ali, always a true Albanese

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at heart, speaks only that language, in their thick surtouts, seem to disor modern Greek. He places his hap- regard the difference of seasons. piness in commanding those to whom While encamped they spend the he is indebted for his elevation. whole day in wrestling, singing, and Mouctar has learnt Turkish, and dancing, and from their habitual from his youth has been familiar sobriety, a slight distribution of with the din of arms, as led by his wheaten, or maize bread, with black warlike disposition. Veli, better in- olives, or a few pickled sardines, is formed, acquires every day more in- reckoned a treat. Very different struction, and is acquainted with the from the Turks, whom they call Osoriental languages.

manlis, and whose sole happiness is Ali has chosen his residence in a in indolence, the Albanese are al. peninsula, formed by the lake Ache. ways in motion. They hail the aprusia ; and connected with Janina by proach of danger with joyful accla-.

; a narrow isthmus, which is defended mations ; but, whatever be the event, by a strong castle. Here, inaccessi- they never fail of claiming the whole ble to attack, Ali lives secluded from merit of the success; and above all the town, and from his subjects. In they never acknowledge a defeat. this strong hold, capable of resistance When repulsed, they only say, that for a long while, even after the taking they have not been victorious; but of Janina, he is surrounded by a if they can carry off a head, they chosen band of Albanese, secured by loudly exult in the trifling advantage. conscious bravery rather than by the At night, those thick surtouts we display of terrour. He does not have mentioned serve them as beds. however, neglect that mean of en- Their head is barely covered by their forcing his authority in his capital; fechs (a kind of bonnet, somewhat but it is tempered with occasional like that of the Highlanders) their marks of condescending confidence. legs are, however, well guarded by Not long ago [in 1805] all the shops cothurns; they are, literally, loaded were shut on his appearance in the with arms; and satisfied with their streets; and he felt some complacen- lot, they place their happiness in a cy, in seeing himself thus feared. camp life. Diseases are so few among He begins to perceive, that the love them, that out of six thousand men enof his subjects is preferable to their camped on active service, for a length fear; and he has laid aside part of of time, no more than twenty could the terrifick pomp that surrounded be found on the sick list. It must be him. Free from that barbarous fe- said, on the other hand, that as an rocity which sheds blood without mo. Albanese never complains, except tive, he never imbrues his hands in when actually ill, so no power can it, but through interest, or to secure keep him in the ranks when he is his tranquillity, which, from his mis- sick. He then retires to his family, trustful temper, he perhaps considers in his native mountains ; but hastens as exposed to more dangers than ac- to join his colours when recovered. tually exist. Moreover he protects The Albanese soldier glories in his commerce and industry. These he profession. He shows, with pride, his delights in fixing in his dominions :

numerous scars, as titles to honouraand his views on this subject are ble distinction. The tattered state really astonishing, considering the of his linen and garments, is also an barbarous state in which he has been occasion of exultation; and to express till now supposed to live.

the utmost bravery of an Albanese, The army of Ali pacha is almost they say, that he never quits his shirt exclusively composed of Albanese, till it falls in rags. In short, in the who being accustomed to the keen men of Epirus an observer might find air of their mountains, and wrapt up the soldiers of Alexander, of Pyrr

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