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to purchase a momentary security at waged in the bosom of France, yield the expense of honour and conscience. one salutary caution to all orders of Had the men of moderate views and men, it is, that they should be spalocal influence, when the dangers of ring in the application of general anarchy were but too apparent, stood terms of reproach or contumelious bravely forward, and united to com- epithets of party. The use made in bat the designs of faction, they might that unfortunate country of the words have set bounds to the fury of a tem- jacobin and aristocrat, abundantly pest which they could not wholly proves, that what at first is but loosely avert. Their irresolution served only or petulantly thrown out as a mark to embolden the audacity of the tur- of ridicule or distinction, not only bulent, and their precipitate flight serves to swell the number, and exasto confirm the dominion of the mob.* perate the resentment of parties, but The law of Solon, which enacted, may be converted into an engine of that the citizen who, in a period of the most furious and sanguinary civil commotion, did not side with proscription.* one or other of the contending par- Among the most striking lessons ties, should forfeit his estate, and be which are taught by the history of for ever banished the commonwealth, this revolution, is the profound obliextraordinary as it may at first appear, vion into which multitudes have alis, nevertheless, founded in correct ready fallen, who were once objects views of human nature, and has a either of terrour or pity to the whole tendency, not to foment, but to ap- nation. These volumes contain, not pease dissension. In such a conjunc- only the catalogue of those who, in ture, an attention to petty interests the face of the world, swore eternal leads to total ruin ; and the neutrality hatred to royalty, and are now the of the good only widens the field for most prominent agents of despotism, those profligate passions, and despe. but the names also of a host of clarate projects, which the ferment of

morous politicians and writers of vast discontent naturally calls into action. importance in their day, whose inThat ferment can, however, in no de- fluence and noloriety are now buried, gree, be allayed by an obstinate adhe- without the possibility of resuscitarence to palpable corruptions. When tion. It is remarkable also, how acwe inculcate the necessity of a prompt tive a share was taken in the tumults and persevering exertion of that in. of the time by the mere men of fluence which always accompanies science and letters, and to what “ilprescriptive authority, personal cha- lustrious dignities" many of them racter, and honest intentions, it is have attained under the auspices of a with a full persuasion, that they ne- martial' monarch. Doubtless, the ver can be successful over the unre- nature of their pursuits inclined them mitting activity of the fiends of dis- to espouse, with eagerness, the cause cord, unless attended by a ready con- of freedom; but the part they have currence in the reformation of abuses, by timely concessions, and by tem- * The list of political denominations perate and conciliatory language. introduced during the conflict of parties, If the war of extermination so long destruction, deserves to be reported.

and employed for the purpose of mutual

Anarchistes, Aristocrates, Babouvistes,. * Vide Aul. Gel. in Noct. Attic. lib. 2.

Brissotines, Chouans, Clichiens, Contre12.-"Boni nescio,” says Cicero, “quo- revolutionaires, Cordeliers, Dantonistes, modo tardiores sunt et principiis rerum Federalistes, Feuillans, Girondins, Hebaneglectis ad extremum ipsa denique ne. cessitate excitantur-ita ut nonnunquam Montagnards, Orleanistes, Reactionnaires,

tistes, Jacobins, Maratistes, Modérés, cunctatione ac tarditate, duin otium vo

Sansculottes, Septembriseurs, Theophilunt, etiam sine dignitate retinere, ipsi lantropes, Terroristes, Thermidoriens, utrumque amittant."--[Pro Sectio.]

Vendéens, Sus

VOL. II.

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ultimately chosen leads us to suspect, the first usurpation, the forms of a that their zeal was animated by a wish free constitution were preserved; and to govern, worléveofas, in the first it was even deemed expedient, to ininstance, and that, in the miscarri- troduce into the new legislative bodies age of their hopes, they have not been the leading republicans of the old. insensible to the consolations of what To make this, however, as little Mr. Burke so emphatically terms dangerous as possible, it was pro“the gross lucre and fat emoluments vided, that one fifth of the members of servitude.”

of the legislative assembly should be In the number of distinguished annually replaced. The process of royalists who have returned to excluding this proportion is entitled breathe the air of their native country, elimination ; and we observe, that we observe but few, however, who during the first years, the lot reguhold any publick trusts. Their situa- larly fell upon those who continued lion necessarily exacts the affectation to assert their original doctrines, or at least of a cheerful acquiescence in who indicated a disposition to scruthe present order of things; those tinize the views, and resist the enwho are in the capital, either from croachments, of the first consul. The fear or inclination, contribute to swell tribunate, which was found the most zhe pomp of the imperial court, and democratical and restive branch of to enliven the drawing rooms of the the legislature, was soon pared down new nobility. But in the merit of to the number of fifty, and finally consistency, they are certainly supe- abolished. Still, however, the legisriour to their republican antagonists. lature, the great offices of state, the The apostacy of the latter might, prefectures of the departments, and nevertheless, admit of many pallia- the judicial employments, particulartives. Those who once wore the ly, are filled by men who took an bonnet rouge should not, indeed, os- active part in promoting the revolutentatiously display the livery of a tion. Their enmity might have endespot; but it must be acknowledged, dangered the stability of the new that the establishment of his power sovereign ; their influence and their was beyond their control. France talents were necessary for the erection had reached a crisis, when the abso- of that vast and regular system of lute sway of an individual was ren- administration which was projected ; dered necessary, and perhaps desira- their dissensions, and their venality, ble, even for such as sighed, with rendered them an easy conquest. (lisinterested zeal, after the blessings Under a general view of human naof freedom. Every man of judgment ture, the policy was wise ; for men, had become sensible of the hopeless- who, in the commencement of a ness of their first pursuit: and it reigri, believe themselves suspected, must be needless to suggest, that the would naturally wish to blazon their preponderance of the military, left fidelity; to counteract the prejudice no choice, even of evils, to the civil arising from their character, by parauthority. During the paroxysms of ticular zeal and activity in the disthe revolution, the officers of the charge of their new functions. The army either caught the contagion of event at least, has, in this instance, republican sentiments, or saw the justified this supposition. necessity of professing them ; but Wherever disaffection was openly their allegiance was much more na- expressed, the individual was either turally and readily paid to a victorious exiled into the remote departments, general, than to the bloody phantom or placed under the particular superof a republick.

vision of the police. This plan is

. At the establishment of the consu- still pursued. An austere and jeaiar government, in order to colour lous vigilance is now exercised over

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the unreclaimed republicans, and par testable monster might not have been ticularly over the royalists, who are prolonged, had he not driven his owa objects of much greater suspicion and instruments to desperation, by his in. apprehension. Although a system satiable thirst for blood. of intimidation, beyond our powers It is easy to imagine, that the despota of description, is extended over all ism of Buonaparte, notwithstanding the subjects of the empire, the in- the misery of which it must be prostances of studied oppression, or of ductive, must have other supports immoderate rigour, in the civil admi• than that of the military force. We nistration, have certainly been few; cannot find colours sufficiently vivid, much fewer, indeed, than might have to paint the appalling image which been expected, when we consider how the revolution has left in the minds fierce and delirious was the anarchy of the moderate and timid portion of to which this formal and omni. the community. There is a morbid potent despotism has succeeded. sensibility on this head, which astoWithin the last three or four years, nishes even those who give full credit since the leading patriots, either cor- to every disastrous tale of suffering rupted by the fortune, or overawed and barbarity to which this event has by the power, of their new ruler, given birth. For multitudes, therehave consummated their apostacy, his fore, the actual exemption from refavour has been somewhat diverted volutionary massacres and alarms is to those who adhered, as far as the a state of comparative beatitude ; and temper of the revolution would allow, the possibility of their recurrence to the mezzo termine, or whose revo. far more formidable than any existing lutionary career was marked by a de- evil. The minute subdivision of gree of moderation. Some expan- property, which we noticed in a forsion, too, is occasionally permitted to mer number, has created a great those bitter enmities which still ran- body of new proprietaries, who would kle

among the victims and agents of hazard more than they could hope to party violence, and every indulgence gain by any change. The governfor the disclosure of such traits as ment, moreover, has studiously mulserve to aggravate the infamy, and tiplied offices, to a degree highly burelucidate the views of the factions thensome, no doubt, to the people, into which the convention was divided. but which interests in its support, a The policy of indulging, to a certain host of dependants, whose allegiance extent, this war of recrimination, is is secured by present benefits, and obvious, and highly serviceable. The whose zeal is stimulated by the hope prostration of all the adverse parties of future rewards. . The additional is a triumph for each : the humilia- splendour with which the new destion of their adversaries gratifies potism is daily invested; the stately their private hate, and reconciles them affectation and ostentatious pageantry to the evils of their own condition. of the imperial court, are not to be It is worthy of remark, that this ascribed to the workings of mere vafeeling of our nature operated to nity, but to views of profound policy. strengthen even the dominion of By the formation of a numerous Robespierre France, rent and ex- state hierarchy; by lengthening the hausted by the conflicts of the dif- chain of subordination ; by multiferent factions, seemed to be less mi- plying the titles, and dividing the serable under one tyrant, and to re- substance of power; new ties and injoice at a tyranny which was indis- terests are produced, which augment criminately exercised. The royalists the influence and enlarge the foundaappeared grateful for the vengeance

tions of the throne. Such a system which he inflicted on his revolutiona- is every way adapted to the temper ry colleagues; and it is doubtful of the people. The more ceremowhether the savage reign of this de. nious the servitude, the sooner wil. every vestige of republican feeling extended to the sciences and to the Be obliterated. The spirit of freedom fine arts, all involve solid advantages, soon disappears with the character. while they spring from the compreistick simplicity of its institutions. hensive and truly Machiavelian wis. Although we are far from believing dom of an ambitious despot.

In that either Buonaparte or his govern- making these remarks, we allude to ment is now popular, in the usual the condition in which he found acceptation of the term, we can rea- France; and must not be understood dily conceive, that the reflecting part as retracting the opinions which we of the nation may have many induce- formerly delivered, with regard to ments to uphold his authority. Ex- the , pernicious consequences likely perience has taught them the unfit to result, both to her and to the world ness of their country for any other from the foreign policy of his governthan an absolute government, and the ment. Under this point of view, we necessity, at this moment, of a sys- are ready to exclaim with the poet, tem of rigorous coercion. Dreadful Açarinoilo sj ana Q ÖT!S TOAUTÉ nje pesos. as is the domestick police, there is We shall now present our readers no man acquainted with the actual with such a selection of the notices state of society in France, who does and anecdotes contained in these vo. not see the impossibility of preserving lumes, as our limits will allow. The order without some such inquisition. first are instances of a flexibility of Detestable, too, and dangerous as is conscience or of judgment, not often the genius of their government, it paralleled, even in the world of policannot be without some merit in the ticks. eyes of Frenchmen. Under the shade Grégoire, whose name is so conof the imperial purple, most of the spicuous in the annals of the revoelegant pleasures of the mind, and lution, is now a member of the sesome of the generous sympathies of nate and the legion of honour. the heart, are suffered to flourish, He was born near Luneville, in 175); and may be almost considered as a and, after serving as a cuate, was new creation. From a state of total deputed to the states general, and disorganization, of the most destruc

was among the first of those of the tive civil war, France has been re- clerical order who passed down to stored, by the provident ambition of the lower chamber. On the 8th of her new rulers, 10 the enjoyment of July, 1789, he declaimed against many of the advantages of a well re- the march of the troops which the gulated community. Their labours king had ordered to approach Paris, to establish a regular administration and exclaimed : “ That i Frenchof justice and of the finances, and to men ever consented to become slaves, form some system at least of publick they should be despised as the reinstruction, are not without their fuse of nations.” On the 5th of utility ; although, as we are inform- October, he described the king as ed, they have not as yet proved emi- surrounded by the enemies of the nently successful.

Their plan of people ; denounced M. de Bouille; conquest, too, although it has de- and asked, why it was that Paluged the neighbouring countries ris, after an abundant harvest, was with blood, has preserved their own driven to insurrection by the want territory from becoming the theatre of food. The ministers were less of war. The improvements in the able to answer this question than roads; the rapid construction of pub- the duke of Orleans; but the object lick works; the numerous institutions of the orator was, to exasperate the for the encouragement of national populace against the court, by this industry; the embellishments of the insidious accusation. Grégoire was çapital ; the ostentatious protection the first ecclesiastick who took the

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constitutional oath. In return, he vate the abhorrence which nations obtained the bishoprick of Blois, and should feel for kings.” In April, he soon after became president of the tendered to the convention some hisassembly. At the period of the torical researches concerning the tree king's flight, he pronounced a vio- of liberty. In September 1795, he lent invective against the monarch, became one of the council of five and called for an immediate trial. hundred. After the 8th Brumaire, In September 1792, he was delega- [December] 1799 he was elected to ted to the convention, and soon after the legislative body, of which he was made and carried a motion for the nominated president in February abolition of royalty, declaring at the 1800. On the 25th December, 1801, same time, “ that kings were, in the he was appointed a member of the moral order of things, what mon- conservative senate, and decorated sters are in the physical, and that with the insignia of the legion of hotheir history was the martyrology of nour. Grégoire has published a great nations.” On the 15th of Novem- variety of works, and now divides ber, he pronounced a violent philip- his time between literary pursuits pick against Louis XVI. and re- and the routine of his political staquested that he might be arraigned tion, which he fills with much appawithout delay.

He was then made rent satisfaction. However reprehenpresident of the convention; and, sible for the violence of his revoluhaving proposed the incorporation of tionary opinions, he deserves no Savoy with France, was sent 10 ore small credit for the energy with ganize that county, under the name which, during the worst periods he of the department of Mont Blanc. defended, and for the zeal with As the king was tried during his which he has uniformly protected, absence, he did not vote ; but wrote, the cause of science and literature. concurrently with his colleagues, to At this moment, his house is the announce to the assembly, that, favourite rendezvous of many of the « under a conviction of the unre- most distinguished savans of the mitting treachery of that perjured French capital; and, in private life, monarch, he solicited his condemna- there are few men of more amiable tion without an appeal to the people.” character, or more winning manners. In 793, he invited Barere to retract The next name we shall select is the eulogy which he had pronounced that of Garat, originally a mere man on Louis the Twelfth, and undertook of letters, now a member of the le. to prove, that this pretended father gion of honour, of the institute, and was, in fact, the scourge of his peo. of the senate, and professor of history ple. On the 7th November, howe, in the Lyceum of Paris. He was ver, he loudly condemned Gobel for sent to the states general from Laabjuring the Christian religion and bour; in 1798 was made minister of his episcopal functions. He was then justice, and, as such, acquainted the accused by Bourdon de l'Oise, of king with his condemnation. This wishing to christianize the revolution task he executed, according to Ber[Christianiser la revolution.] On the trand de Moleville, with great bar. 4th of March, 1794, he read to the barity. In March 1793, he became assembly an original letter, as he minister of the interiour. ' At a sit.. stated it to be, of Charles the Ninth, ting of the jacobins on the 16th July recommending that a recompense of that year, he was complimented should be given for the assassination by Danton on the important services of the constable of Mouy; and this which he had rendered the cause. letter he proposed to have enrolled He soon after abdicated his ministry, among the national archives, « in and announced his intention to edit order that its publicity might aggra. a republican journal. He was within

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